|Company||Stage||Description||Notes & Updates||Related Coverage|
|University of Oxford and AstraZeneca||Phase 3||University of Oxford researchers have developed a potential vaccine that uses a harmless virus engineered to contain the genetic sequence that encodes for a protein on the surface of the novel coronavirus. The researchers, from the University’s Jenner Institute and Oxford Vaccine Group, are working at uncommon speed, starting a placebo-controlled clinical trial while finalizing the manufacturing of their potential vaccine. British drug maker AstraZeneca has partnered on the project.||2020|
March 27: Oxford begins recruiting patients for a placebo-controlled trial that will enroll up to 510 healthy volunteers. The vaccine will not be ready for "some weeks," according to the university.
April 30: AstraZeneca announces it will partner with Oxford to develop the vaccine.
July 20: Oxford publishes Phase 1/2 data demonstrating an immune response with mild to moderate side effects.
Aug. 31: AstraZeneca begins enrollment in a U.S. Phase 3 trial that will involved 30,000 volunteers.
Sept. 8: AstraZeneca says a hold has been put on the trial following a suspected adverse reaction in a participant. Sept. 12: AstraZeneca says trials in the U.K. have resumed.
Nov. 23: AstraZeneca said its vaccine was about 70% effective, on average, in the first look at Phase 3 data
Dec. 30: The U.K. granted emergency authorization to AstraZeneca's vaccine, planning to vaccinate as many people as possible with a first dose before administering a second
March 22: AstraZeneca's vaccine was 79% effective at preventing symptomatic disease in a 32,000-subject trial conducted in the U.S., Chile, and Peru, the company said. AstraZeneca plans to file for FDA authorization in the coming weeks
Phase 3 (authorized for emergency use)
|Moderna’s vaccine, mRNA-1273, is a synthetic messenger RNA that encodes for a protein found on the surface of the novel coronavirus. By compelling cells to produce that protein, the vaccine would spur an immune response, causing the body to generate antibodies that would protect against infection. The company set a drug industry record with mRNA-1273, identifying a vaccine candidate just 42 days after the novel coronavirus was sequenced.||2020|
March 16: First patient dosed in a Phase 1 trial
April 16: Moderna plans to begin a Phase 2 study by July
May 1: Moderna announces it will partner with Swiss firm Lonza on development
May 7: FDA clears Moderna to start a 600-patient Phase 2 study, which will begin "shortly"
May 18: Moderna discloses interim Phase 1 data, in which eight volunteers developed antibodies to the coronavirus
May 29: Moderna doses the first volunteers in a Phase 2 study, planning to enroll about 600 people
July 14: Moderna publishes Phase 1 data showing a consistent antibody response and mild to moderate side effects.
July 27: Moderna begins enrollment in a 30,000-subject Phase 3 trial
Nov. 16: Moderna says its vaccine is 94.5% effective in the first look at data from its Phase 3 study
Nov. 30: Moderna's vaccine showed 94% effectiveness in the Phase 3 trial's final efficacy analysis, and the company expects to submit for emergency authorization in the coming days
Dec. 18: Moderna's vaccine received an FDA emergency use authorization, clearing it for immediate nationwide distribution
|BioNTech and Pfizer|
Phase 3 (authorized for emergency use)
|Germany’s BioNTech is working on a multitude of mRNA vaccines for the novel coronavirus, planning to develop them in parallel. Like its competitors, the company uses strands of mRNA to generate protective antibodies. Earlier this month, Shanghai’s Fosun Pharma signed a deal to market BioNTech’s vaccine in China if it’s eventually approved. Pfizer has agreed to co-develop the vaccine in the rest of the world.||2020|
April 9: BioNTech says it will begin its first human trials "as early as the end of April"
April 29: BioNTech and Pfizer dose the first patients in a Phase 1 trial in Germany, planning to enroll about 200 patients
May 5: BioNTech and Pfizer begin Phase 1 study in the U.S., recruiting up to 360 patients total
May 12: BioNTech says it expects preliminary data in June or July
July 1: In a Phase 1 trial, BioNTech's vaccine led to an increase coronavirus antibodies at three doses, according to a preprint paper
July 27: Pfizer and BioNTech begin enrollment on a 30,000-volunteer study, expecting data as early as October Sept. 12: Pfizer and BioNTech announce a plan to expand enrollment to 44,000 participants
Nov. 9: Pfizer and BioNTech's vaccine was found to be more than 90% effective in the first analysis of Phase 3 data, the companies said
Nov. 20: Pfizer and BioNTech submitted their vaccine for emergency use authorization in the U.S.
Dec. 11: FDA issues emergency use authorization for the vaccine.
|Johnson & Johnson||Phase 3||Johnson & Johnson, which has in the past responded to outbreaks of the Ebola and Zika viruses, is using the same technology to develop a vaccine for the novel coronavirus. J&J’s vaccine is made by grafting the coronavirus genes that confer immunity onto a harmless virus, injecting it triggering an immune response without causing infection.||2020|
March 30: J&J expects to begin Phase 1 by September, with a vaccine available for emergency use as soon as early 2021.
Sept. 23: J&J announces it is starting a Phase 3 trial that will recruit up to 60,000 participants.
Dec. 9: J&J decreases the size of its study from 60,000 volunteers to 40,000, owing to the rise in Covid-19 cases in the U.S.
Jan. 29: J&J's vaccine was 66% effective in its Phase 3 trial, providing a 72% benefit for clinical trial volunteers in the U.S but 66% for those in Latin America and just 57% for those in South Africa
|Novavax||Phase 3||Novavax is at work on a coronavirus vaccine that begins in the ovaries of an insect. The company’s vaccine platform involves genetically engineering a harmless virus and exposing it to cells isolated from worms. Those cells then churn out the proteins needed to stimulate antibodies, and those proteins become vaccines. For Covid-19, Novavax has isolated the spike protein found on the surface of the novel coronavirus.||2020|
April 8: Novavax selects a vaccine candidate, planning to begin human trials in May with preliminary data in July
May 26: Novavax begins Phase 1 trial, planning to enroll about 130 volunteers with data expected in July
Aug. 4: Novavax presents detailed data from its Phase 1 trial, demonstrating an immune response with mostly mild side effects.
Aug. 24: Company launches Phase 2 portion of Phase 1/2
Sept. 25: Novavax initiates Phase 3 trial in U.K., with plans to initiate Phase 3 in the U.S. later
Dec. 28: Novavax begins its U.S. Phase 3 trial, planning to recruit up to 30,000 volunteers
Jan. 28: In interim data from its Phase 3 U.K. study, Novavax's vaccine was nearly 90% effective, but a separate trial found it far less effective against a new variant of the coronavirus that was first identified in South Africa
|Sinovac||Phase 2||Sinovac, headquartered in Beijing, is developing a vaccine using an inactivated version of the novel coronavirus. The company used the same technology to craft approved vaccines for hepatitis A and B; swine flu; avian flu; and the virus that causes hand, foot, and mouth disease.||2020|
April 17: Sinovac begins a placebo-controlled Phase 1/2 trial, planning to enroll 144 healthy volunteers in China
May 6: Sinovac publishes results from a preclinical study in which its vaccine successfully protected monkeys from contracting the novel coronavirus. The company plans to start a second, larger human trial by mid-May
June 14: Sinovac released preliminary results from its Phase 2 trial, saying its vaccine induced neutralizing antibodies in “above 90%” of participants
|CanSino Biologics||Phase 2||CanSino Biologics, headquartered in Tianjin, is developing a coronavirus vaccine using the technology that led to a China-approved Ebola virus vaccine. CanSino’s approach involves taking a snippet of coronavirus’ genetic code and entwining it with a harmless virus, thereby exposing healthy volunteers to the novel infection and spurring the production of antibodies.||2020|
March 17: CanSino begins Phase 1 trial in China
April 10: Based on preliminary data, CanSino says it will move into Phase 2 "soon"
May 22: CanSino published data from a 108-subject trial, in which its vaccine generated a immune response in volunteers
June 29: Chinese regulators provisionally approved CanSino's vaccine for military use
July 20: CanSino publishes interim Phase 2 data showing a consistent antibody response but one that seemed to wane in older subjects
|Inovio Pharmaceuticals||Phase 2||Inovio has spent the last four decades working to turn DNA into medicine, and the company believes its technology could quickly generate a vaccine for the novel coronavirus. Inovio has come up with a DNA vaccine it believes can generate protective antibodies and keep patients from infection. The company has partnered with a Chinese manufacturer, Beijing Advaccine Biotechnology, to produce the vaccine.||2020|
April 6: Inovio doses first patient in Phase 1 trial
June 30: Inovio says its vaccine led to an immune response in 94% of patients but does not provide data
|Sanofi and GlaxoSmithKline||Phase 2||Sanofi is employing the same technology it employs for flu vaccines, which uses a genetically modified version of a virus to create proteins that train the immune system to react. The company is combining its approach with GlaxoSmithKline's proprietary adjuvant, an additive that makes vaccines more potent.||2020|
Feb. 18: Sanofi begins work on a coronavirus vaccine
April 14: Sanofi partners with GlaxoSmithKline and plans to begin human trials in the second half of 2020 and generate pivotal data in 2021
Sept. 3. Sanofi and GlaxoSmithKline begin a 400-volunteer, Phase 1/2 trial, expect data in December
Dec. 11: Sanofi delayed its vaccine development after concluding that an earlier trial used too small a dose. The company now expects to win approval in the second half of 2021 at the earliest
|Merck||Phase 1||Merck purchased a Vienna-based company called Themis, which is developing an experimental Covid-19 vaccine based on a measles vaccine. It also partnering with the nonprofit IAVI on the development of a coronavirus vaccine related to the company's existing Ebola vaccine.||2020|
May 26: Merck says the Themis vaccine will enter human trials in a matter of weeks while the second candidate could reach the clinic by the end of the year
Merck discontinues both vaccines due to disappointing Phase 1 data suggesting they didn't have the desired immunological effects
|Arcturus Therapeutics||Preclinical||Arcturus Therapeutics is pressing forward with a vaccine that relies on engineering RNA. The company plans to take an RNA virus that has been edited to encode for proteins that will protect against infection and load it into a liquid nanoparticle. The resulting vaccine, being developed in partnership with Duke University, promises a better immune response at a lower dose than competing mRNA approaches, according to the company.||2020|
April 9: Arcturus plans to begin a Phase 1 trial in Singapore over the summer
|Clover Biopharmaceuticals and GlaxoSmithKline||Preclinical||Clover Biopharmaceuticals, headquartered in Chengdu, is developing a vaccine that would inject patients with a protein found on the surface of the novel coronavirus. GlaxoSmithKline is providing its proprietary adjuvant, an additive that makes vaccines more potent.||2020|
Feb. 10: Clover identifies its vaccine candidate
Feb. 24: GlaxoSmithKline provides its adjuvant
|CureVac||Preclinical||CureVac uses man-made mRNA to spur the production of proteins and protective antibodies. Like Moderna, the company got a grant from the nonprofit Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations to apply its technology to coronavirus.||2020|
March 17: CureVac said it expects to have a candidate ready for animal testing by April, aiming to start a clinical study in the summer
|Imperial College London||Preclinical||Led by the immunologist Robin Shattock, Imperial College London is developing an RNA-based vaccine for the novel coronavirus. The scientists have engineered a virus-derived RNA strand that will get into cells, spur the production of the coronavirus’s signature protein, and then replicate itself. In animal studies, the vaccine has resulted in the generation of protective antibodies.||2020|
April 17: With funding from the U.K. government, Imperial plans to complete preclinical work and begin human trials in June
|University of Queensland and GlaxoSmithKline||Preclinical||Australia’s University of Queensland, with funding from the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations, has been developing a coronavirus vaccine since January. Queensland has a proprietary technology meant to make protein vaccines more effective at triggering an immune response. Called a molecular clamp, the university’s approach keeps the coronavirus’s key protein in its natural shape before grafting it onto the vaccine.||2020|
April 9: Queensland plans to begin human trials in the third quarter
|Sanofi and Translate Bio||Preclinical||Sanofi partnered with Translate Bio to develop potential vaccines using synthetic messenger RNA, which would compel the body to produce antibodies against the novel coronavirus. The two companies have worked together in the past on vaccines for infectuous disease.||2020|
March 27: Sanofi and Translate Bio announce their collaboration but do not specify a development timeline