MYP Related Concepts
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Related conceptDefinitionGroups / Subjects
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AccentAccent refers to the pronunciation of a language, usually in a geographical or socioeconomic context in a first language. It encompasses spoken communication. In a target language, the first language accent may influence accent in the target language.Group 2 - Language Acquisition
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AdaptationAdaptation involves incorporating ideas found in one product into the development of a new product.Group 8 - Design
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AdaptationAdaptation is the adjustment or changing of a skill, technique, strategy, tactic, process or choice in order to enhance its suitability to meet the needs of a situation or application. Adaptation may need to occur as a result of: environmental influences, feedback (internal and external), player interactions, team interactions and the outcomes of choices.Group 7 - Physical and Health Education
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ArgumentArgument refers to the coherent backdrop of reasoned text that may or may not involve disagreement, debate or persuasion.Group 2 - Language Acquisition
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AudienceRefers to whomever a text or performance is aimed at: the reader, the listener, the viewer.Group 2 - Language Acquisition
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AudienceAn individual or group who receive and/or respond to arts. Addressing this concept includes examining strategies for engaging audience, different types of audiences and how the audience–artist relationship affects and influences the arts.Group 6 - Arts
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Audience imperativesAn umbrella concept to refer to whomever (the reader, the listener, the viewer) a text or performance is aimed at, and the characteristics, impact or desired responses created. This impact could include humour, sensibility, critical stance, appreciation, empathy, antipathy and sympathy, aesthetics, mood, atmosphere and gender perspectives.Group 1 - Language & Literature
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BalanceBalance is a state of equilibrium between contrasting, opposing, or interacting factors. Balance can occur in many forms, such as the aesthetically pleasing integration of elements in movement routines, the team stability provided by the even distribution of player roles, as a means of judging and deciding upon lifestyle choices, or by placing equal importance on each dimension of health.Group 7 - Physical and Health Education
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Balance: biology specificThe dynamic equilibrium that exists among members of a stable natural community; the regulation of the internal environment of an organism.Group 4 - Sciences - Biology
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Balance: chemistry specificA state of equilibrium or stable distribution.Group 4 - Sciences - Chemistry
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BiasBias refers to a conscious distortion or exaggeration, which usually expresses prejudice or partiality.Group 2 - Language Acquisition
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BoundariesThe parameters that define a personality, a culture, an environment, civil law, a skill set or a belief structure. The concept of boundaries can include: themes, issues and concepts; the imagined or physical boundary between performance space and audience; the subversive or provocative nature of the arts; the dividing line between what is real and what is fictional; private and public space; the relationships between characters.Group 6 - Arts
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ChangeA variation in size, amount or behaviour.Group 5 - Mathematics
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CharacterThe representation of persons in narrative and dramatic works. This may include direct methods like the attribution of qualities in description or commentary, and indirect (or “dramatic”) methods inviting readers to infer qualities from characters’ actions, speech or appearance. When exploring the concept of character, students might explore transformation, influence, conflict, protagonist, antagonist, persona, foil, stock.Group 1 - Language & Literature
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ChoiceChoice involves making a decision between at least two alternatives, knowing that, in making a choice, we will have to go without the other(s). Choices should be made by evaluating the situation and considering the resources available. Depending on the situation some choices will need to be decided upon quickly; such as choices required during game play. Other choices allow for longer periods of consideration; such as choices made in relation to nutrition or fitness development.Group 7 - Physical and Health Education
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ChoiceChoice involves making a decision between at least two alternatives, knowing that in selecting one item, we will have to go without the other (for example if we buy a camera, we cannot also buy a phone with the same money). Because of scarcity (unlimited needs and wants being met by limited resources) we must make choices about which needs and wants to meet with the resources we have. We break economic choice down into three more specific questions: • What products should we make and how much of each product should we produce? • How should we make our products (that is how should we combine our resources to produce goods)? • Who should get the products we make (that is based on which criteria, for example wealth or fairness, should products be distributed)?Group 3 - Individuals & Societies
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CollaborationCollaboration involves two or more people sharing expertise and experience, working together to solve a problem and realize shared goals.Group 8 - Design
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CompositionThe intentional organization or contrast, balance, arrangement or awareness of the elements and principles of art for a particular purpose in the creation of art. These may include tension and release, repetition and variety, unison and harmony, sound and silence, theme and variation, and dynamics and energyGroup 6 - Arts
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Conditions: chemistry specificThe environment, both physical and chemical, of a reaction or process; factors which contribute to an interaction including temperature,Group 4 - Sciences - Chemistry
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ConsquencesThe observable or quantifiable effects, results, or outcomes correlated with an earlier event or events.Group 4 - Sciences
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Consumption
Consumption is the use of products to satisfy immediate needs and wants. Products that we use to directly meet our needs and wants are called consumer goods (for example, a television meets the desire for entertainment). Alternatives to consumption include investment and conservation. In investment, products are produced and can then be used to make other goods and services, rather than being immediately consumed. In conservation, production is avoided in order to preserve resources. Both investment and conservation allow for the possibility of higher consumption in the future. The proper combination of consumption, investment and conservation is a question for debate
Group 3 - Individuals & Societies
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ContextThe social, historical, cultural and workplace settings in which a text or work is produced. All texts may be understood according to their form, content, purpose and audience, and through the social, historical, cultural and workplace contexts that produce and value them. Literary texts are influenced by social context, cultural heritage and historical change. Students should be encouraged to consider how texts build upon and transform the inherited literary and cultural traditions. Cultural context refers to the way of life, especially the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time.Group 1 - Language & Literature
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ContextThe social, historical, cultural and workplace settings in which a text or work is produced.Group 2 - Language Acquisition
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ConvetionsConventions are the characteristics of a literary or non-literary genre. These features may, of course, vary between languages. Each genre has recognizable techniques, referred to as literary or linguistic conventions, and writers use these conventions, along with other features, in order to achieve particular artistic ends.Group 2 - Language Acquisition
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Development: physics specificThe process of applying theory to data and observations in order to improve, progress, or further scientific understanding.Group 4 - Sciences - Physcics
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EmpathyEmpathy refers to an attitude of understanding, an emotional identification with a person, character, argument or situation.Group 2 - Language Acquisition
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EnergyThe capacity of an object to do work or transfer heat.Group 4 - Sciences
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EnergyEnergy is a fundamental entity that is transferred between parts of a system in the production of change within the system. It is the capacity for doing work and as such the amount and form of energy an individual requires is dependent on the task(s) they are completing. The restoration of an individual’s energy levels is determined by a variety of factors such as rest, nutritional intake and time. Energy levels influence all aspects of human life, from our ability to think and make effective choices, to our ability to be physically active.Group 7 - Physical and Health Education
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EnvironmentEnvironment refers to the circumstances, objects, or conditions by which an individual is surrounded. The effective performance of techniques, skills, strategies and tactics are influenced by environmental factors. Performers must understand environmental influences in order to be successful. An environment does not have to be physical. The digital environment, especially social media, has a significant impact on personal, mental, emotional and social healthGroup 7 - Physical and Health Education
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Environment: biology specificAll of the biotic and abiotic factors that act on an organism, population or community and influence its survival, evolution and development.Group 4 - Sciences - Biology
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Environment: physics specificA description of the universe or a closed system through the application of the laws of physics; the complex of physical conditions or climate affecting a habitat or community.Group 4 - Sciences - Physcics
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Equity
Equity involves concerns about fairness and justice. A major issue of equity is that of distribution of an economy’s products. Those who have more income and wealth are able to consume more products, and if differences in consumption are large enough, extremes of inequity or unfairness may result. What constitutes a fair or equitable distribution of consumption is a question for debate.
Group 3 - Individuals & Societies
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EquivalenceThe state of being identically equal or interchangeable, applied to statements, quantities or expressions.Group 5 - Mathematics
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ErgonomicsErgonomics is the application of scientific information and understanding of how humans relate to products, systems, interfaces and environments.Group 8 - Design
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EvaluationIn design, evaluation involves the gathering and processing of data to determine an action. Evaluation involves feedback, which can be used to control, revise or modify.Group 8 - Design
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EvidenceSupport for a proposition derived from observation and interpretation of data.Group 4 - Sciences
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ExpressionThe representation of feelings and emotions, ideas, thoughts, beliefs, values and opinions in the process of visual or physical articulation. It can include signs, symbols, semiotics or any other imagery to capture the artist intention. It is something you do, create or play that shows what you think or feel. Expression facilitates the communication of an idea.Group 6 - Arts
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FormForm concerns the overall shape and configuration of a product. It relates to aspects such as aesthetics, shape, colour and texture.Group 8 - Design
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FormForm refers to the linguistic shape communication may take. It is the mould that is filled with linguistic contentGroup 2 - Language Acquisition
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FormThe features of an object that can be observed, identified, described, classified and categorized.Group 4 - Sciences
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FunctionThe function of a solution refers to what it has been designed to do and how effective it is at enabling that action to be performed.Group 8 - Design
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FunctionFunction refers to the purpose and/or use of communication.Group 2 - Language Acquisition
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FunctionA purpose, a role or a way of behaving that can be investigated; a mathematical relationship between variables.Group 4 - Sciences
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FunctionA function is the action or role that something is specifically designed for or used to do. Functions can be voluntary or involuntary. A function can be part of a group of related actions that contribute to a larger action, such as the function of the heart contributing to the overall health of the human body, or the function of a setter in a volleyball team who is responsible for orchestrating their team’s offence. A variety of factors can influence the choice and effectiveness of specific functions.Group 7 - Physical and Health Education
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GeneralizationA general statement made on the basis of specific examples.Group 5 - Mathematics
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GenreA type or category of literature or film marked by certain shared features or conventions. Conventions are the characteristics of a literary genre. These features may, of course, vary between languages. Each genre has recognizable techniques, referred to as literary conventions, and writers use these conventions, along with other literary features, in order to achieve particular artistic ends. A study of genres includes essential understandings about conventions of genre: form, style, storyline, characterization, tone, mood, atmosphere, register, visual images and layout, narrative/storytelling, prose (foreshadowing, flashbacks, stream of consciousness in novels and short stories), poetry (metre, rhyme), drama, mythology and other fiction (for example, graphic novels, satires, oral traditions, screenplays, film and episodic television) and non-fiction (for example, autobiography, biography, travelogues, essays, letters, literary non-fiction, speeches). Examples of conventions in drama may include dialogues, speeches, monologues, soliloquies, asides, stage directions, voice, movement, gesture, use of space, costume, props, lighting, set and sound.Group 1 - Language & Literature
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GenreDifferent artistic expressions that create a style when grouped by the same use of techniques, in a distinctive manner regarding theme, content or practice.Group 6 - Arts
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Globalization
As a related concept, globalization encompasses local, national and global repercussions and expectations for our “shrinking” world. Economic globalization is the increasing integration of national economies so that resources, products and information flow more freely across borders. Globalization is an ongoing process that can accelerate, slow down, or even be reversed. Currently, many arrangements exist between countries that increase economic integration to varying degrees (that is various types of trading blocs). Globalization can be slowed or reversed when governments or other groups take actions to limit the movement of resources, products or information across borders. This can happen for many reasons, including but not limited to: war, a desire to protect domestic industries or a desire to collect taxes on imports.
Group 3 - Individuals & Societies
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Growth
Growth is an increase in the value of all goods and services produced in an economy. It can occur as a result of an increase in the quantity of a society’s resources or from more efficient use of existing resources. Whether or not economic growth leads to development (increased well-being for all persons in the economy) depends on what products are produced and how they are distributed.
Group 3 - Individuals & Societies
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IdiomIdiom is unique to each language. It refers to a manner of speaking or to specific expressions whose meaning differs from the meaning of its individual components.Group 2 - Language Acquisition
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InferenceInformation in a text that goes beyond what is first understood or apparent, to identify what may be thought, expressed or considered correct. It is the layer of text that is often referred to as “between the lines”Group 2 - Language Acquisition
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InnovationInnovation is the successful diffusion of an invention into the marketplace.Group 8 - Design
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InnovationAn altered interpretation or the experimentation of ideas, techniques and media. It ensures originality and creativity by new ways of presenting ideas and unusual use of media. The invention of new functions and ways of working.Group 6 - Arts
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InteractionThe effect or effects two or more systems, bodies, substances or organisms have on one another, so that the overall result is not simply the sum of the separate effects.Group 4 - Sciences
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InteractionAn interaction is the result of two or more objects, groups or ideas affecting each other. Interactions can occur in a variety of forms, such as verbally, physically and digitally. Depending on their nature, successful interactions can contribute to improved personal, social and performance outcomes.Group 7 - Physical and Health Education
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InterpretationThe understanding of experiences and events mainly through the reference frame of our own reality and contexts. The understanding of the meaning of an artist’s creative work and artistic expressions. An artist’s distinctive personal version expressed by stylistic individuality.Group 6 - Arts
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IntertextualityThe connections between one text and other texts, the ways in which texts are interrelated, and the meanings that arise out of their interrelationship. An overt reference to another text (as in a direct quote from another text) is also an example of intertextuality.Group 1 - Language & Literature
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InventionAn invention is an entirely novel product or a feature of a product that is unique.Group 8 - Design
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JustificationValid reasons or evidence used to support a statement.Group 5 - Mathematics
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Markets and trendsMarkets can be considered as sectors and segments comprised of groups of individuals with similar needs. Trends involve short- and long-term patterns of consumer behaviour.Group 8 - Design
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MeaningMeaning refers to what is communicated, by intention or by implication, using any range of human expression. It is sometimes referred to as “message”. Meaning includes “layers of meaning”, nuance, denotation, connotation, inference, subtext.Group 2 - Language Acquisition
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MeasurementA method of determining quantity, capacity or dimension using a defined unit.Group 5 - Mathematics
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MessageA communication in writing, speech, verbal or non-verbal language. The message can also be an underlying theme or ideaGroup 2 - Language Acquisition
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ModelsRepresentations used for testing scientific theories or proposals that can be accurately repeated and validated; simulations used for explaining or predicting processes which may not be observable or to understand the dynamics of multiple underlying phenomena of a complex system.Group 4 - Sciences
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ModelsDepictions of real-life events using expressions, equations or graphs.Group 5 - Mathematics
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Models
Models are simplified simulations of certain aspects of the economy. Models are necessary because the complexity of a real economy makes it difficult to control the necessary variables in order to run experiments. When we construct economic models, we face the challenges of accounting for the complexity of the real economy and the fact that the behaviour of human beings can be unpredictable.
Group 3 - Individuals & Societies
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MovementMovement refers to the types and ways in which objects move. Sporting movements are normally divided into two categories: offensive (attacking) and defensive; however, various degrees occur within these two categories. Movement can also occur in relation to thoughts and ideas, a type of movement that relies on people aligning their thinking with others in relation to a specific cause or ideal.Group 7 - Physical and Health Education
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MovementsThe act, process, or result of displacing from one location or position to another within a defined frame of reference.Group 4 - Sciences
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NarrativeA spoken, written or visual account of connected events; a story, which may be fictional or non-fictional. The narrative may manipulate the viewpoint of the audience: bias is persuasive narrative designed to deliver a particular mandate, brief or point of view.Group 6 - Arts
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PatternsPatterns refers to use of language and style, which can be functional, decorative or social. They reflect the unique characteristics of a language.Group 2 - Language Acquisition
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PatternsThe distribution of variables in time or space; sequences of events or features.Group 4 - Sciences
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PatternsSets of numbers or objects that follow a specific order or rule.Group 5 - Mathematics
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PerspectivePerspective relates to the point of view of various stakeholders involved in solving a problem. Stakeholders can have different perspectives and can include clients, target audiences, focus groups, consumers, manufacturers and experts.Group 8 - Design
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PerspectivePerspective enables the development of dif ferent interpretations, understandings and findings. Perspective can be gained through putting yourself in the place of others and striving to understand their opinions and disposition. People gain perspective by listening to others and considering the ways in which their points of view align or differ. Seeking and considering multiple perspectives is crucial to personal, mental and social health development, as well as to our ability to develop effective sporting techniques, tactics and strategies.Group 7 - Physical and Health Education
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PlayPlay can occur in an artistic process or product. In process, play is experimentation— playing with ideas, characters, and techniques. This may be structured or free play. Improvisation is a structured approach to play, which often has the elements of a game and may involve particular rules. In product, play can be a collective creation of a theatre piece or a pre-existing piece of theatre that is authored and documented and that is transformed into live action.Group 6 - Arts
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Point of ViewThe particular perspective brought by a composer, responder or character within a text to the text or to matters within the text. It also entails the position or vantage point from which the events of a story seem to be observed and presented to us. When exploring this concept, students will, for example, consider positioning, voice and tone.Group 1 - Language & Literature
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Point of ViewThe particular perspective brought by a composer, responder or character within a text to the text or to matters within the text. It also entails the position or vantage point from which the events of a story seem to be observed and presented to us. When exploring this concept, students will, for example, consider positioning, voice and tone.Group 2 - Language Acquisition
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Poverty
Poverty is a situation in which people are unable to consume at an adequate level. When people cannot meet their basic needs for survival, such as clothing, food and shelter, they are living in poverty. However, some argue that an adequate level of consumption goes beyond basic necessities, and includes things like education and health care. Therefore, the level of consumption below which poverty occurs is a question for debate.
Group 3 - Individuals & Societies
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Power
Power of individuals and of groups can be defined as a capacity to make things happen. In economics, power is the ability to make choices about what to produce, how to produce it, and who gets the goods that are produced. Power can be more centralized, as in a command economy where economic choices are made by the government, or monopoly/oligopoly situations where economic choices are made by a few large firms. Power can also be decentralized, as in a free market economy where many firms and consumers share power.
Group 3 - Individuals & Societies
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PresentationThe choice of medium, tool, and exhibition or performance space that contributes to audience understanding of the meaning or purpose of the art piece.Group 6 - Arts
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PurposeIn literary terms, the creator’s intentions in producing the text. This concept could also engage students in exploration of meaning, thesis/argument, gender, age, bias, persuasive techniques, function, critical stance, message and cultureGroup 1 - Language & Literature
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PurposeThe purpose for communicating can be, for example, to entertain, to recount, to socialize, to inquire, to inform, to persuade, to explain, to instruct. In literary terms, the creator’s intentions in producing the text. This concept could also engage students in exploration of meaning, thesis/argument, gender, age, bias, persuasive techniques, function, critical stance, message.Group 2 - Language Acquisition
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QuantityAn amount or number.Group 5 - Mathematics
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RefinementRefinement is the process of modifying something to enhance its overall effectiveness. Refinement can occur in relation to personal behaviours, thought processes, techniques, tactics and strategies. Refinements are made based on internal and/or external feedback.Group 7 - Physical and Health Education
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RepresentationThe manner in which something is presented.Group 5 - Mathematics
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RepresentationThe description, depiction or portrayal of a person, group, place or item in a particular way or as being of a certain nature. An image or likeness.Group 6 - Arts
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ResourcesResources relate to the supply of a commodity. In MYP design, these commodities can be classified as information, materials and equipment.Group 8 - Design
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Resources
Resources are the things we use to make the products that meet our needs and wants. Economists also call them factors of production and place them in four general categories: land, labour, capital and entrepreneurship/management. Entrepreneurs combine land, labour and capital in different ways in order to produce different goods and services. For example, the owner (entrepreneur) of a fruit and vegetable store combines fruits and vegetables (natural resources/land) with the building in which the store is located (capital) and his or her work and that of his or her employees (labour) to provide a product to consumers (fruit and vegetables available in a convenient location).
Group 3 - Individuals & Societies
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RoleThe development, adoption and portrayal of a character. The performer has to consider how to communicate the character’s psychology, emotions and physicality. This is concerned with examining situations, issues, concepts and texts from the perspective of a role. Different approaches, ideas and texts can be used to create and portray a character. The individual roles of instruments can be harmonic, rhythmic or melodic.Group 6 - Arts
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Scarcity
A good is scarce when the demand for it is greater than the supply at a price of zero. Charging prices for goods helps us address the problem of scarcity. Scarcity arises from the fact that our needs and wants are unlimited, while the resources available to meet those needs and wants are limited. This forces us to choose which wants and needs to satisfy and which not to satisfy. The wants and needs we do not satisfy represent the costs for those that we do. For example, if we choose to use our resources to make televisions rather than books, then the cost of the televisions is the books we could not make after having used our resources on televisions. This economic understanding of cost is often called “opportunity cost”.
Group 3 - Individuals & Societies
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Self-expressionThe expression of one’s feelings, thoughts or ideas, especially in writing, art, music, dance, design and film. This umbrella concept includes an exploration of essential understandings about identity, voice (personal), inspiration, imagination, sensitivity, critical stance and process.Group 1 - Language & Literature
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SettingThe time and the place in which the action of a book, film, play, and so on happens. Setting may also include mood and atmosphere.Group 1 - Language & Literature
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SimplificationThe process of reducing to a less complicated form.Group 5 - Mathematics
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SpaceThe frame of geometrical dimensions describing an entity.Group 5 - Mathematics
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SpaceSpace refers to the physical dimensions of a playing or performance area (for example, a badminton court), the distance between people or objects (for example offensive and defensive lines in field sports), and the opportunity to experience something (for example, space to discover identity). Space can be created, adapted, determined, used, taken, won and lost; therefore “space” is rarely absolute.Group 7 - Physical and Health Education
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StructureThe way in which a poem or play or other piece of writing has been put together, and the relationships of different parts of a text to each other and to the text as a complex whole. This can include exploring metre pattern, stanza arrangement and the way the ideas are developed. Structure requires essential understandings about plot, narrative, discourse, form, transformation, thesis/argument, syntax, foreshadowing and flashbacks.Group 1 - Language & Literature
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StructureStructure refers to the organization, pattern and elements of text, in any format. It promotes comprehension and effectiveness of communication. For example, this may involve an introduction, development and conclusion (as in some types of formal essay)Group 2 - Language Acquisition
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StructureThis refers to the shape, timing and organization of the art and the factors that determine how a piece or performance is shaped. It takes into consideration form, function, narrative, melody, harmony, contrast, focus and the construction of smaller parts to create a whole.Group 6 - Arts
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StyleThe characteristic way that a writer uses linguistic devices, literary devices and features for particular purposes and effects; for example, word choice, sentence structure, figurative devices, repetition, motif, allusion, imagery and symbolism.Group 1 - Language & Literature
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