Inheritance, variation and evolution checklist
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Inheritance, Variation and evolution (Combined Science)
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4.6.1 ReproductionDescribe features of sexual and asexual reproduction
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Describe what happens during meiosis and compare to mitosis
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Describe what happens at fertilisation
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Describe the structure of DNA and its role in storing genetic information inside the cell
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Explain the term 'genome' and the importance of the human genome (specific examples from spec only)
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Describe how characteristics are controlled by one or more genes, including examples
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Explain important genetic terms: gamete, chromosome, gene, allele, genotype, phenotype, dominant, recessive, homozygous and heterozygous
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Explain and use Punnet square diagrams, genetic crosses and family trees
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HT ONLY: Construct Punnet square diagrams to predict the outcomes of a monohybrid cross
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Describe cystic fibrosis and polydactyly as examples of inherited disorders
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Evaluate social, economic and ethical issues concerning embryo screening when given appropriate information
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Describe how the chromosomes are arranged in human body cells, including the function of the sex chromosomes
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Explain how sex is determined and carry out a genetic cross to show sex inheritance
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4.6.2 Variation and evolutionDescribe what variation is and how it can be caused within a population
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Describe mutations and explain their influence on phenotype and changes in a species
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Explain the theory of evolution by natural selection
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Describe how new species can be formed
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Describe what selective breeding is
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Explain the process of selective breeding, including examples of desired characteristics and risks associated with selective breeding
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Describe what genetic engineering is, including examples, and how it is carried out
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Explain some benefits, risks and concerns related to genetic engineering
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HT ONLY: Explain the process of genetic engineering, to include knowledge of enzymes and vectors
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4.6.3 The development of understanding of genetics and evolutionDescribe some sources of evidence for evolution
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Describe what fossils are, how they are formed and what we can learn from them
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Explain why there are few traces of the early life forms, and the consequences of this in terms of our understanding of how life began
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Describe some of the causes of extinction
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Describe how antibiotic-resistant strains of bacteria can arise and spread (inc MRSA)
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Describe how the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria can be reduced and controlled, to include the limitations of antibiotic development
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4.6.4 Classification Describe how organisms are named and classified in the Linnaean system
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Explain how scientific advances have led to the proposal of new models of classification, inc three-domain system
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Describe and interpret evolutionary trees
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