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Partition Manager Help (v2.37.10)

   What is <A HREF="#part">partition table</A>, <A HREF="#mbr">MBR</A>, <A HREF="#ipl">IPL</A>?

   <A HREF="#save">Saving and Restoring MBR</A>
   <A HREF="#create">Creating a new partition</A>
   <A HREF="#format">Formatting partition</A>, <A HREF="#systems">supported file systems</A>
   <A HREF="#os_inst">Things that you should do before installing a new OS</A>

   <A HREF="#compact">Compact Boot Manager</A>
   <A HREF="#advanced">Advanced Boot Manager</A>
   <A HREF="#virus">Virus detection</A> and <A HREF="#hints">hints</A>
   <A HREF="#setup_adv_example">Running DOS from the second hard drive</A>

   <A HREF="#cmd_line">Command line options</A>

   <A HREF="#moreinfo">Links to additional help</A>

   <A HREF="#copyright">Program distribution and Copyrights</A>

<HR>

<A NAME="part">What is partition table?

     Partition table is located in the first sector of every hard disk.
  It has information about sizes and locations of partitions on the disk.
  What is partition? It is a piece of disk space marked to belong to some
  operating system. For example, your C: drive resides in the partition
  of type <A HREF="#0x0600">BIGDOS</A>.

     Most disks have one partition, but some people want to have more
  than one operating system on their computers and therefore, have to
  divide their disks into different partitions. That's why partition table
  also keeps an indicator of the currently 'Active' partition - the one 
  from  which the computer boots.
<A NAME="mbr"></A><A NAME="ipl"></A>   
     When you turn on your computer BIOS loads into memory the first
  sector from hard disk, called MBR (Master Boot Record). In addition to
  partition table, this sector contains an IPL (Initial Program Loader) -
  a piece of code that searches partition table for an 'Active' record
  and loads in memory boot sector of the corresponding operating system.
   
      Standard IPL would simply load a boot sector without any messages
   or questions. And this is good if you have only one operating system,
   but when you have more then one, you need something more sophisticated.
   For example, IPL that comes with this program can ask user at 
   <A HREF="#ipl_mesg">boot time</A> which operating system he want to boot and
   will remember the selection, so that the next time it boots from the
   same OS.

      Partition table is limited to maximum 4 entries. This program gives
   you an option to have up to 31 bootable partitions if you install
   <A HREF="#setup_adv">Advanced Boot Manager.</A>

   <A HREF="#moreinfo">Links to additional information and help</A>

<HR>

<A NAME="save"></A><A NAME="restore"></A>Saving and Restoring MBR

      Saving you MBR is the first thing you have to do before playing
  with this program. 
  
      First of all create a bootable floppy disk and copy this program
   to floppy. Than save your MBR to a file. You can do it
   by using S command in interactive mode or by running program from 
   the command line:
   
           part -s a:\saved.mbr
    
   If something goes wrong, you can always restore the original MBR by
   running the command:
         
           part -l a:\saved.mbr
   
      If you are using the same floppy with more than one computer be
   careful not to put MBR from one hard disk to another. It will do no
   harm, but you may have a few minutes of panic thinking that you have
   lost all your files, before you figure out what happend. So, make
   sure that you give distinctive names to the files with saved MBRs.
   
      But even if you do load the wrong table it will most likely
   become <A HREF="#conflict">RED</A>, because partition settings will conflict
   with the current hard disk geometry.
      
<HR>

<A NAME="active"></A>Selecting active partition

      To make partition active you can press SPACE in the interactive
   mode or from the command line:
   
            part -p        print partition table
            part -a n      where n is a partition number
      
      If you have installed an IPL then you can press SPACE on the
   active partition to make it inactive and when you reboot computer
   it will try to boot from the second hard disk, or from a floppy.

<HR>

<A NAME="advanced"></A>Advanced Boot Manager

       With Advanced Boot Manager you can have up to 31 bootable
   partitions. It keeps its own partition table in the separate space
   on the disk.

       When you boot the computer the first part of Advanced Boot Manager,
  which is located inside MBR tries to read the second part from the disk
  and checks its integrity. In case if it was corrupted it promts the user
  to boot from A: or hard disk.

       After that Advanced Boot Manager <A HREF="#virus">checks for viruses</A>, and then 
  compares records in MBR with its own partition table. If there were any
  changes, the Advanced Boot Manager copies modified records to its own
  partition table and advises the user to run part.exe to review them.
  Also see <A HREF="#os_inst">notes</A> on installing a new OS.

       Then Advanced Boot Manager gives you a menu where you can select
  from which partition you want to boot. After you make a choice it copies
  the record of the selected partition to MBR table and hides the rest of
  the space on the disk. 
  
  Advanced Boot Manager keys:

  ENTER - boot from the highlighted partition (you can also press 1-9)
  ESC   - boot from the highlighted partition, but don't remember this
          choice for the next time.
  A     - boot from A and put the highlighted partition in MBR
  H     - boot from A but hide all partitions on the hard disk,
          except the first piece of the unused space which is larger
          than 63 sectors. (Good when you install a new OS).
  TAB	- boot from the next hard drive.

  ALT-ENTER - Same as ENTER, but do not put keys into keyboard buffer
          if there are any keys specified in the boot menu.

<A NAME="setup_adv"></A>Editing Advanced Boot Manager Menu

  For each item in the menu you can specify:   (see <A HREF="#setup_adv_example">example</A>)
  
  - Device from which you want to boot (Dev)

       C - current disk (on which this menu resides)
       D - next hard disk
       A - first floppy disk
  
  - Which partition should be made active on this hard disk (0 - for none)
  
  - Row in which this partition should be placed in the MBR. (see <A HREF="#setup_adv_example">example</A>)

  - Which partitions show together with the bootable partition.  
    The choices are: Last, Previous, Next, and Last3 partitions,
    including the one from which you boot.

  - Whether this menu choice should be password protected (PP)

  - The name that you want to see in the menu
  
  - Keystrokes that should be placed in keyboard buffer before booting
    this OS. (for exaple, simulating F4 before booting Windows 95 will
    make Windows 95 booting the previous version of MS-DOS)

    
<A NAME="setup_adv_opt"></A>  If you press Alt-O you can change boot manager's options:
 
       - Boot menu title
       - Enable check for <A HREF="#virus">boot viruses</A>
       - Clear screen before drawing the menu
       - Timeout (0 forces boot manager to stop and wait for user's input)
       - Default partition (overrides remembered "last selected")
       - Optional password for Advanced Boot Manager 
       - Ignore unused partitions, when evaluating "Prev", "Next", "Last"

      When password is set it protects booting from floppy (via keys A, H)
 and from the second hard disk via TAB. However, you can make a menu line 
 which will boot from the floppy or the next hard disk, without asking the
 password (simply do not enable "PP" - password protected - flag).

<HR>

<A NAME="setup_adv_example"></A>Example of Advanced Boot Manager setup

 Suppose that you have two hard disks on the system:

      Your new 4.3Gb hard disk                And old 340Mb hard disk

      1  AdvBootManager    30k                1  DOS FAT-16     340Mb
      2  Windows FAT-32  2600M
      3  Windows NT NTFS  400M
      4  Linux            400M
      5  Linux swap        30M
      6  DOS Extended     800M
 
 Then Advanced Boot Manager Menu could look like this:
 
      #  Dev  Partitions  Name                    Keys
      
      1   C   2/*  Last   Windows 95                N
      2   C   2/*  Last   Windows 95 / Prompt       Y  <-  "F8 6 Enter"
      3   C   3/2  Last   Windows NT                N
      4   C   4/3  Next   Linux                     N
      5   C   4/3  Last3  Linux (sees extended)     N
      6   D   6/*  ----   Old MS-DOS (sees ext)     N
      7   D   0    ----   Old MS-DOS (sees nothing) N
    
    Note: in order to get DOS running from the second hard drive you have
 to do the following steps:
       
   - Install Compact or Advanced Boot Manager on the second hard drive
   - Go to setup screen for FAT-16 partition and set drive number to 129
   - Make sure you don't have any unhidden primary FAT-16/12 partitions
     on the first hard drive when you boot from the second.

    Also note that Windows NT and Linux will be placed in rows 2 and 3
 in the partition table, respectively, while we don't care where will
 end up Windows 95.
    For Windows NT it is important always to be in the same row, because
 it's boot.ini file has syntax like this:
 
 multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(2)\WINNT="Windows NT" /basevideo /sos

 And it would not be able to find its kernel if we move it to a different
 row in the partition table.

<HR>
<A NAME="setup_adv_example2"></A>Another example - preparing for installation of Windows 98 (or another OS)
   
   - Create a bootable floppy and copy Partition Manager to it
   - Create and then format partition
   - Edit boot menu

           Your partitions

      1  AdvBootManager    30k
      2  Windows FAT-32  1600M     <-- This is Windows 95 partition
      3  Windows FAT-32  1200M     <-- This one was just created and
      4  DOS Extended     800M       \ formated for Windows 98
 
      Advanced Boot Manager Menu
 
      #  Dev  Partitions  Name                    Keys
      
      1   C   2/*  Last   Windows 95                N
      2   C   2/*  Last   Windows 95 / Prompt       Y  <-  "F8 6 Enter"
      3   C   3/*  Last   Windows 98                N

   - Save this data to hard disk and to a file on the floppy
   - Reboot computer
   - In the boot manager menu select "Windows 98" and press A
     to boot from a "Windows 98 Setup" floppy 
   - After installation of Windows 98 run Partition Manager to
     review any changes in MBR and <A HREF="#os_inst">reinstall</A> boot manager if 
     nesessary.

<HR>

<A NAME="compact"></A><A NAME="setup_ipl"></A>Compact Boot Manager
    
       Compact Boot Manager fits in 446 bytes and doesn't need any space
   on the disk beyond MBR. It is simply an <A HREF="#ipl">IPL</A>.

   When you install it you have 4 options: 
   
       - Enable check for <A HREF="#virus">boot viruses</A>
       - Prompt's time-out
       - Default partition (overrides remembered "last selected")
       - Default place to boot from if none of the partitions are active.
         The choices are A: and the next hard drive.

   Hint: if you set default partition to A then computer will always
         boot from A:, if to Tab - from the next hard disk, and when
         set to Space - then it will stop and wait for your choice.

<HR>

<A NAME="ipl_mesg"></A>Understanding messages of Compact Boot Manager

       Message                         Description

                          Press ESC to skip prompt and boot OS
                          Press SPACE to stop and wait for selection
"Booting from: HD1/1..."  Press 1-4 to boot from corresponding partition
"Booting from: HD1/_"     Press A to boot from a floppy or TAB to boot 
                          from the next hard drive. Any other key will
                          resume booting, and will remain in the buffer.
                          For instance F4, F5, F8, ... (see <A HREF="#hints">hints</A>)

"Writing changes..."      IPL is saving your selection into MBR.

"Error!"                  Error reading disk or empty partition selected.

"Virus !!!"               IPL found that one of interrupt vectors doesn't
                          point to ROM BIOS memory (see <A HREF="#virus">virus protection</A>).
                          You can press ENTER to resume booting, but it
                          would be better to shut down the computer and
                          run antivirus program, after booting from a
                          clean floppy disk.

<HR>

<A NAME="virus"></A>Virus protection

      IPL that comes with this program can detect viruses even before
   operating system gets into memory. This is important, because some
   <A HREF="#mbr">MBR</A> viruses cannot be detected by antivirus programs that are
   loaded after operating system.

      Virus detection is implemented by checking 29 interrupt vectors
   from int 0h to int 1Ch. They must point to addresses C000:0000h or 
   higher, where ROM BIOS resides. These interrupts control all vital
   functions of the system, such as Timer, Video, Keyboard, and Disk.
   
      If any of the interrupts have been changed it is very likely that a
   virus invaded the system. In this case the IPL stops and warns user.
   You have a choice to continue booting with virus in memory or rebooting
   the system and run antivirus. See <A HREF="#ipl_mesg">IPL messages</A> section.

      However, on some systems this method of checking for virusus will
   produce false alarms. In this case you can disable virus detection.
<A NAME="hints"></A>
       Another way of protection from viruses is to avoid accidental boots
   from the floppy drive. With this program you can do that, while still
   being able to boot from floppy, when you need it.  To do that:

     1. Install either Advanced or Compact Boot Manager that comes with
        this program.

     2. Change boot sequence to C:,A: in the BIOS setup 
    
     3. When you need to boot from A: at the <A HREF="#ipl_mesg">boot time</A> press A.

     This trick will not only save you from viruses, but will also speed
  up your work. It is especially impressive if you have QEMM 8.xx together
  with MS-DOS or Windows 95. 

     Set "BootFloppy:N" option in QEMM's quick boot and add "SWITCHES=/F"
  to your CONFIG.SYS file.

     Next time, when you reboot QEMM's Quick Boot will skip BIOS memory
  test and take you straight to the Compact Boot Manager's prompt where
  you will be more comfortable with pressing F4, F5, or F8 ...

<HR>

<A NAME="create"></A>Creating a new partition

      To create a new partition find unused record in the partition
   table and press INS, then select desired File System type.
   
      After you do that Partition Manager will automatically put values
   for cylinders, heads, and sectors. 
   
      In most cases you don't need to modify those values. But if you 
   have in mind your own partitioning scheme you can change them. When
   you do that, do start and end partitions on the cylinder (or head)
   boundaries. It is not required, but highly recommended. For example,
   if your hard  disk has 16 heads and 63 sectors per head, you should
   start partition on head 0, sector 1 and end on head 15, sector 63.
   
<A NAME="0xFF00"></A>
      If you need to install several operating systems such as MS-DOS,
   Windows 95, or Windows NT, and you want to avoid their interference
   with each other you may want to hide existing partitions, while
   installing operating system into a new one, and unhide them later. 

      While you are entering numbers partition may turn red. Don't
   worry about it until you finish.
<A NAME="conflict"></A>
      The red color of the partition means that the settings appear
   to be invalid or conflicting with the current disk geometry.
   
      To help you figure out what's wrong I had defined four error codes.
   They are shown in red color on the right when you move cursor on the
   invalid partition.
      
   mbr: partition overlaps MBR in the first sector of the disk or
        extended dos partition.
        
   range: partition have values for cylinder, head, or sector (CHS)
        outside of the range of disk or extended dos partition boundaries
        or it ends before it begins. Move cursor on the CHS fields to see
        the hint with allowed values.

   overlapped: two partition are overlapping each other.
   
   inconsistent: this message means that CHS values do not correspond
        to starting sector and partition size, which are also stored
        in the partition table. Usually this happens if partition table
        was damaged or BIOS disk geometry translation has changed since
        partition table was last modified. This error will also appear
        if you have value 0 for sector (sector must be at least 1).
        
      If the red color appears as soon as you started it may be because
   you have changed disk controller or BIOS settings or MBR was corrupted.
   If this is the case don't change any values unless you are absolutly
   sure what you are doing.
      Hint for the professionals: no matter how BIOS represents disk 
   geometry the relative number of sectors and partition sizes hold. 
   To fix the problem of inconsistency you have to switch to the LBA mode
   by pressing F4, note the size of the partition, change it and then
   change it back to the correct size. This will force the program to
   recalculate the values in CHS according to the current disk geometry.
      However, keep in mind two things: As far as I can tell DOS uses
   CHS values to boot and doesn't use starting sector/number of sectors
   fields. Instead, it uses field "sectors prior partition" and
   "big total number of sectors" from its boot record.

      If you had used OnTrack DDO or Ez-Drive you should know that they
   skew disk: OnTrack by 63 sectors and Ez-Drive by 1 sector. Therefore
   you have to reflect this change in DOS boot records.

<HR>

<A NAME="format"></A>Formatting partition
      
      You can format partitions or just check disk surface for bad sectors
   without destroying the data. 
   
      To verify any partition press V in interactive mode or run:
      
             part -v n

      To format partition press F in interactive mode or run:
      
             part -f n options ...
      
      Format options depend on <A HREF="#systems">file system</A> that you are formatting.
   
Important notes on formatting DOS partitions

      First of all DOS cannot see newly created partition, untill you
   reboot computer, because it scans partition table only once.
      So if you created and/or formatted a new partition you have to
   reboot before you can use it.
   
      If the partition already mounted (you can see it as a DOS drive)
   and you formatted partition with different parameters you also have
   to reboot computer, because DOS keeps in memory old numbers, and will
   most certainly mess up the disk if you will try to write to it
   without rebooting.

      The other problem is disk caches. Partition Manager flushes them
   using SmartDrive v 4.00+ API. Most of the new cache programs, such as
   PC-Cache 8.0, NCACHE2, SpeedDrive support it. But if you have any
   other cache you should disable it before formatting DOS partitions
   or reboot computer after formatting.

      The difference in behaviour of part.exe and format.com is that
   part formats partitions by number in partition table and format by
   letter in DOS device list. Therefore before rebooting you shouldn't
   use programs that accesses partitions via DOS, but you can use 
   programs that writes to partitions bypassing DOS. For example zpart,
   which compresses and decompresses entire partitions to and from files.

      Limitation: currently this program cannot format logical DOS drives
   from the command line - you have to go to the interactive mode.

<HR>

<A NAME="os_inst"></A>Important issues on installation of a new OS

      Windows 95 and some other operating systems upon installation
   replace your current <A HREF="#ipl">IPL</A> with their own code. If you have 
   Compact or Advanced boot managers installed on your hard drive you
   would not see them at the next boot.

      I have worked on this issue. It should not lead to the loss of
   data, at least with Windows 95. In the worst case you just would have
   to run part.exe and reinstall boot manager. But to ensure that nothing
   will be lost do the following steps before installing new OS:
   
      - Create a bootable floppy and copy Partition Manager on it.
      - Run Partition Manager and create partition for the new OS.
      - If possible format it using Partition Manager.
      - In Advanced Boot Manager edit boot menu (see <A HREF="#setup_adv_example2">example</A>)
      - Save Partition Manager's data to the floppy.
      - Reboot computer and install a new OS
   
      If MBR will be modified by OS installer review the changes and
   reinstall boot manager. (Press F2 in order to save MBR and install 
   Advanced Boot Manager executable code to disk).
   
<HR>

<A NAME="systems"></A>Supported file systems

      <A HREF="#0x0000">Unused partition</A>
      <A HREF="#0x0100">Classical MS-DOS file systems</A>
      <A HREF="#0x0B00">Windows 95 FAT-32 file system</A>
      <A HREF="#0x0500">Extended DOS partition</A>
      <A HREF="#make_primary">Making logical drives bootable</A>

<HR>
<A NAME="0x0000"></A>Unused partition

      This simply indicates that entry in partition table is available.
   It doesn't tell anything about free space on disk. You have to figure
   out that yourself.

      However if you specify starting and ending locations of partition
   with type "Unused" Partition Manager will let you format and verify
   the disk space.
   
      Format takes two options: "/destructive" or "/clean". First one
   performes low level disk format, second one fills disk space with
   zeros.

<HR>
<A NAME="setup_fat"></A><A NAME="0x0100"></A><A NAME="0x0400"></A><A NAME="0x0600"><A NAME="0x1100"></A><A NAME="0x1400"></A><A NAME="0x1600"></A>Classical MS-DOS file systems

	0x01, "DOS FAT-12"
	0x04, "DOS FAT-16 (under 32M)"
	0x06, "BIGDOS FAT-16 (over 32M)"

   All file systems have the same structure:
      
   	[Boot Sector]
   	[First copy of FAT]
   	[Second copy of FAT]
   	[Root Directory]
   	[Cluster 2]
   	[Cluster 3]
   	[Cluster 4]
   	...

      Boot sector, FATs, Root Directory, and clusters have fixed sizes,
   which you  can set only when you are formatting the disk.
      Space for all subdirectories and files is allocated by clusters.
   If cluster size is 8 sectors = 4,096 bytes, when you create file with
   size of 1 byte it will get entire 4,096 bytes cluster.
      There is an entry in FAT (File Allocation Table) for each cluster,
   which tells if cluster is free, allocated, or damaged. Therefore size
   of the FAT determines maximum number of clusters.

      FAT-12 file system is limited to 4084 clusters. It is used on the 
  floppy disks, but you can also use it on a small hard disk partition. 
   
      FAT-16 was used on early hard disks. Original version could have
   up to 65,000 clusters on partitions up to 32M.
   
      BIGDOS FAT-16 which was released with DOS 3.31 doesn't have 32M 
   limitation and can be as large as 2G. For backward compartibility
   all DOS versions later than 3.31 will accept both FAT-12 and FAT-16
   file systems in the BIGDOS partition.

      This program includes format utility which formats all three file
   system types. It has the following options:

      part -f n [/quick | /destructive] [/l:volume_label]
                [/c:sect_per_cluster] [/x:max_num_sect | /x:disk]

      If you specify "quick" option, the program will assume that your
   hard disk doesn't have any bad sectors. You can verify disk once, and
   if it doesn't have bad sectors you can then use quick format.
 
      If you don't specify cluster size it will be selected automatically
   depending on partition size from 4 sectors and up. Here is the table
   for BIGDOS FAT-16 file system:

                Cluster size         Maximum partition size

   	   1 sector        512 bytes           32M
       *   2 sectors     1,024 bytes           64M        recommended
       *   4 sectors     2,048 bytes          128M       cluster sizes
       *   8 sectors     4,096 bytes          256M        are marked 
       *  16 sectors     8,192 bytes          512M         with '*'
       *  32 sectors    16,384 bytes            1G
       *  64 sectors    32,768 bytes            2G
   	 128 sectors    65,536 bytes            4G

      Although you can format disk with all those cluster sizes it's not
   recomended to use very small or very large values. Many programs have
   weird bugs with that. For example, SCANDISK will freeze if cluster
   size is 128, while Norton Disk Doctor seems to work without problems.

      By specifying max_num_sect parameter you can reserve space in FAT
   for the future expansion of the partition. If you type "/x:disk"
   (exactly as it is written) format will make FATs large enough so that
   you can expand you partition to entire disk.
   
      You can make FAT partition smaller (shrink them). To do that run
   some disk defragmentation utility (like DEFRAG.EXE). Then go to setup
   screen inside part.exe. One of the lines will show the minimum 
   partition size, based on the last cluster occupied by data. The value
   should be equal to sum of the file and directory sizes on your disk.
   If it is greater it means, that some hidden files were not moved by
   the defragmentation utility. You have to find those files (for example 
   Norton Speed Disk will show their names), remove system and hidden 
   attributes and run disk defragmenter again. But be careful with moving
   them, because some programs may use absolute file locations for their
   illigal installation checks.

<HR>
<A NAME="setup_fat32"></A><A NAME="0x0B00"></A><A NAME="0x1B00"></A>Windows 95 FAT-32 file systems

	0x0B, "Windows 95 FAT-32"

      This file system was designed to support disks larger than 2G, which
   was the limit for FAT-16 file system. FAT-32 partition can be as large 
   as 2T (2,048G). 

   It has the following structure:
      
   	[Boot Record (3 sectors)]
   	[Backup Copy of Boot Record]
   	[First copy of FAT]
   	[Second copy of FAT]
   	[Cluster 2]
   	[Cluster 3]
   	[Cluster 4]
   	...

      Root directory on FAT-32 treated as an ordinary directory, and can
   be located anywhere on the disk and doesn't have predefined fixed size
   (unlike FAT-16).

      Options for formatting FAT-32 file system are similar to FAT-16
   options: 

      part -f n [/quick | /destructive] [/l:volume_label]
                [/c:sect_per_cluster] [/x:max_num_sect | /x:disk]

      Strategy for resizing FAT-32 partition is also similar to one for
   FAT-16:
   
      - Run defragmenter utility on the FAT-32 partition
      - Change partition size in the partition table
      - Enter setup screen and make same changes there
        (make sure they are valid - otherwise they will turn red)
      - Reboot computer and run scandisk to check that everything
        is ok and also to reset amount of free space.

<HR>

<A NAME="0x0500"></A><A NAME="0x1500"></A><A NAME="extended"></A>Extended DOS partition

      Partiton table has space for only four records. To have more than
   four partitions DOS uses Extended DOS partition scheme. This scheme
   allows you to have as much as 23 DOS volumes on one physical drive.
   Unfortunately, native DOS's program FDISK imposes another limitation
   that you cannot have more than one primary (bootable) MS-DOS partition
   on the hard disk. The truth is you CAN have more than one. The problem
   is that MS-DOS's FDISK refuses to create second one for you.
   
      If you run FDISK it will create one primary partition and then will
   mark the rest of the space as an Extended partition. The first sector
   of the Extended partition is called EMBR (Extended MBR). It has the
   same structure as MBR. Inside of each Extended partition you can have
   one FAT (or NTFS) partition, called logical drive, and another Extended
   partition. For some unknown reason relative sectors of inner extended
   partitions are calculated from the beginning of the outermost partition,
   while relative sectors of FAT partitions are from the beginning of the
   enclosing extended partition.

   Here is an example:

      HD  520 Mb
      ---------------------------------------------------
      Primary FAT-16  120Mb                                [ C: 120Mb ]
      Extended DOS    300Mb -----------------------------
                            FAT-16  100Mb                  [ D: 100Mb ]
                            ExtDOS  200Mb ---------------
                                          FAT-16  200Mb    [ E: 200Mb ]
                                          ---------------
                            -----------------------------
      Linux           100Mb                                [ /  100Mb ]
      ---------------------------------------------------

      Note that the order of partitions on the disk also matters. FAT
   partition must go first. And the extended partition must follow.
   
      Hint: in the Partition Manager you can use PgUp and PgDn to jump
   between EMBR levels.

      You cannot boot from extended partition, nor from any logical drive
   inside of it. If you try it, the system would simply hang, because its
   boot record unlike other file systems doesn't have any loader code. It
   has only zeros. You can install a "non bootable" dummy boot record,
   which instead of crashing will display a message:
  
      Extended DOS partition is not bootable.
      Press any key to reboot...
   
<A NAME="make_primary"></A>Making logical drives bootable

      As I mentioned before, you cannot boot from Extended partition or
   from any logical drive contained in it. But what if you need?  The
   solution is simple. All you have to do is to move the record that
   describs logical drive from the EMBR to the primary MBR, and adjust
   size of the Extended partition.  Then you have to set the correct
   number of "sectors prior to partition" in the DOS boot sector,
   whose value is used to load system files. And finally you have to
   run sys.com to install system files on disk.

      Lets see what we can do with <A HREF="#extended">our example</A>.

   Variant 1.
  
      Notice that size of the extended partition was changed and second
   extended partition is gone.

      HD  520 Mb
      ---------------------------------------------------
      Primary FAT-16  120Mb                                [ C: 120Mb ]
      Extended DOS    100Mb -----------------------------
                            FAT-16  100Mb                  [ D: 100Mb ]
                            -----------------------------
      Primary FAT-16  200Mb                                [ E: 200Mb ]
      Linux           100Mb                                [ /  100Mb ]
      ---------------------------------------------------
      

   Variant 2.

      Here we just moved both records from extended partition to the MBR.

      HD  520 Mb
      ---------------------------------------------------
      Primary FAT-16  120Mb                                [ C: 120Mb ]
      Primary FAT-16  100Mb                                [ D: 100Mb ]
      Extended DOS    200Mb -----------------------------
                            FAT-16  200Mb                  [ E: 200Mb ]
                            -----------------------------
      Linux           100Mb                                [ /  100Mb ]
      ---------------------------------------------------
      

   Variant 3.
  
      HD  520 Mb
      ---------------------------------------------------
      Primary FAT-16  120Mb                                [ C: 120Mb ]
      Primary FAT-16  100Mb                                [ D: 100Mb ]
      Primary FAT-16  200Mb                                [ E: 200Mb ]
      Linux           100Mb                                [ /  100Mb ]
      ---------------------------------------------------
 
<HR>

<A NAME="cmd_line"></A>Command line options

Usage: part [-q] [-d disk] [-command ...]

 part          - Interactive mode
 part -i       - Print IDE disk info
 part -p       - Print partition table
 part -p -r    - Print info recursively
 part -a n     - Activate n-th partition
 part -v n     - Verify n-th partition
 part -f n ... - Format n-th partition
 part -s file  - Save MBR to file
 part -l file  - Load MBR from file
 part -c file  - Compare MBR with file
 part -Reboot  - Reboot computer

 The program returns exit code 0 if there was no errors and/or
 compared objects had no differences (1 is returned otherwise).

<HR>
<A NAME="moreinfo"></A>
Additional information and help resources

   <A HREF="http://www.ranish.com/part/">Partition Manager Home Page</A>

   <A HREF="http://www.ranish.com/part/primer.htm">Partitioning Primer</A>
   <A HREF="http://www.ranish.com/part/faq.htm">Partition Manager FAQs</A>
   <A HREF="http://groups.yahoo.com/group/partman-discussion">Partition Manager mailing list</A>


<A NAME="copyright"></A>Program Distribution and Copyrights

   This program is a FreeWare. You can freely distibute it.
   Source codes are available for download from my home page.

Mikhail Ranish
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