FCS Terms and Definitions
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Franklin Community Schools Common Terms, Definitions, Tools, Resources
21st Century SkillsThe Framework presents a holistic view of 21st century teaching and learning that combines a discrete focus on 21st century student outcomes(a blending of specific skills, content knowledge, expertise and literacies) with innovative support systems to help students master the multi-dimensional abilities required of them in the 21st century.http://www.p21.org/
5 Big (or Key) Components of ReadingPhonemic Awareness(ability to hear, identify, and manipulate the individual sounds in spoken words), Phonics (understanding of the relationships between letters or written language and sounds of spoken language), Fluency (ability to read text accurately and quickly with proper expression), Vocabulary (words we must know to communicate effectively), and Comprehension(understanding the meaning of what is read and the strategies readers use to make sense of text).
6+ 1 TraitsThe 6+1 Trait® Writing analytical model for assessing and teaching writing is made up of 6+1 key qualities that define strong writing. These are: ideas, organization, voice, word choice, sentence fluency, conventions, presentation)http://educationnorthwest.org/resource/503
Academic GrowthAcademic growth is a measure of a student’s progress over time. It requires a consistent longitudinal metric that can provide an “apples to apples” comparisons. Examples of growth models of success are Value-Added and Hybrid Success.
AcceleratedAcceleration is the practice of offering curriculum at a faster rate than normal for students who are considered capable to handle the additional rigor. Common examples of acceleration include honors classes, advanced placement classes, grade skipping, and early college entrance.Education. Com
AccommodationsChanges in the way tests are designed or administered to respond to the special needs of students with disabilities and English learners (EL). Accommodations might include allowing a student to take more time for a test or using Braille forms of the assessment. http://www.edsource.org/
Action ResearchSystematic investigation by teachers of some aspect of their work in order to improve their effectiveness. Involves a question. A process of collective inquiry in which individuals work together to become more
proficient at identifying and solving problems. The steps of action research include: (1) formulating problem, (2) identifying and implementing a strategy to address the problem, (3) creating a rocess for gathering evidence of the effectiveness of the strategy, (4) ollecting and analyzing the vidence, and (4) making decisions based on the evidence. (Defining a daily problem, tracking this problem, coming up with strategies to solve the porblem, collecting data to see if it worked) (5) evaluating the decision
AcuityAcuity is an assessment system designed to support both interim and formative assessment programs. It integrates classroom-friendly assessments, instructional resources, reporting, and customization opportunities.
Advanced Placement (AP)College-level courses that a student can take in high school. Students who participate in the Program not only gain college-level skills, but in many cases they also earn college credit while they are still in high school. http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/home
ASCDAssociation for Supervision and Curriculum Development
AssessmentMeasuring the learning and performance of students or teachers. Different types of assessment instruments include achievement tests, minimum competency tests, developmental screening tests, aptitude tests, observation instruments, performance tasks, and authentic assessments. The effectiveness of a particular approach to assessment depends on its suitability for the intended purpose. ASCD Lexicon of Learning
Assessment, Common An assessment typically created collaboratively by a team of teachers responsible for the same grade level or course. Common formative assessments are used frequently throughout the year to identify (1) individual students who need additional time and support for learning, (2) the teaching strategies most effective in helping students acquire the intended knowledge and skills, (3) curriculum concerns—areas in which students generally are having difficulty achieving the intended standard—and (4) improvement goals for individual teachers and the team.http://www.allthingsplc.info/
Assessment, Criteria (Criterion)Assessments designed to measure how thoroughly a student has learned a particular body of knowledge without regard to how well other students have learned it. Most nationally standardized achievement tests are norm-referenced, meaning that a student's performance is compared to how well students in the norming group did when the test was normed. Criterion-referenced tests are directly related to the curriculum of a particular school district or state and are scored according to fixed criteria.http://www.ascd.org/Publications/Lexicon-of-Learning/Lexicon-of-Learning.aspx
Assessment, FormativeAn assessment for learning used to advance and not merely monitor each student’s learning; the assessment informs the teacher regarding the effectiveness of instruction and the individual student regarding progress in becoming proficient. The checks for understanding that individual teachers use in the classroom on a daily basis are examples of formative assessments. In a Professional Learning Community (PLC), collaborative teams also use common formative assessments to (1) identify students who are experiencing difficulty in their learning, (2) provide those student with additional time and support in a way that does not remove them from new direct instruction, and (3) give them additional opportunities to demonstrate their learninghttp://www.allthingsplc.info/
Assessment, Norm-referenced (Normative)An assessment designed to compare the performance of an individual or group with a larger “norm” group typically representing a national sample with a wide and diverse cross-section of students http://www.allthingsplc.info/
Assessment, Performance-basedAn assessment that requires students to demonstrate learning through demonstration or completion of a task (for example, essays, oral presentations, open-ended problems, labs, or real-world simulations). Prior to administering a common performance-based assessment, a collaborative team in a PLC must (1) agree on the criteria by which members will judge the quality of student work and (2) demonstrate that they apply those criteria consistently—establish interrater reliability. http://www.allthingsplc.info/
Assessment, SummativeAn assessment of learning (Stiggins, 2002) designed to provide a final measure to determine if learning goals have been met (Ainsworth & Viegut, 2006). Summative assessments yield a dichotomy(division of two parts): pass or fail, proficient or not proficient. Additional timely support or feedback is typically not forthcoming.(Stiggins, 2002) (Ainsworth & Viegut, 2006)
AutonomyPersonal independence and the capacity to make moral decisions and act on them.
Autonomy with frameworkRelated to the “loose-tight” concept. A management style that creates conditions for people to do their best work around consistent and common goals, rather than closely supervising and monitoring their actions. Participants must feel autonomous in their work.Drive - Daniel Pink, 2009, pp. 106-108)
Basal ReadingInstruction that develops reading skills through the use of a series of reading materials which are designed in sequential steps for successive levels of achievement. Education. Com
BaselineAn initial observation or measurement that serves as a comparison upon which to determine student progress; level of performance at the "start" of data collection
Bell WorkA quick problem presented to the students at the beginning of each class period. Problems emphasize reading comprehension or problem sloving. All teachers, regardless of subject area, use bell work as a quick method to begin class and reinforce content or school goals.
Benchmark AssessmentA detailed description of a specific level of student achievement expected of students at particular ages, grades, or developmental levels; academic goals set for each grade levelEdSource
Blended LearningAny time a student learns, at leastin part, at a supervised brick-and-mortar location away from home, and at least in part, through online delivery with some element of student control over time, place, path, and/or pace. Alliance for Excellent Education
Block(Also referred to as "block scheduling", "literacy block", "math block", "60 or 90 minute block) Blocks provide classroom teachers with an uninterrupted amount of time to focus on a specific subject or topic. Unlike a class "period", the blocks are longer periods of time that allow the teacher to implement learning strategies that cannot be accomplished in a shorter period of time.
Bloom's TaxonomyA classification of levels of intellectual behavior important in learning. Developed by Benjamin Bloom in 1956. Note that during the 1990s a group of congnitive psychologists updated the taxonomy to reflect relevance to 21st century work. See also, Depth of Knowledge.
BOYBeginning of Year. This term is used often when looking at assessment data.
Building Based Support Team (BBST) A team of staff helping to determine if interventions are needed and if so, which ones.
Circuit BreakerThe cap on property taxes resulting in a decrease in funding to school districts whose taxing entities cannot support advertised tax levies.
Co-TeachingCo-teaching exists as a means for providing the specially designed instruction to which students with disabilities are entitled while ensuring access to general curriculum in the least restrictive environment with the provision of supplementary aids and services. Two or more professionals with equivalent licensure and employment status are the participants in co-teaching.

Marilyn Friend
COACHIs the term used for the resource time on Wednesday's at FCHS. It is used for academic help as well as class meetings. The name is derived from the vision statement of FCHS.
Cognitive Abilities Test (CogAT)A group administered cognitive abilities test the measures verbal, nonverbal, and quantitative abilities to combine into a composite score that uses the IQ scale (100 is average).
CohortA particular group of people with something in common. For instance, a cohort might be a group of students who had been taught an interdisciplinary curriculum by a team of middle high school teachers. Researchers might want to track their progress into high school to identify differences in success of students in the cohort compared with students who had attended conventional classes in the same school.ASCD Lexicon of Learning
CollaborationWorking together and interacting actively to achieve a shared goal (Versus cooperation which is merely working in harmony with others)
Collaborative LearningCollaborative learning is not ability grouping and must be purposefully constructed to allow for maximum success as well it is not a time to introduce new learning. Students are able to consolidate their thinking through the interaction of their peers on concepts explored through modeling and guided practice.
Collective InquiryThe process of building shared knowledge by clarifying the questions that a group will explore together. In PLCs, educators engage in collective inquiry into more effective practices by examining both external evidence (such as research) and internal evidence (which teachers are getting the best results). They also build shared knowledge regarding the reality of the current practices and conditions in their schools or districts.http://www.allthingsplc.info/pdf/links/terms.pdf
College-readinessFormal expectations for what students will need to know and be able to do in order to be admitted to state’s two-year and/or four-year institutions and enroll in credit-bearing courses. State approaches to defining college readiness have been classified into the following categories: courses, skills, standards, and tests. Some states’ definitions may include elements that do not fall into categories established for this analysis. EdWeek
Common Core State Standards (CCSS)Standards developed by state-led groups from throughout the U.S. that define the knowledge and skills students should have within their K-12 education careers so that they will graduate high school able to succeed in entry-level, credit-bearing academic college courses, and in workforce training programs. Resource Page for INCC
Compass LearningCompass Learning is a personalized education software, a suite of learning solutions that includes lessons and activities based on current and confirmed research about the way today’s students think and learn. Odyssey curricula for primary and secondary students facilitates differentiated and personalized instruction, while formative assessments and reporting tools help drive data-driven decision making. - See more at: http://www.compasslearning.com/odyssey#sthash.CGJUHRAv.dpuf
Content GoalWhat the students are expected to learn in a given class period
Core 40Indiana's Core 40 is the academic foundation all students need to succeed in college, apprenticeship programs, military training and the workforce.  Click here on the link for more information on Indiana's course and credit requirements for a high school diploma. IN Dept of Education
CPS/DCSChild Protective Services/Department of Child Services
Cultural CompetencyFramework that enables teachers and administrators to educate students from diverse backgrounds
CurriculumThe courses of study offered by a school or district.
DashboardFCS uses a visual, dynamic dashboard for tracking progress toward building and district-wide goals. It provides performance summaries for each school under the district-wide umbrella of goals. The dashboard is designed to show goals and related data.
Data Factual information, often in the form of facts or figures obtained from assessments, experiments, or surveys, used as a basis for making calculations or drawing conclusions. Data are typically the results of measurements and can be visualised using graphs or images. Data as an abstract concept can be viewed as the lowest level of abstraction from which information and then knowledge are derived.
Data Team LeaderA data team leader facilitates the work of data teams by building and edifying the work of the team, summarizing, clarifying and building consensus. Reeves (modified)
Data TeamsSee Professional Learrning Community (PLC)
Data WallA data wall provides a visual representation of data relative to student progress and is typically used to track progress of students (individually or in groups) as a component of the professional learning community or data team process.
Data-Informed Process for ResultsCollaboration of FCS teachers and admininstrators to review individual student achievement data, set goals, develop strategies, evaluate progress with a set timeline.Reeves (modified)
DEAR timeDrop Everything and Read
DecodingDecoding refers to the process of translating a printed word into a sound. Education. Com
Depth of KnowledgeA taxonomy for learning, teaching, and assessing that focuses on complexity of content standards in order to successfully complete an assessment or task. The outcome (product) is the focus of the depth of understanding.Source
DesCartes (pronounces dA kart')DesCartes translates NWEA-MAP test scores into skills and concepts students may be ready to learn. It orders specific reading, language usage, mathematics, and science skills and concepts by achievement level. For reading, language usage, and mathematics, the skills and concepts align to the goal structures and content of a state’s standards. For science, the skills and concepts align to national standards for the two domains of science: concepts and processes and general science. For easy reference, the skills and concepts are grouped along the continuum according to the measurement scale.
DIBELS Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills - DIBELS is comprised of a series of one-minute assessments that indicate students' progress toward competence and chances for success in the literacy areas of letter naming fluency, initial sound fluency, phoneme segmentation fluency, oral reading and retell fluency, and word use fluency. Now called "First sound fluency".https://dibels.uoregon.edu/
DIBELS ® MathDIBELS Math is an assessment system that includes measures of early numeracy and computation for kindergarten through fifth grade. http://dibels.org/dibelsmath.html
Differentiated Instruction (DI)Providing students with different avenues to acquiring content; to processing, constructing, or making sense of ideas; and to developing teaching materials so that all students within a classroomcan learn effectively, regardless of differences in abilityhttp://www.ascd.org/research-a-topic/differentiated-instruction-resources.aspx
Digital LearningAny instructional practice that is effectively using technology to strengthen the student learning experience. Digital learning encompasses a wide spectrum of tools andpractice, kncluding jsing online and formative assessment, increasing focus and quality of teaching resources and time, onlyine content and courses, application of tehnology in the classroom and school building, adaptive softward for students with special needs, learning platforms, participating in professional communities of practice, and providing access to high level and challenging content and instruction, and many other advancements technology provides to teaching and learning.Alliance for Excellent Education
Discovery Science © Discovery Science is a digital science curriculum resource. The Discovery Science instructional model is developed around the five E’s: Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate. http://www.discoveryeducation.com/teachers/index.cfm?campaign=flyout_teachers
Distance LearningUsing technology, interactively, between teachers, students, presenters, in different locations
DMAICDMAIC, which is pronounced "de-may-ick," is a tool for improving an existing process. The steps can be summarized as follows. Define: State the problem, specify the customer set, identify the goals, and outline the target process. Measure: Decide what parameters need to be quantified, work out the best way to measure them and collect the necessary data. Analyze: Identify gaps between actual and goal performance, determine causes of those gaps, determine how process inputs affect outputs, and rank improvement opportunities. Improve: Devise potential solutions, identify solutions that are easiest to implement, test hypothetical solutions, and implement actual improvements. Control: Generate a detailed solution monitoring plan, observe implemented improvements for success and update plan records on a regular basis. (See "Six Sigma")
DNPDid Not Pass ISTEP +
Dolch WordsEdward William Dolch, PhD, published the Dolch word list in his book "Problems in Reading" in 1948. He had researched children's books to determine which words were most frequently used. Dolch believed that learning his list of 220 "service words" would speed the development of reading fluency in children learning to read.http://www.dolchword.net
Dynamic Reporting SuiteDynamic Reporting Suite is a suite of data anaylsis tools to apply NWEA-MAP test scores directly to instruction. The Dynamic Reporting Suite provides reports that are tailored for all members of a student's learning team. Results are timely, allowing you to use the information when it has the greatest impact. This suite of reports visually portrays student achievement so educators can immediately take action to improve learning.
End-of-course assessmentsEnd-of-course assessments are exams required by the Indiana Department of Education for high school students. The assessments are given to students in Algebra I, English 10, and Biology 1.IDOE
Engagement (Learner or Student)Learner Engagement is extent to which all learners (1) are motivated and committed to learning, (2) have a sense of belonging and accomplishment, and (3) have relationships with adults, peers, and parents that support learning. Indicators include attendance rate and participation rates in extracurricular activities. Students need to be engaged before they can apply higher order, creative thinking skills. They learn most effectively when the teacher makes sense and meaning of the curriculum material being taught. This can only happen if the teacher has created a safe learning environment that encourages students to meet challenges and apply high rigor skills to real-world, unpredictable situations inside and outside of school.
English Language Learner (ELL) English Language Learner (ELL) used to be referred to as Limited English Proficient (LEP). The terms refers to students who receiving services of language assistance such as English as a Second Language. It does not refer to students who are learning a language other than English. Includes students who were not born in the United States and/or students whose primary language is non-English. The services provided to these students are necessary because the language barrier limits their capacity to learn. ELL services are intended to bridge that gap to assist these students until they master the English language.teaching.about.com
EOYEnd of Year. This term is used often when looking at assessment data.
Essential Learnings (Essential Outcomes) (Power Standards)The critical skills, knowledge, and dispositions each student must acquire as a result of each course, grade level, and unit of instruction. Essential learning may also be referred to as essential outcomes, power standards (Reeves, 2002), guaranteed and viable curriculum (Marzano, 2003), essential academic goals (Lezotte, 1991), learning intentions and success criteria (Hattie, 2009), or learning expectations and tangible exemplars of student proficiency (Saphier, 2005).
Everyday Math (EDM)Everyday Mathematics is a comprehensive Pre-K through 6th grade mathematics curriculum developed by the University of Chicago School Mathematics Project. Everyday Mathematics is distinguished by its focus on real-life problem solving, balance between whole-class and self-directed learning, emphasis on communication, facilitation of school-family cooperation, and appropriate use of technology. http://www.math.uchicago.edu/
Exam ViewOnline application for building tests
FacilitatorTeacher that allows students to take a more active role in learning (GRR)
FCS Instructional ModelGreat instruction includes: (1) Frequent communication of clear learning objectives, (2) Teaching/modeling/demonstrating, (3) Guided practice, (4) Checking for understanding/formative assessment.Focus by Mike Schmoker
Fidelity of ImplementationFidelity incorporates two concepts: “adherence to the intervention’s core content components and competent execution using accomplished teaching practices” (Forgatch, Patterson, & DeGarmo, 2005, p. 3). This means that the program, practice, or strategy is fully carried out as designed by the creator or program provider. It also implies implementation by individuals experienced in the program’s delivery and should be implemented to ensure consistency. Dunsworth, Mardale; Billings, Dawn (2011-08-29). Effective Program Evaluation (Kindle Locations 1618-1620). Ingram Distribution. Kindle Edition. 
Fiscal YearTwelve month period beginning July 1 and ending June 30.
Fist-to-fiveTool for reaching consensus or quickly assessing a group relative to a particular concept. The members of a group raise fist (to indicate a value of 0, or disagreement) or one or more fingers (to indicate values from 1 to 5) to express their level of agreement with a proposed solution, or understanding of a problem.WIK
FITFocused instruction time
FITFacilitator of Instructional Technology
Flipped ClassroomThe flipped classroom is the termed used when the whole classroom/homework paradigm is "flipped". What used to be classwork (the "lecture") is done at home via teacher-created videos and what used to be homework (assigned problems) is now done in class.http://flippedlearning.org/FLN
FluencyAbility to read text accurately and quickly with proper expression
Fly Wheel A heavy wheel or disk that helps because of its inertia to maintain a constant speed of rotation in a machine or to store energy. The buildup of momentum. Collins uses this as a metaphor as a way to describe the buildup of momentum, thus resulting with enthusiastic participation.
Focus Lesson Lessons that establish purpose for the learning. This should include establishing the Learning Objective in a clear manner that captures sepcifically what knowledge, skills, and attitudes learners should be able to exhibit following instruction. Fisher/Frey Better Learning through Structured Teaching
Formative AssessmentAn assessment for learning used to advance and not merely monitor each student’s learning; the assessment informs the teacher regarding the effectiveness of instruction and the individual student regarding progress in becoming proficient. The checks for understanding that individual teachers use in the classroom on a daily basis are examples of formative assessments. In a Professional Learning Community (PLC), collaborative teams also use common formative assessments to (1) identify students who are experiencing difficulty in their learning, (2) provide those student with additional time and support in a way that does not remove them from new direct instruction, and (3) give them additional opportunities to demonstrate their learning
Franklin AcademyDrop out recovery program at FCHS. The purpose is to prevent drop outs in students who are currently in a high risk category and also to recover anyone who has already dropped out. This program is self paced and internet based. This program mostly focuses on studetns in grade 11+.
GenreA category of artistic, musical, or literay composition charracterized by a paticular style, form or content. Examples of literacy genres might include dama, historical fiction, mystery, poetry, short story.
GI/REMScientific studies of learning have shown that an optimal match can be made between any given learner’s background knowledge and current achievement with the introduction of new ideas and skills to produce maximum growth. This match is called the zone of proximal development.Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind in society: The development of higher psychological processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
GI/REMRemediation time at FCHS, where guided instruction or remediation is provided to students in academic need.
Gradual Release of Responsibility(GRR)The gradual release of responsibility model of instruction stipulates that the cognitive load should shift slowly and purposefully from teacher assuming "all the responsibility for performing a task" to " joint responsibility" to a situation in which the "students assume all of the responsibility".
Graduation RateThe percentage of students within a cohort who graduate during their expected graduation year.
Great InstructionSee FCS Instructional Model
Growth IndexThe growth index is a statistic that appears on some MAP reports. The growth index indicates the RIT value by which the student exceeded the target RIT (plus values), fell short of the target RIT (minus values), or exactly met the target RIT (0). The target RIT is determined by the RIT Point Growth Norms.NWEA
Growth modelA model for determining academic achievement that measures each student’s growth over time
GRR StrategiesGradual Release of Responsibility strategies
Guided InstructionGuided instruction (scaffolding) is an instructional technique whereby the teacher models the desired learning strategy or task, then gradually shifts responsibility to the students. Fisher/Frey Better Learning through Structured Teaching
Guided ReadingGuided Reading is a strategy developed by Irene Fountas and Gay Su Pinnell based on 9 years of research and development. It allows children to develop as individual readerrs within the context of a small group. Guided Reading
High Ability Student (HA)A student who performs at or shows the potential for performing at an outstanding level of accomplishment in at least one of the following domains: general intellectual, reading/language arts, or math, when compared with other students of the same age, ex
IEPIEP is the acronym for Individualized Education Plan. (Special Education
IMELAIndiana Middle Level Education Association