ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZAA
1
Study/ReleaseTest TypeInfected (%)
Undercount/
Ascertainment Bias
Regional
IFR (%)
PopulationLink
2
Belgium studySerological6.40Hospital workers, students etc
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2767382?guestAccessKey=2c09fc03-d85b-4333-82c7-effc17189baf&utm_source=silverchair&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=article_alert-jama&utm_content=olf&utm_term=061520
3
Geneva studySerological7.90Household survey
https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0140673620313040?via%3Dihub
4
Israeli StudySerological2.5010.000.14Israeli Population
http://archive.is/5RIOw
5
UK Survey (ONS)PCR2.40
Random households with multiple tests per household
https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/coronaviruscovid19infectionsurveypilot/28may2020
6
UK Survey (ONS)Serological6.78
Random households with multiple tests per household
https://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/healthandsocialcare/conditionsanddiseases/bulletins/coronaviruscovid19infectionsurveypilot/28may2020
7
IFR Extrapolation from NYC DataSerological25.0025.000.86NYC extrapolated to US
https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=3590771
8
NYC Antibody Respons StudySerological50.0021.000.39
NYC self-selected antibody testing
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.23.20111427v1.full.pdf
9
Swedish Continuous StudySerological5.0042.000.23Swedish Citizens
https://www.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/nyheter-och-press/nyhetsarkiv/2020/maj/forsta-resultaten-fran-pagaende-undersokning-av-antikroppar-for-covid-19-virus/
10
LA CountySerological4.6543.000.07LA County
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2766367
11
Milan StudySerological10.807.301.19Milan Population
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.11.20098442v1.full
12
Global IFR EstimateMeta-analysis0.386.291.04Global meta-analysis of data
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.11.20098780v1
13
Luxembourg StudySerological1.973.500.71Luxembourg Population
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.11.20092916v1
14
French StudySerological/PCR4.4015.000.70French Population
https://science.sciencemag.org/content/early/2020/05/12/science.abc3517
15
IUPUI StudySerological2.807.390.58Hoosier Population
https://news.iu.edu/stories/2020/05/iupui/releases/13-preliminary-findings-impact-covid-19-indiana-coronavirus.html
16
Continuous Spanish StudySerological5.5010.050.80Whole Spanish Population
https://www.isciii.es/Noticias/Noticias/Paginas/Noticias/PrimerosDatosEstudioENECOVID19.aspx
17
London HCW ScreeningPCR7.1035.000.54London Health Care Workers
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(20)31100-4/fulltext
18
Second Switzerland StudySerological9.709.550.50Geneva
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.02.20088898v1.full.pdf
19
SF StudyPCR1.407.040.25Mission District Latinx Population
https://www.ucsf.edu/news/2020/05/417356/initial-results-mission-district-covid-19-testing-announced
20
Czech StudySerological0.405.000.59Czech Population
https://medicalxpress.com/news/2020-05-czech-covid-incidence-population.html
21
Slovenia StudySerological3.3045.000.16Slovenian Population
https://www.gov.si/en/news/2020-05-06-first-study-carried-out-on-herd-immunity-of-the-population-in-the-whole-territory-of-slovenia/
22
Super-spreader StudyPCR15.505.000.36
Super-spreader event in Germany
https://www.ukbonn.de/C12582D3002FD21D/vwLookupDownloads/Streeck_et_al_Infection_fatality_rate_of_SARS_CoV_2_infection2.pdf/%24FILE/Streeck_et_al_Infection_fatality_rate_of_SARS_CoV_2_infection2.pdf
23
Swedish Serological StudySerological10.0025.000.18Stockholm
https://www.kth.se/aktuellt/nyheter/10-procent-av-stockholmarna-smittade-1.980727
24
Idaho StudySerological/PCR1.7913.000.17Boise Population
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.27.20082362v1
25
HCW Madrid StudySerological/PCR11.2031.000.56Madrid Hospital Workers
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.27.20082289v1
26
Iranian StudySerological33.00543.000.12Guilan province, Iran
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.26.20079244v1
27
Kobe Serology StudySerological2.70627.000.06Kobe, Japan
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.26.20079822v1.full.pdf
28
Total COVID-19 Mortality in ItalyPCR67.0035.000.50Italy extrapolated to NYC
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.15.20067074v2
29
Danish Blood Donor StudySerological1.7011.000.08
Danish Blood Donors < 70 years old
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.24.20075291v1
30
Swedish StudySerological20.00105.000.11Swedish Hospital Workers
https://www.ds.se/om-oss/press2/#/pressreleases/var-femte-medarbetare-har-haft-covid-19-2994310
31
Continous New York State StudySerological19.9910.060.77New York City Residents
https://www.governor.ny.gov/news/amid-ongoing-covid-19-pandemic-governor-cuomo-announces-results-completed-antibody-testing
32
Italian Epidemic ReportPCR10.7030.000.40Italian Healthcare Workers
https://www.epicentro.iss.it/coronavirus/bollettino/Bollettino-sorveglianza-integrata-COVID-19_16-aprile-2020.pdf#page=13
33
International Medical Cluster StudySerological10.0050.000.03Moscow Residents
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-russia-antibodies/up-to-one-in-10-residents-of-moscow-may-have-had-coronavirus-infections-laboratory-idUSKCN2262Z7?utm_source=reddit.com
34
Miami-Dade StudySerological6.0015.000.20Miami-Dade Residents
https://www.miamiherald.com/news/coronavirus/article242260406.html?fbclid=IwAR2svgTSw4gmNvTrCl35bG1lYQtmqkMXOc4Sre_92zLdJx1Uyr1T6FeaR2U
35
New York StudySerological13.9011.200.56New York State Residents
https://www.governor.ny.gov/news/amid-ongoing-covid-19-pandemic-governor-cuomo-announces-statewide-antibody-testing-survey-will
36
Northern France StudySerological25.90582.000.00Oise high school students
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.18.20071134v1
37
Northern France StudySerological3.0069.000.50Oise blood donors
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.18.20071134v1
38
Ohio Prison DataPCR66.000.57Marion Correctional Institution
https://drc.ohio.gov/Portals/0/DRC%20COVID-19%20Information%2005-03-2020%201253.pdf
39
Ohio Prison DataPCR73.001.44Pickaway Correctional Institution
https://drc.ohio.gov/Portals/0/DRC%20COVID-19%20Information%2005-03-2020%201253.pdf
40
Greek Repatriation FlightsPCR6.3059.650.15Repatriated Barcelonians
https://academic.oup.com/jtm/article/doi/10.1093/jtm/taaa054/5820895
41
Switzerland StudySerological5.5010.000.40Geneva
https://www.hug-ge.ch/medias/communique-presse/seroprevalence-covid-19-premiere-estimation
42
LA County Flu SurveillancePCR5.00100.000.01LA Flu Surveillance
https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2764137?guestAccessKey=525fc308-4cd3-4670-ad73-15b8b019f2a8&utm_source=For_The_Media&utm_medium=referral&utm_campaign=ftm_links&utm_content=tfl&utm_term=033120&fbclid=IwAR002a6aaBUV-_4OMIzIofWAjp_DAbB8hZejGVA5BLOvrEUR68tVb1prP8A
43
Wuhan HospitalSerological10.0022.100.36Wuhan Region
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/jmv.25904
44
Chelesa DataSerological33.0030.100.71Chelesa Street Survey
https://www.bostonglobe.com/2020/04/17/business/nearly-third-200-blood-samples-taken-chelsea-show-exposure-coronavirus/?fbclid=IwAR3XQlYzGz7cMfc3nmQSAbG8jTICJ7nkG8ZMfH-fObf8QmQ2FYthvSiAEkQ
45
Santa Clara CountySerological2.8024.500.17Santa Clara County
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.14.20062463v2
46
Flu-like SurveillancePCR10.00100.000.05Flu Surveillance
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.01.20050542v2?fbclid=IwAR0ccDKohage1txFGvJ7kSZavLbhx1xUg_-UcxT_Kjq43rAKXh2GB-0Ttxc
47
Dutch SurveySerological3.0031.000.67Netherlands
https://www.researchsquare.com/article/rs-25862/v1
48
German SurveySerological14.0020.000.37Gangelt
https://www.uni-bonn.de/news/111-2020?set_language=en
49
Iceland Continous SamplingPCR1.000.28Iceland
https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa2006100
50
Finnish InstituteSerological3.406.000.39Helsinki
https://thl.fi/en/web/thlfi-en/-/number-of-people-with-coronavirus-infections-may-be-dozens-of-times-higher-than-the-number-of-confirmed-cases?fbclid=IwAR3bDYNRIQBQFxhJdrmjypoHtbk_thqb5E_ayR9IUU3FUGeXrP3oc6GwpS0
51
Scottish Blood DonorsSerological0.6020.00Scotland
https://figshare.com/articles/Serological_analysis_of_1000_Scottish_blood_donor_samples_for_anti-SARSCoV2_antibodies_collected_in_March_2020/12116778/2?fbclid=IwAR1wkF1QVZeAt6jDNmeWVJwBmK6Bo8zYPnBRJruvfOYqYO9qFEXuMndjpI8
52
Homeless SamplePCR36.0037.000.08Boston Homeless
https://www.wbur.org/commonhealth/2020/04/14/coronavirus-boston-homeless-testing?fbclid=IwAR0Ai5luXYXKOGLB8Y-znlk0yXakg5Q_R_mowEV1bU8AGt15VaC2a99Ft7g
53
Pregnant SamplePCR14.0017.000.53Pregnant Women in NYC
https://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMc2009316?fbclid=IwAR0MOuMrCb3xe0lfiNMZwND4FN_HSDimM_fLdBrmDXuWeJzLVc4bnKlH48M
54
Pregnant SamplePCR7.00143.000.05Pregnant Women in Sweden
https://www.svt.se/nyheter/inrikes/coronatestar-alla-gravida-pa-forlossningen-sju-procent-smittade?fbclid=IwAR2nGl4OLF0rduQVKr3YF4C1K54s45jIym8Y0eEpQTNlfriIkGKrDveCcG0
55
Madrid StudyPCR11.6031.000.54Madrid Hospital Workers
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.04.07.20055723v1?fbclid=IwAR0mg2DXxFZUNuzYuGuQOkwgQySH5_bUpwODJdWeWFONjCAbheml28hxPCs
56
Swedish StudyPCR2.5020.000.08Stockholm
https://www.folkhalsomyndigheten.se/nyheter-och-press/nyhetsarkiv/2020/april/resultat-fran-undersokning-av-forekomsten-av-covid-19-i-region-stockholm/?fbclid=IwAR2YDRAod3hXJ8CB0-2n3VB2ei30LFB3jsN6Ek9MolXitelycNv6ZpIrm-g
57
Denmark StudySerological70.000.05Capital Region
https://www.sst.dk/-/media/Udgivelser/2020/Corona/Status-og-strategi/COVID19_Status-6-uge.ashx?la=da&hash=6819E71BFEAAB5ACA55BD6161F38B75F1EB05999&fbclid=IwAR0yF9-CVqtvldch1wRB0d2esxDwzH-rjv3XRJq62Qt1WWAkR48BIMauvbI
58
Gibraltar StudyPCR2.007.000.00Gibraltar Region
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FnlMRUWSX2Q&fbclid=IwAR1UO7j5YD_QQnaBwCJRyk1fxr1j0_Vkr7pLJCmqvbvXHPt1FMB82BpYr0U
59
Private SF StudySerological0.5010.000.15Self-Selected SF Residents
https://twitter.com/friedberg/status/1245461209542868992?s=20&fbclid=IwAR2gmBbFnTMcp4pl2d-x8nkvQDXVRB3q-4h3Og3etHmxXZ4W5-g_NbyaABE
60
Italy Town SamplePCR70.0010.001.00Sample of whole Italian town
https://www.lastampa.it/topnews/primo-piano/2020/04/02/news/coronavirus-castiglione-d-adda-e-un-caso-di-studio-il-70-dei-donatori-di-sangue-e-positivo-1.38666481?fbclid=IwAR2w8-93Obhq4uRHpZYbbn-yEO_LjmCPMtQdXQ-wkkmCInIj9rxXJeEAwJc
61
San Miguel SampleSerological2.0015.000.00Sample of whole Colorado town
https://www.sanmiguelcountyco.gov/CivicAlerts.aspx?AID=511&fbclid=IwAR3XfQkv1OCSuOY-w1FkDCu0BDGnG07yf-D9_Ilne_Bd8oYAnJ80S6w2QZU
62
Italian AnalysisPCR5.001.00Repatriation Data
https://www.thelancet.com/journals/laninf/article/PIIS1473-3099(20)30227-9/fulltext?fbclid=IwAR3b9eOpxeQLbUxmxjFHGK2b2M2tM7dRerS0Y5cWPV6H6B1QPqZsN_GzDX0
63
Wuhan RepatriationPCR34.0046.000.12Repatriation Flights
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.02.12.20022434v2?fbclid=IwAR0xX_0fZLr2K0DCh9X8uIlbE1GJPnRpDikxBrah3UD14vRP21yI3kHDBR8
64
Wuhan Flu SurveillancePCR1.4020.00Wuhan Flu Data
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41564-020-0713-1
65
Covid-19 SimulationPCR0.60Repatriation Data
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.09.20033357v1.full.pdf?fbclid=IwAR3ATHWmq2CQRMGy95V-YV6LZ4hBZcXt2WJuKhmEBxuvcoHY9mdNM-HsB8E
66
Covid-19 SimulationPCR5.00Simulation
https://science.sciencemag.org/content/early/2020/03/24/science.abb3221.full?fbclid=IwAR3NQ_ybQnjzyysGQPvLsb-9zfKOoHYY22CJMMbry7-mCGEC1LYcTjQf0Z0
67
Early French AnalysisPCR8.000.80Simulation
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.03.22.20040915v4
68
Median Averages
20.000.38
69
70
Scientific analysis of these studies
https://www.medrxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.05.13.20101253v1
71
CDC use of 0.4% IFR for planning
https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/planning-scenarios.html
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80
81
82
83
84
85
86
87
88
89
90
91
92
93
94
95
96
97
98
99
100