|24||sept.-18||Paul D. Barnsley; Amy E. Peden||A Retrospective, Cross-Sectional Cohort Study Examining the Risk of Unintentional Fatal Drowning during Public Holidays in Australia||drowning; burden of disease; injury prevention; risk factors; alcohol||https://www.mdpi.com/2313-576X/4/4/42/pdf||Abierto||Abstract: Australia’s celebration of its public holidays often involves aquatic recreation, frequently mixed with consumption of alcohol, both of which are risk factors for drowning. This study examines how the demographics and circumstances of public holiday drownings compare to the average day rownings. A total population survey (1 July 2002 to 30 June 2017) of unintentional fatal drownings in Australia were extracted from the Royal Life Saving National Fatal Drowning Database. Date of drowning and state/territory of residence were used to determine if the drowning occurred on a public holiday in the person’s place of residence. 4175 persons drowned during the study period. There was a statistically significant difference between the incidence of fatal drowning on public holidays and the other days, with fatal drowning 1.73 times more likely to occur on public holidays (CI: 1.57–1.89). The increased risk of drowning on public holidays should inform the timing and the content of drowning prevention campaigns and strategies.|
|22||feb.-16||Chad A Asplund, Lawrence L Creswell||Hypothesised mechanisms of swimming-related death: a systematic review||Swimming, Death, Sport, Drowning||http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bjsports-2015-094722||https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/50/22/1360||Biblioteca||Background Recent reports from triathlon and competitive open-water swimming indicate that these events have higher rates of death compared with other forms of endurance sport. The potential causal mechanism for swimming-related death is unclear.|
Objective To examine available studies on the hypothesised mechanisms of swimming-related death to determine the most likely aetiologies. Material and methods MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (1950 to present) were searched, yielding 1950 potential results, which after title and citation reviews were reduced to 83 possible reports. Studies included discussed mechanisms of death during swimming in humans, and were Level 4 evidence or higher. Results A total of 17 studies (366 total swimmers) were included for further analysis: 5 investigating hyperthermia/hypothermia, 7 examining cardiac mechanisms and responses, and 5 determining the presence of pulmonary edema. The studies provide inconsistent and limited-quality or disease-oriented evidence that make definitive conclusions difficult.
Conclusions The available evidence is limited but may suggest that cardiac arrhythmias are the most likely aetiology of swimming-related death. While symptoms of pulmonary edema may occur during swimming, current evidence does not support swimming-induced pulmonary edema as a frequent cause of swimming-related death, nor is there evidence to link hypothermia or hyperthermia as a causal mechanism. Further higher level studies are needed.
|21||may.-17||William Koon, Ali Rowhani-Rahbar, Linda Quan||The ocean lifeguard drowning prevention paradigm: how and where do lifeguards intervene in the drowning process?||Drowning, Lifeguard, Rescue||http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2017-042468||https://injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/early/2017/10/10/injuryprev-2017-042468||Biblioteca||Drowning is a global health problem that can be addressed with multiple strategies including utilisation of lifeguards in recreational swim areas. However, few studies have described lifeguard prevention activities. We conducted a retrospective analysis using lifeguard activity data collected in real time with a Computer-Aided-
Dispatch (CAD) system to characterise the nature of lifeguard primary and secondary drowning prevention at a popular ocean beach in California. Preventative actions constituted the majority (232 065/423 071; 54.8%) of lifeguard activities, while rescues represented 1.9%.
Most preventative actions and rescues occurred during summer months, weekends and afternoons. Statistically significant geographical clusters of preventative actions were identified all over the beach, while rescue clusters were primarily restricted to two sites. Using the most reliable and valid collection system to date, these data show spatial and temporal patterns for ocean lifeguard provision of primary prevention as well as secondary drowning prevention (rescue).
|20||feb.-17||Amy E Peden, Richard C Franklin, Ana Catarina Queiroga||Epidemiology, risk factors and strategies for the prevention of global unintentional fatal drowning in people aged 50 years and older: a systematic review||Drowning, Prevention, Epidemiology||http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017005||https://injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/24/3/240||Biblioteca||Purpose Drowning is a global public health issue and prevention poses an ongoing challenge for all countries. Many nations are experiencing ageing populations, and little is known about the epidemiology, risk factors and prevention of drowning deaths among older people. This paper reports on a systematic review of literature published on drowning among older people.
Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken using English-language, Portuguese-language and Spanish-language papers published between 1980 and 2015. The review explores gaps in the literature with a focus on the epidemiology, risk factors and strategies for the prevention of unintentional fatal drowning among people 50 years and over.
Results Thirty-eight papers were deemed relevant to the study design, including 18 (47%) on epidemiology, 19 (50%) on risk factors and 9 (24%) on strategies for prevention. Risk factors identified included male gender, ethnicity, rurality and increasing age. Prevention strategies commonly proposed were education and wearing life jackets. Gaps identified in the published literature include a lack of consistency around age groupings used for epidemiological studies; a lack of consensus on risk factors; a lack of total population, country-level analysis; and the need for older age-specific prevention strategies that have been implemented and their effectiveness evaluated.
Conclusion This review identified drowning deaths among older people as a global issue. Further work is required to reduce drowning in this cohort. High-quality epidemiological studies identifying risk factors using standardised age groupings to allow for international comparisons are required, as are implementation and evaluation of older age-specific prevention strategies.
Mel Denehy, Justine E Leavy, Jonine Jancey, Lauren Nimmo, Gemma Crawford1
|This Much Water: a qualitative study using behavioural theory to develop a community service video to prevent child drowning in Western Australia||Drowning, Prevention, Education, community Campings||http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2017-017005||https://bmjopen.bmj.com/content/7/7/e017005.full.pdf||Abierto||Objectives Drowning in children under the age of 5 is a frequently occurring, yet preventable event. This research used behavioural theory to test the suitability and appropriateness of a drowning prevention message in a community service video.
Design This qualitative study used content analysis of focus groups. Constructs from the Health Belief Model guided the data analysis. Setting Community organisations and playgrounds in Perth, Western Australia. Participants Participants were parents or carers of at least one child under 5 years residing in Western Australia. Seven focus groups (n=57) were conducted with eight participants in each group. Most participants were parents (96%), female (95%), aged between 25 and 34 years (63%) and were born in Australia (68%).
Results Participants indicated the community service video was credible in communicating the message that young children were susceptible to drowning in shallow water and that various water hazards existed in and around the home. However, a range of external factors, such as the child's age, type of water hazard, presence of siblings and other environmental factors, influenced risk perceptions. Child drowning was seen as a serious issue. Controlling access to water and the role of supervision were understood to be important factors in preventing drowning.
Conclusions The lack of published drowning prevention interventions shaped by behavioural theory limits the understanding of best practice. Using constructs from the Health Belief Model, this research confirmed the perceived seriousness, devastating and unforgettable consequence of drowning; however, findings were mixed regarding cues to action. Future development of drowning prevention media messages should test strategies to increase susceptibility and self-efficacy among the target group and explore the impact of different message senders. The findings provide a valuable understanding of possible messages and their execution for use in media campaigns, as one component of an effective public health intervention to prevent child drowning underpinned by behavioural theory.
|18||mar.-17||Linda Quan, Thomas Mangione, Elizabeth Bennett, Wendy Chow||Use of life jackets and other types of flotation for in-water recreation in designated swim areas in Washington State||Drowning, Life Jackets,education, Prevention||doi:10.1136/injuryprev-2016-042296||https://injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/24/2/123.long||Biblioteca||Most fatal drownings worldwide occur in open water.
Flotation devices may protect swimmers. Their use by those recreating in water has not been described.
Methods Observational survey of swimmers and waders at designated swim sites at lakes and rivers evaluated them by age group, sex, type of flotation used (life jacket vs substandard flotation, eg, water wings, noodles, inflatables) and, for children <6 years, being within arm’s reach of an adult.
Results Of 1967 swimmers/waders observed, 37% used some type of flotation device. Use rates, especially of life jackets, decreased with increasing age. Children <6 years had the highest use of some type of flotation (140/212, 66%) and the highest use of life jackets (50.5%). Children <13 years were more likely to use flotation devices and life jackets than teens (RR 6.78,3.62 to 12.71); boys were more likely than girls to wear life jackets (RR 1.47, 1.18 to 1.83). While teenagers and adults used flotation (29.5% and 23.5%), they rarely used life jackets (2–3%). Boys <6 years who were further than arm’s length of an adult were more likely to wear life jackets than girls. Substandard flotation use did not differ among age groups (15.5–26.5%) but their use was greater among females in most age groups.
Conclusions Flotation devices were frequently used for recreational wading and swimming in open water by all age groups. Life jacket use was limited to children. Promoting use of flotation devices with safety standards that provide protection as well as fun could potentially decrease open water drowning rates.
|17||jun.-18||Szpilman D, de Barros Oliveira R, Mocellin O, Webber J||Is Drowning a mere matter of resuscitation?||Drowning; education; first aid; injury prevention; rescue; resuscitation||10.1016/j.resuscitation.2018.06.018||https://www.resuscitationjournal.com/article/S0300-9572(18)30289-2/pdf||Biblioteca||Abstract: International data severely underestimates actual drowning numbers. Almost all victims are able to help themselves or are rescued in time. This study aims to report the occurrence of Drowning Chain of Survival actions and resuscitations needed in a fully operational lifeguard service.|
METHODOLOGY: Data was collected from Dec-2009 to Mar-2015 by lifeguards at a 6km-long beach in Brazil. The Drowning Chain of Survival links were summarized into 3 main action-response sections: Prevention; rescue; and provide care. Rescues were classified by severity.
RESULTS: Lifeguards reported 1,565,699 actions during the study period. Preventative actions comprised 1,563,300(99.8%) and 2,044 (0.1%) involved recognizing a person in stress/distress and rescuing them. Of those requiring rescue, 355(0.02%) needed medical assistance due to respiratory symptoms, isolated respiratory arrest, or cardiopulmonary arrest. Those cases were classified by severity as: Grade 1 = 234(65.9%), grade 2 = 78(22%), grade 3 = 22(6.2%), grade 4 = 7(2%), grade 5 = 4(1.1%), and Grade 6 = 10(2.8%). From all 2,044 rescues, 14(0.7%) were grade 5 and 6 and needed respiratory or cardiorespiratory resuscitation. An estimative incidence of 1 rescue for 4,227 peoples, 1 drowning for 24,338 and 1 CPR done to 617,142 for each day at a guarded beach was showed. The prevalent misconception that majority of drowning require resuscitation is perpetuated by the media and publishers. We are only just seeing the tip of the iceberg and urgently need to look at the problem in its entirety. Considering all the intervention undertaken by lifeguards in a fully operational system, the incidence of resuscitation being performed is only one in every 112,000 lifeguarding actions (0.0009%).
|16||oct.-17||R.Barcala-Furelos, Carbia-Rodrígueza, L.Peixoto-Pino, C.Abelairas-Gómez, A.Rodríguez-Núñezbde||Implantación de programas educativos para prevenir ahogamientos. ¿Qué se puede hacer desde la escuela infantil?|
Implementation of educational programs to prevent drowning. What can be done in nursery school?
|Drowning, Prevention, Education||https://doi.org/10.1016/j.medin.2017.08.005||http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0210569117302292?via%3Dihub||Biblioteca||Carta Científica|
|15||feb.-17||Jerry P. Nolan, Joseph P. Ornato, Michael J.A. Parr, Gavin D. Perkins, Jasmeet Soar||Resuscitation highlights in 2016||Drowning, Bibliography||http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2017.02.001||http://www.resuscitationjournal.com/article/S0300-9572(17)30052-7/fulltext||Biblioteca||The number and quality of manuscripts submitted to Resuscitation continues to rise and in 2016, for the first time, exceeded 1000. The editors have highlighted some of the key papers published in the Journal in 2016.|
|14||jul.-17||J Matthew, C Robertson, R Hofmeyr,||Update on drowning||Drowning; Prevention; Management||DOI:10.7196/SAMJ.2017.v107i7.12609||http://www.samj.org.za/index.php/samj/article/download/11952/8117||Abierto||Drowning is defined as the process of experiencing respiratory impairment from either submersion or immersion in liquid. Drowning morbidity and mortality are an under-recognised public health burden in southern Africa. Continuous concerted efforts are underway to improve awareness among recreational water users, but the prevention and management of drowning remain difficult to achieve owing to poor reporting and limited resources. Priorities for both prehospital and emergency department management of drowning victims include ensuring airway patency, adequate ventilation, supplemental oxygenation and rewarming for a pulsatile patient, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation with rewarming for a pulseless patient.|
|13||nov.-05||E.F. van Beeck, C.M. Branche, D. Szpilman, J.H. Modell, & J.J.L.M. Bierens||A new definition of drowning: towards documentation and prevention of a global public health problem||Drowning, epidemiology, Epidemiologic surveillance||http://www.who.int/bulletin/volumes/83/11/853.pdf?ua=1||Abierto||Drowning is a major global public health problem. Effective prevention of drowning requires programmes and policies that address known risk factors throughout the world. Surveillance, however, has been hampered by the lack of a uniform and internationally accepted definition that permits all relevant cases to be counted. To develop a new definition, an international consensus procedure was conducted. Experts in clinical medicine, injury epidemiology, prevention and rescue from all over the world participated in a series of “electronic” discussions and face-to-face workshops. The suitability of previous definitions and the major requirements of a new definition were intensely debated. The consensus was that the new definition should include both cases of fatal and nonfatal drowning. After considerable dialogue and debate, the following definition was adopted: “Drowning is the process of experiencing respiratory impairment from submersion/immersion in liquid.” Drowning outcomes should be classified as: death, morbidity, and no morbidity. There was also consensus that the terms wet, dry, active, passive, silent, and secondary drowning should no longer be used. Thus a simple, comprehensive, and internationally accepted definition of drowning has been developed. Its use should support future activities in drowning surveillance worldwide, and lead to more reliable and comprehensive epidemiological information on this global, and frequently preventable, public health problem.|
|12||ene.-17||Pranit N. Chotai, Lisa Manning, Benjamin Eithun, Joshua C. Ross, James W. Eubanks III, Chad Hamner, Ankush Gosain||Pediatric non-fatal drowning events: do they warrant trauma team activation?||Near-drowning, Drowning, Pediatric, Trauma, Activation criteria, Triage||http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2017.01.024||http://www.journalofsurgicalresearch.com/article/S0022-4804(17)30043-4/fulltext||Biblioteca||Background The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of traumatic injuries, factors associated with mortality, and need for pediatric trauma surgery involvement for drowning and near-drowning events in children. Materials and methods An institutional review board–approved, retrospective chart review was performed at three American College of Surgeons–verified Pediatric Trauma Centers (2011-2014). Patients with International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes or E-codes for fatal–nonfatal drowning, fall into water, accidental drowning, or submersion were included. Bivariate analysis using chi-square or Fisher exact test for nominal variables and Mann–Whitney U test for continuous variables was performed. Results A total of 363 patients (median 3.17 y [18 d-17 y]) met the inclusion criteria. Drowning sites included pool (81.5%), bathtub (12.9%), and natural water (5.2%). A witnessed fall or dive was reported in 34.9%, 57.9% did not fall or dive, and 7% had an unwitnessed event. Most patients did not undergo cervical spine (83%) or brain imaging (75.5%). Seven patients (1.92%) had associated soft tissue injuries. Two patients (0.006%) received surgical intervention (bronchoscopy and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation) within 24 h of presentation. Only 2.2% were admitted to the pediatric trauma service. The percentage of patients discharged home from the emergency department was 10.2%. Overall mortality was 12.4%. Factors associated with mortality included transfer from outside hospital (P = 0.016), presence of hypothermia on arrival (P < 0.0001), Glasgow Coma Scale of 3 on arrival (P < 0.0001), drowning in a pool (P = 0.013), or undergoing brain cooling at admission (P = 0.011). Conclusions This is the largest reported series of pediatric near-drowning events. Only rarely did patients require immediate surgical attention and the majority were admitted to nonsurgical services. These data suggest that routine pediatric trauma surgery service involvement in patients with near-drowning events may be unnecessary.|
|11||jun.-17||Roger W. Byard||Drowning and near drowning – definitions and terminology||Drowning, terminology, Utstein||DOI 10.1007/s12024-017-9890-5||https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Roger_Byard/publication/317817074_Drowning_and_near_drowning_-_definitions_and_terminology/links/595e44cb0f7e9b8194b71216/Drowning-and-near-drowning-definitions-and-terminology.pdf||Abierto||The recent letter by Webber et al.  concerning the report of two cases of fresh water immersion  provides a reminder of the importance of standardizing terminology and establishing internationally accepted definitions. From the time of Socrates this has been considered the foundation for progressing academic understanding in many areas. Unfortunately, however, this is not always a straightforward process.|
|10||jul.-17||Andrew C. Schmidt, Justin R. Sempsrott, David Szpilman, Ana Catarina Queiroga, Matt S. Davison, Ryan J. Zeigler, Sean J. McAlister||The use of non-uniform drowning terminology: A follow-up study||Drowning, terminology, Utstein||https://doi.org/10.1186/s13049-017-0405-x||https://sjtrem.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/s13049-017-0405-x?site=sjtrem.biomedcentral.com||Abierto||Background: In 2002, the World Congress on Drowning developed a uniform definition for drowning. The aim of this study is to determine the prevalence of “non-uniform drowning terminology” (NUDT) and “non-uniform drowning definitions” (NUDD) in peer-reviewed scientific literature from 2010 to 2016, and compare these findings with those from our unpublished study performing a similar analysis on literature from 2003 to 2010. Methods: A systematic review was performed using drowning-specific search terms in Pubmed and Web of Science. Titles and abstracts published between July 2010 and January 2016 were screened for relevance to the study focus. Articles meeting screening criteria were reviewed for exclusion criteria to produce the final group of studies. These articles were reviewed by four reviewers for NUDT and NUDD. The Fisher exact test was used to determine any statistically significant changes. Results: The final group of studies included 167 articles. A total of 53 articles (32%) utilized NUDT, with 100% of these including the term “near drowning”. The proportion of articles utilizing NUDT was significantly less than reported by our previous study (p < 0.05). In addition, 32% of the articles included a definition for drowning (uniform or non-uniform), with 15% of these utilizing NUDD. Discussion: Our study reveals a statistically significant improvement over the past thirteen years in the use of uniform drowning terminology in peer-reviewed scientific literature, although year-to-year variability over the current study period does not yield an obvious trend. Conclusions: Of the articles reviewed during the 2010-2016 study period, 32% included outdated and non-uniform drowning terminology and definitions. While this reveals an absolute decrease of 11% as compared with the previous study period (2003-2010), there is still significant room for improvement.|
|9||ago.-17||Cristian Abelairas-Gómez, Roberto Barcala-Furelos, Marcos Mecías-Calvo, Ezequiel Rey-Eiras, Sergio López-García, Javier Costas-Veiga, Antonio Bores-Cerezal, Jose Palacios-Aguilar||Prehospital Emergency Medicine at the Beach: What Is the Effect of Fins and Rescue Tubes in Lifesaving and Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation After Rescue?||water rescue, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, lifesaving equipment, drowning, lifeguard, blood lactate||DOI: 10.1016/j.wem.2017.03.013||http://www.wemjournal.org/article/S1080-6032(17)30100-X/fulltext||Biblioteca||OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of fins and rescue tube use in a water rescue, assessed by time and distance to salvage position, physiological parameters, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). METHODS: Twenty professional lifeguards (10 men, 10 women) conducted 3 tests: a baseline test of 5 minutes of CPR and 2 water rescues, 1 without rescue equipment (NRE), and the other with fins and rescue tube (FRT). They also had to perform 5 minutes of CPR after each rescue. Time and distance of the rescues, physiological parameters (blood lactate concentration and heart rate), and quality of CPR were analyzed. RESULTS: CPR quality worsened by 26 to 28% (P < .001) after rescue. However, there were no differences using FRT. The use of rescue equipment reduced the time (FRT: 216±57 seconds; NRE: 319±127 seconds; P < .001) and distance covered (FRT: 265±52 m; NRE: 326±41 m; P < .001). No differences were found in lactate levels between FRT and NRE just after the rescues, but there were some after 5 minutes of subsequent CPR (FRT: 10.7±2.2 mmol/L; NRE: 12.6±1.8 mmol/L; P < .001). Comparing women with men, we found significant differences in lactate concentrations only in FRT (women: 9.6±1.4 mmol/L; men: 8.1±1.2 mmol/L; P = .031). CONCLUSIONS: The use of fins and rescue tube provides a comprehensive benefit in an aquatic emergency. However, FRT did not have any effect on the quality of the postrescue CPR.|
|8||abr.-17||Richard C Franklin, John H Pearn, Amy E Peden||https://doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2017-312684||Drowning, children Pre-existing medical conditions||https://doi.org/10.1136/archdischild-2017-312684||http://adc.bmj.com/content/102/10/888.full.pdf||Abierto||Objectives This study is an analysis of the contribution of pre-existing medical conditions to unintentional fatal child (0–14 years) drowning and a of critique prevention stratagems, with an exploration of issues of equity in recreation. Design This study is a total population, cross-sectional audit of all demographic, forensic and on-site situational details surrounding unintentional fatal drowning of children 0–14 years in Australia for the period of 1 July 2002 to 30 June 2012. Data were sourced from the National (Australia) Coronial Information System. Age-specific disease patterns in the general population were obtained from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Results Four hundred and sixty-eight children drowned during the study period. Fifty-three (11.3%) had a pre-existing medical condition, of whom 19 suffered from epilepsy, 13 from autism and 5 with non-specific intellectual disabilities. Epilepsy is a risk factor in childhood drowning deaths, with a prevalence of 4.1% of drowning fatalities, compared with 0.7%–1.7% among the general 0–14 years population (relative risk: 2.4–5.8). Epilepsy was deemed to be contributory in 16 of 19 cases (84.2% of epilepsy cases) with a median age of 8 years. Asthma and intellectual disabilities were under-represented in the drowning cohort. Conclusion Except for epilepsy, this research has indicated that the risks of drowning while undertaking aquatic activities are not increased in children with pre-existing medical conditions. Children with pre-existing medical conditions can enjoy aquatic activities when appropriately supervised.|
|7||nov.-15||Jack A. Puleo, Katie Hutschenreuter, Paul Cowan, Wendy Carey, Michelle Arford-Granholm, Kimberly K. McKenna||Delaware surf zone injuries and associated environmental conditions||Injury rate, Beach slope, Wave height, Beach tourism||https://doi.org/10.1007/s11069-015-2108-9||https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11069-015-2108-9||Biblioteca||Surf zone injury and environmental condition data were collected concurrently during the summer of 2014 along the Delaware coast. Documented injury data included injury type, gender, age and activity, while measured environmental conditions included local wave height, wave period and foreshore slope. Daily water user counts were used to normalize injury rates relative to the number of beachgoers at risk. There were 280 injuries over 116 sample days along the entire Delaware coast and 169 injuries over 82 sample days within the 5-beach focused study area where water user count data were available. Injuries were not distributed randomly as tested against a Poisson distribution and occurred in clusters with up to 15 injuries occurring in a single day. There were 32 serious injuries (cervical fractures, spinal cord injuries) and 1 fatality. Water user counts throughout the course of a day exceeded 25,000 on busy weekends such that the mean injury rate was 0.02 %. Men were twice as likely to be injured relative to women, and the mean injury age was 32 years old. Tourists were six times more likely to be injured compared to local beachgoers. Wading (44 %) was the dominant injury activity followed by body surfing (20 %) and body boarding (17 %). Direct correlation between injury occurrence or injury rate and any environmental factors was weak (highest squared correlation coefficient <0.12), but the highest injury rates were associated with moderate wave height (0.6 m) with lower injury rates for both smaller and larger waves. Lack of direct correlation between injury occurrence or injury rate and environmental parameters suggests there was an important (and as yet undetermined) human element that also dictates the injury rate. Additionally, the high proportion of injuries to tourists may require alternate strategies in local beach safety and injury awareness campaigns.|
|6||ene.-17||Mahony, Alison J. BPharm, MPH; Peden, Amy E. BA, MPP; Franklin, Richard C. BSc, MSocSc, PhD; Pearn, John H. MD, PhD, DSc; Scarr, Justin BEd, MBA||Fatal, unintentional drowning in older people: an assessment of the role of preexisting medical conditions||Drowning prevention, Elderly, Medical condition, Risk factor, Water safety, Dementia, Epilepsy, Parkinson disease, Cardiovascular disease||doi: 10.1097/HXR.0000000000000007||http://journals.lww.com/har-journal/Fulltext/2017/03000/Fatal,_unintentional_drowning_in_older_people___an.2.aspx||Abierto||Background: The number of older people (aged 65 y and over) is increasing in Australia and chronic medical conditions are common. Aquatic activities provide physical and social benefits; however, understanding the risks related to aquatic activity is important for ongoing health and wellbeing. We explore the impact of preexisting medical conditions on unintentional fatal drowning among older people in Australia. Methods: Using coronial, forensic, and medical histories from the Australian National Coronial Information System, all cases of unintentional death by drowning (or where drowning was a factor) among older people in Australia between July 1, 2002 and June 30, 2012 were investigated. Preexisting medical conditions were reviewed to determine whether they were contributory to drowning. Results: Of the 506 older people who drowned, 69.0% had a preexisting medical condition. The leading contributory medical condition was cardiovascular disease, followed by dementia, depression, epilepsy, and Parkinson disease. All conditions except cardiovascular disease and depression were overrepresented compared with the proportion of the disease in the population. Falling into water was the most common activity immediately before drowning, especially among those with dementia, whereas those with cardiovascular disease were most likely to drown while swimming. Conclusions: Preexisting medical conditions contribute to drowning in older people but with unequal contributions. With the prevalence of medical conditions expected to increase as the population ages, targeted education for older people will be important. Risk management will enable older people to safely participate in aquatic activities.|
|5||ene.-17||Houser, C., Trimble, S., Brander, R., Brewster, B. C., Dusek, G., Jones, D., and Kuhn, J.||Public perceptions of a rip current hazard education program: “Break the Grip of the Rip!”||Rip current, beach safety, drowning, Public campaign||https://doi.org/10.5194/nhess-17-1003-2017||https://www.nat-hazards-earth-syst-sci.net/17/1003/2017/nhess-17-1003-2017.pdf||Abierto||Abstract. Rip currents pose a major global beach hazard; estimates of annual rip-current-related deaths in the United States alone range from 35 to 100 per year. Despite increased social research into beach-goer experience, little is known about levels of rip current knowledge within the general population. This study describes the results of an online survey to determine the extent of rip current knowledge across the United States, with the aim of improving and enhancing existing beach safety education material. Results suggest that the US-based Break the Grip of the Rip!® campaign has been successful in educating the public about rip current safety directly or indirectly, with the majority of respondents able to provide an accurate description of how to escape a rip current. However, the success of the campaign is limited by discrepancies between personal observations at the beach and rip forecasts that are broadcasted for a large area and time. It was the infrequent beach user that identified the largest discrepancies between the forecast and their observations. Since infrequent beach users also do not seek out lifeguards or take the same precautions as frequent beach users, it is argued that they are also at greatest risk of being caught in a dangerous situation. Results of this study suggest a need for the national campaign to provide greater focus on locally specific and verified rip forecasts and signage in coordination with lifeguards, but not at the expense of the successful national awareness program.|
|4||ene.-16||Tessa Clemens, Michael Rotondi, Hala Tamim, Alison Macpherson||265 Pool fencing bylaws and drowning rates among children||drowning, children, pool, pool fencing||http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2016-042156.265||http://injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/22/Suppl_2/A97.1||Biblioteca||Background The majority of fatal drownings in Canada occur in natural bodies of water; however private backyard pools are consistently the most common setting where children under 5 years of age drown. A number of studies conducted primarily in Australia and the United States have provided evidence that pool fencing reduces the risk of drowning among children. No long term analysis of pool fencing and municipal bylaws as a factor affecting the risk of childhood drowning in Canada has been published. Methods Using a multi-level ecologic study design, the drowning death rate in Ontario municipalities with isolation fence and gate legislation was compared to that in municipalities with less or no legislation. Individual level descriptive analysis was conducted using data collected from files at the Ontario Provincial Coroner’s office for all children under the age of 5 who suffered drowning deaths in private backyard pools over a fifteen year period. Drowning death rates were calculated per 100 000 population. Denominators for rates were yearly estimates of population under the age of 5 for each municipality. Poisson regression methods were used to estimate relative risks and 95% confidence intervals. Additionally, univariate analysis was conducted and descriptive statistics were reported to summarise the characteristics of childhood backyard pool drownings. Results During the study period, 54 children under the age of 5 drowned in a private backyard pool in Ontario. The highest death rate was found among 2 year olds (0.9 per 100 000) and the male to female ratio was 3.5:1. The majority of children (61%) drowned after accessing an unobstructed pool directly from the residence. (Results of Poisson regression to be updated). Conclusions The results of the study demonstrate the need for isolation fencing bylaws that do not allow direct access from the building, and do not allow fences to be “grandfathered” under existing legislation.|
|2||ene.-02||Barnés Domínguez José A, Bender del Busto Juan E, Araujo Suárez Francisco, Zamora Pérez Francisca, Hernández González Elizabeth, Rodríguez María Luisa||Lesión medular traumática||lesión medular traumática, Epidemiología.||http://revmexneuroci.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/Nm0031-041.pdf||Biblioteca||La lesión medular se caracteriza por parálisis de diferentes niveles y grados de extensión, pérdida de la sensibilidad, así como disfunción intestinal, vesical y sexual. Método. Realizamos un estudio descriptivo en 58 pacientes ingresados en la Clínica de Afecciones de la Médula Espinal del Centro Internacional de Restauración Neurológica (CIREN) con lesiones medulares traumáticas desde enero hasta diciembre del 2000. En la revisión de las historias clínicas analizamos las siguientes variables: grupos de edad, sexo, país de procedencia, etiología, nivel de lesión medular, diagnóstico principal y tiempo de evolución de la enfermedad. Resultados. Predominó el grupo de edad de 17-25 años los cuales representan el 41.4% de la población estudiada, 48 pacientes del sexo masculino que corresponde al 82.8%, el mayor número de pacientes provino de Colombia. Los agentes etiológicos más frecuentes fueron los accidentes automovilísticos y las heridas por arma de fuego con 31 y 14 casos respectivamente, prevaleció el nivel de lesión medular T6T12. Los principales diagnósticos reportados fueron la paraplejia y la cuadriplejia espástica postraumática con 16 lesionados cada uno que corresponde a 27.6%. Los pacientes habían sufrido la lesión hacía más de un año.|
|1||ene.-17||Peden AE; Franklin RC; Queiroga AC||Epidemiology, risk factors and strategies for the prevention of global unintentional fatal drowning in people aged 50 years and older: a systematic review.||drowning; epidemiology; older people; public health; risk factor research; systematic review||http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2017-042351||http://injuryprevention.bmj.com/content/early/2017/08/03/injuryprev-2017-042351.long||Biblioteca||Purpose Drowning is a global public health issue and prevention poses an ongoing challenge for all countries. Many nations are experiencing ageing populations, and little is known about the epidemiology, risk factors and prevention of drowning deaths among older people. This paper reports on a systematic review of literature published on drowning among older people. Methods A systematic literature review was undertaken using English-language, Portuguese-language and Spanish-language papers published between 1980 and 2015. The review explores gaps in the literature with a focus on the epidemiology, risk factors and strategies for the prevention of unintentional fatal drowning among people 50 years and over. Results Thirty-eight papers were deemed relevant to the study design, including 18 (47%) on epidemiology, 19 (50%) on risk factors and 9 (24%) on strategies for prevention. Risk factors identified included male gender, ethnicity, rurality and increasing age. Prevention strategies commonly proposed were education and wearing life jackets. Gaps identified in the published literature include a lack of consistency around age groupings used for epidemiological studies; a lack of consensus on risk factors; a lack of total population, country-level analysis; and the need for older age-specific prevention strategies that have been implemented and their effectiveness evaluated. Conclusion This review identified drowning deaths among older people as a global issue. Further work is required to reduce drowning in this cohort. Highquality epidemiological studies identifying risk factors using standardised age groupings to allow for international comparisons are required, as are implementation and evaluation of older age-specific prevention strategies.|