rferl languages and language services
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ABCD
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(updated 4/12/2019)
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RFE/RL Broadcast services, languages and target audiences
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ServiceLanguageYearsTarget
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N. CaucasusAdygeMarch 18, 1953 to 1970sNorth Caucasus
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BalkanAlbanianMarch 8, 1999 to presentKosovo
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AlbanianAlbanianJune 1, 1951 to 1952Albania
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Radio Free IraqArabicOctober 30, 1998 to July 31, 2015Iraq
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ArmenianArmenianMarch 18, 1953 to presentArmenia
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N. CaucasusAvarMarch 18, 1953 to 1970'sNorth Caucasus
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N. CaucasusAvarApril 3, 2002 to May 31, 2016North Caucasus
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AzeriAzeriMarch 5, 1953 to presentAzerbaijan
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Tatar-BashkirBashkirearly 1990s to presentBashkortostan (Russia)
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BelarusBelarusianMay 20, 1954 to presentBelarus
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BalkanBosnianJanuary 31, 1994 to presentBosnia
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Bulgarian (7)BulgarianAugust 11, 1950 to January 31, 2004; January 21, 2019 to presentBulgaria
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CzechoslovakCarpatho-Ruthenian1954 to 1955Eastern Slovakia
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N. CaucasusChechenApril 3, 2002 to presentNorth Caucasus
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N. CaucasusChechenMarch 18, 1953 to 1970sNorth Caucasus
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N. CaucasusCircassianApril 3, 2002 to May 31, 2016North Caucasus
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Tatar-BashkirCrimean Tatar1960s to presentUkraine
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Balkan (5)CroatianJanuary 31, 1994 to September 2018Croatia / Bosnia
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"Current Time" (8)RussianFebruary 7, 2017 to presentRussian-speakers globally
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Czech ServiceCzechJanuary 1, 1993 to December 31, 1994Czech Republic
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CzechoslovakCzechJuly 4, 1950 to December 31, 1992Czechoslovakia
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RSE, Inc.CzechJanuary 1, 1995 to September 30, 2002Czech Republic
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Afghan (9)DariOctober 1, 1985 to October 19, 1993; January 30, 2002 to presentAfghanistan
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EstonianEstonian1975 to January 31, 2004Estonia
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GeorgianGeorgianMarch 3, 1953 to presentGeorgia
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HungarianHungarianAugust 4, 1950 to December 31, 1993Hungary
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N. CaucasusIngushMarch 18, 1953 to 1970sNorth Caucasus
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N. CaucasusKarachai-BalkarMarch 18, 1953 to 1970sNorth Caucasus
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N. CaucasusKarakalpak1960s to 1970sNorth Caucasus
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KazakhKazakhMarch 18, 1953 to presentKazakhstan
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KyrgyzKyrgyzMarch 18, 1953 to presentKyrgyzstan
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LatvianLatgallianJuly 5, 1975 to January 31, 2004Latvia
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LatvianLatvianJuly 5, 1975 to January 31, 2004Latvia
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LithuanianLithuanianFebruary 16, 1975 to January 31, 2004Lithuania
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BalkanMacedonianSeptember 1, 2001 to presentMacedonia
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Balkan (2)MontenegrinJune 1, 2000 to presentMontenegro
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N. CaucasusOssetianMarch 18, 1953 to 1970sNorth Caucasus
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Afghan (9)PashtoSeptember 1987 to October 19, 1993; January 30, 2002 to presentAfghanistan
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Radio MashaalPashtoJanuary 15, 2010 to presentPakistan NW border region
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Persian (Azadi Radio/Radio Farda) (4)
PersianOctober 30, 1998 to presentIran
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PolishPolishAugust 4, 1950 to December 31, 1994Poland
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RWE, Inc.PolishJanuary 1, 1995 to 1997Poland
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Moldova (3)Romanian1998 to presentMoldova
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Romanian (6)RomanianJuly 14, 1950 to August 1, 2008; January 14, 2019 to presentRomania
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Russian (1)RussianMarch 1, 1953 to presentRussia / former Soviet republics
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Georgian (Ekho Kavkaza)RussianNovember 2, 2009 to presentAbkhazia / South Ossetia (Georgia)
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LatvianRussianFebruary 2001 to January 31, 2004Latvia
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BalkanSerbianJanuary 31, 1994 to presentSerbia / Bosnia
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CzechoslovakSlovakJuly 4, 1950 to December 31, 1992Czechoslovakia
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SlovakSlovakJanuary 4, 1993 to January 31, 2004Slovakia
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TajikTajikMarch 18, 1953 to presentTajikistan
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Tatar-BashkirTatarDecember 11, 1953 to presentTatarstan (Russia)
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TurkmenTurkmenMarch 2, 1953 to presentTurkmenistan
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UkrainianUkrainianAugust 16, 1954 to presentUkraine
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UyghurUyghurOctober 1966 to February 15, 1979Soviet Central Asia
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UzbekUzbekMarch 18, 1953 to presentUzbekistan
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*** RFE/RL no longer broadcasts in the italicized languages
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Notes:
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(1) Russian Service broadcast to Soviet Forces in Eastern Europe and Cuba, 1950s-1960s
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(2) Balkan Service special program for Montenegro started July 2000
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(3) Romanian Service continued broadcasting to its audience in Moldova after 2008 end of broadcasting to Romania. Some Moldovans call their language Moldovan, as distinct from Romanian.
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(4) RFE/RL's Persian Service (Radio Azadi) operated from October 30, 1998 to December 1, 2002. Radio Azadi staff, along with VOA Persian Service staff, were combined into a joint "Radio Farda" that operated from December 19, 2002-July 7, 2008, when management of Radio Farda was consolidated under RFE/RL, where it continues operations to the present.
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(5) Balkan Service ended standalone broadcasting in Croatian on December 1, 2003, but continued to use Croatian as part of its regional programming for the Balkans until FY2018.
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(6) RFE/RL ended broadcasts to Romania in August 2008; content production for Romanian audiences resumed in January 2019.
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(7) RFE/RL ended broadcasts in Bulgarian in January 2004; content production for Bulgarian audiences resumed in January 2019.
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(8) "Current Time" began on October 14, 2014 as a 30-minute news program jointly produced by RFE/RL and Voice of America; continuous expansion of the Service culminated in the February 7, 2017 debut of the 24/7 digital and TV channel, led by RFE/RL in cooperations with VOA.
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(9) Afghan Service between 1985 and 1993 was known as "Radio Free Afghanistan."
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