rferl languages and language services
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ABCD
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(updated 8/22/2016)
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RFE/RL Broadcast services, languages and target audiences
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ServiceLanguageYearsTarget
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N. CaucasusAdygeMarch 18, 1953 to 1970sNorth Caucasus
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BalkanAlbanianMarch 8, 1999 to presentKosovo
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AlbanianAlbanianJune 1, 1951 to 1952Albania
8
Radio Free IraqArabic
October 30, 1998 to July 31, 2015
Iraq
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ArmenianArmenianMarch 18, 1953 to presentArmenia
10
N. CaucasusAvarMarch 18, 1953 to 1970'sNorth Caucasus
11
N. CaucasusAvarApril 3, 2002 to May 31, 2016North Caucasus
12
AzeriAzeriMarch 5, 1953 to presentAzerbaijan
13
Tatar-BashkirBashkirearly 1990s to presentBashkortostan (Russia)
14
BelarusBelarusianMay 20, 1954 to presentBelarus
15
BalkanBosnianJanuary 31, 1994 to presentBosnia
16
BulgarianBulgarianfall 1950 to January 31, 2004Bulgaria
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CzechoslovakCarpatho-Ruthenian1954 to 1955Eastern Slovakia
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N. CaucasusChechenApril 3, 2002 to presentNorth Caucasus
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N. CaucasusChechenMarch 18, 1953 to 1970sNorth Caucasus
20
N. CaucasusCircassianApril 3, 2002 to May 31, 2016North Caucasus
21
Tatar-BashkirCrimean Tatar1960s to presentUkraine
22
BalkanCroatianJanuary 31, 1994 to presentCroatia / Bosnia
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Czech ServiceCzech
January 1, 1993 to December 31, 1994
Czech Republic
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CzechoslovakCzech
July 4, 1950 to December 31, 1992
Czechoslovakia
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RSE, Inc.Czech
January 1, 1995 to September 30, 2002
Czech Republic
26
Afghan (Radio Azadi)DariJanuary 30, 2002 to presentAfghanistan
27
Radio Free AfghanistanDari
October 1, 1985 to October 19, 1993
Afghanistan
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EstonianEstonian1975 to January 31, 2004Estonia
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GeorgianGeorgianMarch 3, 1953 to presentGeorgia
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HungarianHungarian
August 4, 1950 to December 31, 1993
Hungary
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N. CaucasusIngushMarch 18, 1953 to 1970sNorth Caucasus
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N. CaucasusKarachai-BalkarMarch 18, 1953 to 1970sNorth Caucasus
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N. CaucasusKarakalpak1960s to 1970sNorth Caucasus
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KazakhKazakhMarch 18, 1953 to presentKazakhstan
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KyrgyzKyrgyzMarch 18, 1953 to presentKyrgyzstan
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LatvianLatgallian1975 to January 31, 2004Latvia
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LatvianLatvian1975 to January 31, 2004Latvia
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LithuanianLithuanian1975 to January 31, 2004Lithuania
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BalkanMacedonianSeptember 1, 2001 to presentMacedonia
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Balkan (2)MontenegrinJune 1, 2000 to presentMontenegro
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N. CaucasusOssetianMarch 18, 1953 to 1970sNorth Caucasus
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Afghan (Radio Azadi)PashtoJanuary 30, 2002 to presentAfghanistan
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Radio MashaalPashtoJanuary 15, 2010 to presentPakistan NW border region
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Radio Free AfghanistanPashto
September 1987 to October 19, 1993
Afghanistan
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Persian (Azadi Radio/Radio Farda) (4)
PersianOctober 30, 1998 to presentIran
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PolishPolish
August 4, 1950 to December 31, 1994
Poland
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RWE, Inc.PolishJanuary 1, 1995 to 1997Poland
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Romania/Moldova (3)Romanian1998 to presentMoldova
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RomanianRomanianJuly 4, 1950 to August 1, 2008Romania
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Russian (1)RussianMarch 1, 1953 to present
Russia / former Soviet republics
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Georgian (Ekho Kavkaza)RussianNovember 2, 2009 to present
Abkhazia / South Ossetia (Georgia)
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LatvianRussianFeb. 2001 to January 31, 2004Latvia
53
BalkanSerbianJanuary 31, 1994 to presentSerbia / Bosnia
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CzechoslovakSlovak
July 4, 1950 to December 31, 1992
Czechoslovakia
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SlovakSlovak
January 1, 1993 to January 31, 2004
Slovakia
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TajikTajikMarch 18, 1953 to presentTajikistan
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Tatar-BashkirTatarDecember 11, 1953 to presentTatarstan (Russia)
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TurkmenTurkmenMarch 2, 1953 to presentTurkmenistan
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UkrainianUkrainianAugust 16, 1954 to presentUkraine
60
UyghurUyghur
October 1966 to February 15, 1979
Soviet Central Asia
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UzbekUzbekMarch 18, 1953 to presentUzbekistan
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*** RFE/RL no longer broadcasts in the italicized languages
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Notes:
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(1) Russian Service broadcast to Soviet Forces in Eastern Europe and Cuba, 1950s-1960s
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(2) Balkan Service special program for Montenegro started July 2000
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(3) Romanian Service continued broadcasting to its audience in Moldova after 2008 end of broadcasting to Romania. Some Moldovans call their language Moldovan, as distinct from Romanian.
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(4) RFE/RL's Persian Service (Radio Azadi) operated from October 30, 1998 to December 1, 2002. Radio Azadi staff, along with VOA Persian Service staff, were combined into a joint "Radio Farda" that operated from December 19, 2002-July 7, 2008, when management of Radio Farda was consolidated under RFE/RL, where it continues operations to the present.
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