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1 | id | display_name | Alias | Description | Formula | |||||||||||||||

2 | 1 | Acceleration/Deceleration Technical Indicator | AccDeOsc, Acceleration/Deceleration Technical Indicator, Acceleration/Deceleration Oscillator | Acceleration/Deceleration Technical Indicator (AC) measures acceleration and deceleration of the current driving force. This indicator will change direction before any changes in the driving force, which, it its turn, will change its direction before the price. | AcdDecOsc = AwesomeOscillator - SMA(AwesomeOscillator, period) | |||||||||||||||

3 | 2 | Kaufman's Adaptive moving average | KAMA, MovingAverageAdaptive, Kaufman's Adaptive Moving Average, AdaptiveMovingAverageOsc, KAMAOscillator, KAMAOsc, MovingAverageAdaptiveOscillator, MovingAverageAdaptiveOsc | Defined by Perry Kaufman in his book “Smarter Trading”, it is a moving verage with a continuously scaled smoothing factor by taking into account market direction and volatility. The smoothing factor is calculated from 2 EMA smoothing factors, a fast one and slow one. If the market trends the value will tend to the fast ema smoothing period. If the market doesn’t trend it will move towards the slow EMA smoothing period. It is a subclass of Smoothing Moving Average, overriding once to account for the live nature of the smoothing factor. | Formula:
direction = close - close_period volatility = sumN(abs(close - close_n), period) effiency_ratio = abs(direction / volatility) fast = 2 / (fast_period + 1) slow = 2 / (slow_period + 1) smfactor = squared(efficienty_ratio * (fast - slow) + slow) smfactor1 = 1.0 - smfactor The initial seed value is a SimpleMovingAverage | |||||||||||||||

4 | 3 | Kaufman's Adaptive Moving Average Envelope | KAMA Envelope, Adaptive Moving Average Envelope | Defined by Perry Kaufman in his book “Smarter Trading”, it is a moving verage with a continuously scaled smoothing factor by taking into account market direction and volatility. The smoothing factor is calculated from 2 EMA smoothing factors, a fast one and slow one. If the market trends the value will tend to the fast ema smoothing period. If the market doesn’t trend it will move towards the slow EMA smoothing period. It is a subclass of Smoothing Moving Average, overriding once to account for the live nature of the smoothing factor. The indicator gives KAMA and envelope bands separated “perc” from it. | kama (from AdaptiveMovingAverage) top = kama * (1 + perc) bot = kama * (1 - perc) | |||||||||||||||

5 | 4 | Aroon Down | AroonDown | This is the AroonDown from the indicator AroonUpDown developed by Tushar Chande in 1995. Aroon is an indicator system that determines whether a stock is trending or not and how strong the trend is. “Aroon” means “Dawn's Early Light” in Sanskrit. Chande chose this name because the indicators are designed to reveal the beginning of a new trend. The Aroon indicators measure the number of periods since price recorded an x-day high or low. There are two separate indicators: Aroon-Up and Aroon-Down. A 25-day Aroon-Up measures the number of days since a 25-day high. A 25-day Aroon-Down measures the number of days since a 25-day low. It is a variation of the AroonUpDown indicator which shows the current difference between the AroonUp and AroonDown value, trying to present a visualization which indicates which is stronger (greater than 0 -> AroonUp and less than 0 -> AroonDown). | down = 100 * (period - distance to lowest low) / period Note: The lines oscillate between 0 and 100. That means that the “distance” to the last highest or lowest must go from 0 to period so that the formula can yield 0 and 100. Hence the lookback period is period + 1, because the current bar is also taken into account. And therefore this indicator needs an effective lookback period of period + 1. | |||||||||||||||

6 | 5 | Aroon Oscillator | AroonOscillator, AroonUpDown Indicator, Aron Up Down Indicator | This is the indicator AroonUpDown developed by Tushar Chande in 1995. Aroon is an indicator system that determines whether a stock is trending or not and how strong the trend is. “Aroon” means “Dawn's Early Light” in Sanskrit. Chande chose this name because the indicators are designed to reveal the beginning of a new trend. The Aroon indicators measure the number of periods since price recorded an x-day high or low. There are two separate indicators: Aroon-Up and Aroon-Down. A 25-day Aroon-Up measures the number of days since a 25-day high. A 25-day Aroon-Down measures the number of days since a 25-day low. | aroonosc = aroonup - aroondown | |||||||||||||||

7 | 6 | Aroon Up | AroonUp | This is the AroonUP from the indicator AroonUpDown developed by Tushar Chande in 1995. Aroon is an indicator system that determines whether a stock is trending or not and how strong the trend is. “Aroon” means “Dawn's Early Light” in Sanskrit. Chande chose this name because the indicators are designed to reveal the beginning of a new trend. The Aroon indicators measure the number of periods since price recorded an x-day high or low. There are two separate indicators: Aroon-Up and Aroon-Down. A 25-day Aroon-Up measures the number of days since a 25-day high. A 25-day Aroon-Down measures the number of days since a 25-day low. | up = 100 * (period - distance to highest high) / period Note: The lines oscillate between 0 and 100. That means that the “distance” to the last highest or lowest must go from 0 to period so that the formula can yield 0 and 100. Hence the lookback period is period + 1, because the current bar is also taken into account. And therefore this indicator needs an effective lookback period of period + 1. | |||||||||||||||

8 | 7 | Average | ArithmeticMean, Mean | Averages a given data arithmetically over a period. | av = data(period) / period | |||||||||||||||

9 | 8 | ADX | Average Directional Movement Index, AverageDirectionalMovementIndex, Welles Wilder Indicator, Welles Wilder Average Directional Movement Index, DI, Plus DI, Minus DI, +DI, -DI, PDI, MDI, PlusDirectionalIndicator, MinusDirectionalIndicator, DirectionalIndicator, DM, Directional Movement, Plus Directional Movement, Minus Directional Movement | The average directional movement index (A.D.X.) was developed in 1978 by J. Welles Wilder as an indicator of trend strength in a series of prices of a financial instrument. The A.D.X. is a combination of two other indicators developed by Wilder, the positive directional indicator (abbreviated +DI) and negative directional indicator (-DI).[2] PlusDI represents an absolute up movement and Minus DI represents absolute down movement. Here please note that “+” and “-” denotes only upward and downward movement. “-DI” is not a negative number. But a positive number of a downward movement. The A.D.X. combines them and smooths the result with a smoothed moving average. | The moving average used is the one originally defined by Wilder, the SmoothedMovingAverage. upmove = high - high(-1) downmove = low(-1) - low +dm = upmove if upmove > downmove and upmove > 0 else 0 -dm = downmove if downmove > upmove and downmove > 0 else 0 +di = 100 * MovingAverage(+dm, period) / atr(period) -di = 100 * MovingAverage(-dm, period) / atr(period) dx = 100 * abs(+di - -di) / (+di + -di) adx = MovingAverage(dx, period) | |||||||||||||||

10 | 9 | ADXR | Welles Wilder ADX Rating, ADX Rating, Average Directional Movement Index Rating | The average directional movement index (A.D.X.) was developed in 1978 by J. Welles Wilder as an indicator of trend strength in a series of prices of a financial instrument. The A.D.X. is a combination of two other indicators developed by Wilder, the positive directional indicator (abbreviated +DI) and negative directional indicator (-DI).[2] The A.D.X. combines them and smooths the result with a smoothed moving average. ADXR is the average of ADX with a value period bars ago. | adxr = (adx + adx(-period)) / 2 | |||||||||||||||

11 | 10 | Average True Range | AverageTrueRange, ATR | Average true range (ATR) is a technical analysis volatility indicator originally developed by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. for commodities. The indicator does not provide an indication of price trend, simply the degree of price volatility.The average true range is an N-day smoothed moving average (SMMA) of the true range values. Wilder recommended a 14-period smoothing. The idea is to take the close into account to calculate the range if it yields a larger range than the daily range (High - Low). | SmoothedMovingAverage(TrueRange, period) | |||||||||||||||

12 | 11 | Awesome Oscillator | Bill Williams's Awesome Oscillator Technical Indicator, AO, Awesome Oscillator | Bill Williams's Awesome Oscillator T(AO) is a 34-period simple moving average, plotted through the bars midpoints (H+L)/2, which is subtracted from the 5-period simple moving average, built across the bars midpoints (H+L)/2. It shows us quite clearly what’s happening to the market driving force at the present moment. It is a momentum indicator reflecting the precise changes in the market driving force which helps to identify the trend’s strength up to the points of formation and reversal. | median price = (high + low) / 2 AO = SMA(median price, 5)- SMA(median price, 34) | |||||||||||||||

13 | 12 | Bollinger Bands | BBands | Defined by John Bollinger in the 80s. It measures volatility by defining upper and lower bands at distance x standard deviations. Percent Bandwidth (%B) quantifies or displayes where price is in relation to the bands. %B Equal to 100 = Price is at the Upper Band %B Above 50 = Price is Above the Middle Line %B Below 50 = Price is Below the Middle Line %B Equal to 0 = Price is at the Lower Band | midband = SimpleMovingAverage(close, period) topband = midband + devfactor * StandardDeviation(data, period) botband = midband - devfactor * StandardDeviation(data, period) %B = (Current Price - Lower Band) / (Upper Band - Lower Band) | |||||||||||||||

14 | 13 | Commodity Channel Index | CommodityChannelIndex, CCI | Introduced by Donald Lambert in 1980 to measure variations of the “typical price” from its mean to identify extremes and reversals. The CCI is calculated as the difference between the typical price of a commodity and its simple moving average, divided by the mean absolute deviation of the typical price. The index is usually scaled by an inverse factor of 0.015 to provide more readable numbers. CCI measures a security’s variation from the statistical mean. | tp = typical_price = (high + low + close) / 3 tpmean = MovingAverage(tp, period) deviation = tp - tpmean meandev = MeanDeviation(tp) cci = deviation / (meandeviation * factor) | |||||||||||||||

15 | 14 | David Vardi Indicator | DV2, DV Indicator | DV indicator is generally used together with its smoothed difference relative to Welles Wilder’s classic Relative Strength Index (RSI). Both indicators construct oscillators that compare current price to historic levels. However, while the RSI strictly employs differences in recent closes, the bounded DV looks at a great array of relationships between daily closes and their high/low ranges, prospectively capturing inherent volatility effects in addition to relative price placement. | ||||||||||||||||

16 | 15 | Denmark Pivot Point | DPP, DemarkPivotPoint | Pivots Points are significant levels traders can use to determine directional movement and potential support/resistance levels. Pivot Points use the prior period's high, low, and close to estimate future support and resistance levels. In this regard, Pivot Points are predictive or leading indicators. There are at least five different versions of Pivot Points. Demark Pivot Points start with a different base and use different formulas for support and resistance. These Pivot Points are conditional on the relationship between the close and the open. | ||||||||||||||||

17 | 16 | Detrended Price Oscillator | DPO, DetrendedPriceOscillator | The detrended price oscillator (DPO) is an indicator in technical analysis that attempts to eliminate the long-term trends in prices by using a displaced moving average so it does not react to the most current price action. This allows the indicator to show intermediate overbought and oversold levels effectively. | movav = MovingAverage(close, period) dpo = close - movav(shifted period / 2 + 1) | |||||||||||||||

18 | 17 | Dickson Moving Average | DMA, Dickson MA, Dickson Moving Average Dickson Moving Average Osc, DMA Oscillator, DMA Osc, Dickson MA Oscillator, Dickson MA Osc | The Dickson Moving Average combines the ZeroLagIndicator (aka ErrorCorrecting or EC) by Ehlers, and the HullMovingAverage to try to deliver a result close to that of the Jurik Moving Averages. | ||||||||||||||||

19 | 18 | Dickson's Moving Average Envelope | DMA Envelope, Dickson MA Envelope, Dickson's Moving Average Envelope | The Dickson Moving Average combines the ZeroLagIndicator (aka ErrorCorrecting or EC) by Ehlers, and the HullMovingAverage to try to deliver a result close to that of the Jurik Moving Averages. DicksonMovingAverage and envelope bands separated “perc” from it. | ||||||||||||||||

20 | 19 | Directional Movement Indicator | DI, Plus DI, Minus DI, +DI, -DI, PDI, MDI, PlusDirectionalIndicator, MinusDirectionalIndicator, DirectionalIndicator, Directional Indicator, Minus Directional Movement Indicator, Plus Directional Movement Indicator, Plus DM, Minus DM, +DI, -DI, DIP, DIM | Directional Indicator was developed in 1978 by J. Welles Wilder as an indicator of trend strength in a series of prices of a financial instrument. PlusDI represents an absolute up movement and Minus DI represents absolute down movement. Here please note that “+” and “-” denotes only upward and downward movement. “-DI” is not a negative number. But a positive number of a downward movement. | upmove = high - high(-1) downmove = low(-1) - low +dm = upmove if upmove > downmove and upmove > 0 else 0 -dm = downmove if downmove > upmove and downmove > 0 else 0 +di = 100 * MovingAverage(+dm, period) / atr(period) -di = 100 * MovingAverage(-dm, period) / atr(period) The moving average used is the one originally defined by Wilder, the SmoothedMovingAverage | |||||||||||||||

21 | 20 | DEMA | Double Exponential Moving Average, DoubleExponentialMovingAverage Moving average double exponential | A technical indicator developed by Patrick Mulloy that first appeared in the February, 1994 Technical Analysis of Stocks & Commodities. The DEMA is a calculation based on both a single exponential moving average (EMA) and a double EMA. The DEMA is a fast-acting moving average that is more responsive to market changes than a traditional moving average. It was developed in an attempt to create a calculation that eliminated some of the lag associated with traditional moving averages. The DEMA can be used as a stand-alone indicator and can be incorporated into other technical analysis tools whose logic are based on moving averages. | dema = (2.0 - ema(data, period) - ema(ema(data, period), period) | |||||||||||||||

22 | 21 | DEMA Envelope | DoubleExponentialMovingAverageEnvelope, Double Exponential Moving Average Envelope | A technical indicator developed by Patrick Mulloy that first appeared in the February, 1994 Technical Analysis of Stocks & Commodities. The DEMA is a calculation based on both a single exponential moving average (EMA) and a double EMA. The DEMA is a fast-acting moving average that is more responsive to market changes than a traditional moving average. It was developed in an attempt to create a calculation that eliminated some of the lag associated with traditional moving averages. The DEMA can be used as a stand-alone indicator and can be incorporated into other technical analysis tools whose logic are based on moving averages. The function gives DEMA and envelope bands separated “perc” from it. | dema (from DoubleExponentialMovingAverage)
top = dema * (1 + perc) bot = dema * (1 - perc) | |||||||||||||||

23 | 22 | Down Day | downday | Defined by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. in 1978 in his book “New Concepts in Technical Trading Systems” for the RSI. Records days which have been “down”, i.e.: the close price has been lower than the day before. | downday = max(close_prev - close, 0) | |||||||||||||||

24 | 23 | EMA | Exponential Moving Average, Exponential Moving Average Osc, EMA Oscillator, EMA Osc, Moving Average Exponential Oscillator | A Moving Average that smoothes data exponentially over time. | smoothfactor =1- 2 / (1 + period) movav = prev * (1.0 - smoothfactor) + newdata * smoothfactor | |||||||||||||||

25 | 24 | EMA Envelope | Exponential Moving Average Envelope | A Moving Average that smoothes data exponentially over time. The function gives EMA and envelope bands separated “perc” from it | ema (from ExponentialMovingAverage) top = ema * (1 + perc) bot = ema * (1 - perc) | |||||||||||||||

26 | 25 | Fibonacci Pivot Point | FPP, FibonacciPivotPoints | Pivots Points are significant levels traders can use to determine directional movement and potential support/resistance levels. Pivot Points use the prior period's high, low, and close to estimate future support and resistance levels. In this regard, Pivot Points are predictive or leading indicators. There are at least five different versions of Pivot Points. Fibonacci Pivot Points start just the same as Standard Pivot Points. From the base Pivot Point, Fibonacci multiples of the high-low differential are added to form resistance levels and subtracted to form support levels. | ||||||||||||||||

27 | 26 | Fractal Lines | Fractal, Bullish Fractal, Bearish Fractal | Fractals are indicators on candlestick charts that identify reversal points in the market. Traders often use fractals to get an idea about the direction in which the price will develop. A fractal will form when a particular price pattern happens on a chart. The pattern itself comprises five candles and the pattern indicates where the price has struggled to go higher, in which case an up fractal appears or lower, in which case a down fractal appears. | ||||||||||||||||

28 | 27 | Heikin Ashi Lines | HeikinAshi Lines | Heikin-Ashi Candlesticks are an offshoot from Japanese candlesticks. Heikin-Ashi Candlesticks use the open-close data from the prior period and the open-high-low-close data from the current period to create a combo candlestick. The resulting candlestick filters out some noise in an effort to better capture the trend. | ha_open = (ha_open(-1) + ha_close(-1)) / 2 ha_high = max(hi, ha_open, ha_close) ha_low = min(lo, ha_open, ha_close) ha_close = (open + high + low + close) / 4 | |||||||||||||||

29 | 28 | Hull Moving Average | HMA, HullMA, Hull MA, HullMovingAverage, HullMovingAverage Osc, HMA Oscillator, HMA Osc, HullMA Oscillator, HullMA Osc | The Hull Moving Average solves the age old dilemma of making a moving average more responsive to current price activity whilst maintaining curve smoothness. In fact the HMA almost eliminates lag altogether and manages to improve smoothing at the same time Created by Alan Hull | hma = wma(2 * wma(data, period // 2) - wma(data, period), sqrt(period)) | |||||||||||||||

30 | 29 | Hull Moving Average Envelope | HMAEnvelope, HullMAEnvelope | The Hull Moving Average solves the age old dilemma of making a moving average more responsive to current price activity whilst maintaining curve smoothness. In fact the HMA almost eliminates lag altogether and manages to improve smoothing at the same time Created by Alan Hull The function gives DEMA and envelope bands separated “perc” from it | hma (from HullMovingAverage) top = hma * (1 + perc) bot = hma * (1 - perc) | |||||||||||||||

31 | 30 | Hurst Exponent | Hurst | Tthe Hurst Exponent tells you whether a series is Geometric random walk (H=0.5) Mean-reverting series (H<0.5) Trending Series (H>0.5) If H decreases towards zero, the price series may be more mean reverting and if it increases more towards one, the price series may be more trending. | ||||||||||||||||

32 | 31 | Ichimoku Lines | Ichimoku | The Ichimoku Cloud, also known as Ichimoku Kinko Hyo, is a versatile indicator that defines support and resistance, identifies trend direction, gauges momentum and provides trading signals. Ichimoku Kinko Hyo translates into “one look equilibrium chart”. Even though the Ichimoku Cloud may seem complicated when viewed on the price chart, it is really a straightforward indicator that is very usable. | Formula: tenkan_sen = (Highest(High, tenkan) + Lowest(Low, tenkan)) / 2.0 kijun_sen = (Highest(High, kijun) + Lowest(Low, kijun)) / 2.0 The next 2 are pushed 26 bars into the future senkou_span_a = (tenkan_sen + kijun_sen) / 2.0 senkou_span_b = ((Highest(High, senkou) + Lowest(Low, senkou)) / 2.0 This is pushed 26 bars into the past chikou = close The cloud (Kumo) is formed by the area between the senkou_spans | |||||||||||||||

33 | 32 | KST | Known Sure Thing | Developed by Martin Pring, Know Sure Thing (KST) is a momentum oscillator based on the smoothed rate-of-change for four different timeframes. Pring referred to this indicator as the “Summed Rate of Change (KST)” in a 1992 article in Stocks & Commodities magazine. In short, KST measures price momentum for four different price cycles. It can be used just like any momentum oscillator. KST fluctuates above/below the zero line. At its most basic, momentum favors the bulls when KST is positive and the bears when KST is negative | ||||||||||||||||

34 | 33 | Laguerre Filter | LAGF, Laguerre Filter | The Laguerre Filter (LF) was authored by John Ehlers. The LF requires the current price, three prior prices, a user defined factor called alpha and a good deal of feedback to fill its calculation. The Laguerre Filter is a trend indicator and may be used in conjunction with other studies. No trading signals are calculated. | ||||||||||||||||

35 | 34 | Laguerre RSI | LRSI | Defined by John F. Ehlers in Cybernetic Analysis for Stock and Futures, the Laguerre RSI tries to implements a better RSI by providing a sort of Time Warp without Time Travel using a Laguerre filter. This provides for faster reactions to price changes. | ||||||||||||||||

36 | 35 | MACD | Moving Average Convergence Divergence | Moving Average Convergence Divergence. Defined by Gerald Appel in the 70s. It measures the distance of a short and a long term moving average to try to identify the trend. A second lagging moving average over the convergence-divergence should provide a “signal” upon being crossed by the macd | macd = ema(data, me1_period) - ema(data, me2_period) signal = ema(macd, signal_period) | |||||||||||||||

37 | 36 | SMA | Simple Moving Average, Moving Average Simple, SMA Oscillator, SMAOsc, Simple Moving Average Oscillator | Non-weighted average of the last n periods | movav = Sum(data, period) / period | |||||||||||||||

38 | 37 | SMA Envelope | SMAEnvelope, SimpleMovingAverageEnvelope | Non-weighted average of the last n periods. The function gives SMA and envelope bands separated “perc” from it | sma (from MovingAverageSimple) top = sma * (1 + perc) bot = sma * (1 - perc) | |||||||||||||||

39 | 38 | ParabolicSAR | PSAR, Parabolic SAR, SAR | Defined by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. in 1978 in his book “New Concepts in Technical Trading Systems” for the RSI. SAR stands for Stop and Reverse and the indicator was meant as a signal for entry (and reverse). SAR trails price as the trend extends over time. The indicator is below prices when prices are rising and above prices when prices are falling. In this regard, the indicator stops and reverses when the price trend reverses and breaks above or below the indicator. | ||||||||||||||||

40 | 39 | PPO | Percentage Price Oscillator, PPO Short, Perc Price Osc Short | Shows the difference between a short and long exponential moving averages expressed in percentage. The MACD does the same but expressed in absolute points. Expressing the difference in percentage allows to compare the indicator at different points in time when the underlying value has significatnly different values. | po = 100 * (ema(short) - ema(long)) / ema(long) | |||||||||||||||

41 | 40 | Pivot Point | Pivots Points are significant levels chartists can use to determine directional movement and potential support/resistance levels. Pivot Points use the prior period's high, low, and close to estimate future support and resistance levels. In this regard, Pivot Points are predictive or leading indicators. There are at least five different versions of Pivot Points. | pivot = (h + l + c) / 3 # variants duplicate close or add open support1 = 2.0 * pivot - high support2 = pivot - (high - low) resistance1 = 2.0 * pivot - low resistance2 = pivot + (high - low) | ||||||||||||||||

42 | 41 | Pretty Good Oscillator | PGO, Pretty Good Osc | The “Pretty Good Oscillator” (PGO) by Mark Johnson measures the distance of the current close from its simple moving average of period average, expressed in terms of an average true range (see Average True Range) over a similar period. So for instance a PGO value of +2.5 would mean the current close is 2.5 average days’ range above the SMA. Johnson’s approach was to use it as a breakout system for longer term trades. If the PGO rises above 3.0 then go long, or below -3.0 then go short, and in both cases exit on returning to zero (which is a close back at the SMA). | ||||||||||||||||

43 | 42 | Absolute Price Oscillator | Price Osc, Price Oscillator, APO, AbsPriceOsc | Shows the difference between a short and long exponential moving averages expressed in points. | po = ema(short) - ema(long) | |||||||||||||||

44 | 43 | RSI | Relative Strength Index | RSI or relative strength index is a momentum based technical indicator developed by Welles Wilder. The level of the RSI is a measure of the stock's recent trading strength. The slope of the RSI is directly proportional to the velocity of a change in the trend. The distance traveled by the RSI is proportional to the magnitude of the move. Wilder believed that tops and bottoms are indicated when RSI goes above 70 or drops below 30. Traditionally, RSI readings greater than the 70 level are considered to be in overbought territory, and RSI readings lower than the 30 level are considered to be in oversold territory. In between the 30 and 70 level is considered neutral, with the 50 level a sign of no trend. | ||||||||||||||||

45 | 44 | RMI | Relative Momentum Index | Description: The Relative Momentum Index was developed by Roger Altman and was introduced in his article in the February, 1993 issue of Technical Analysis of Stocks & Commodities magazine. While your typical RSI counts up and down days from close to close, the Relative Momentum Index counts up and down days from the close relative to a close x number of days ago. The result is an RSI that is a bit smoother. Usage: Use in the same way you would any other RSI . There are overbought and oversold zones, and can also be used for divergence and trend analysis. | ||||||||||||||||

46 | 45 | Smoothed Moving Average | SMMA | Smoothing Moving Average used by Wilder in his 1978 book New Concepts in Technical Trading Defined in his book originally as: new_value = (old_value * (period - 1) + new_data) / period SMMA is a smoothened version of Moving average used to show trends clearly | movav = prev * (1.0 - smoothfactor) + newdata * smoothfactor | |||||||||||||||

47 | 46 | RSI-EMA | Relative Strength Index -EMA | RSI or relative strength index is a momentum based technical indicator developed by Welles Wilder. The level of the RSI is a measure of the stock's recent trading strength. The slope of the RSI is directly proportional to the velocity of a change in the trend. The distance traveled by the RSI is proportional to the magnitude of the move. Wilder believed that tops and bottoms are indicated when RSI goes above 70 or drops below 30. Traditionally, RSI readings greater than the 70 level are considered to be in overbought territory, and RSI readings lower than the 30 level are considered to be in oversold territory. In between the 30 and 70 level is considered neutral, with the 50 level a sign of no trend. This indicator uses EMA instead of SMMA for caluclating RSI | ||||||||||||||||

48 | 47 | RSI-SMA | Relative Strength Index -SMA | RSI or relative strength index is a momentum based technical indicator developed by Welles Wilder. The level of the RSI is a measure of the stock's recent trading strength. The slope of the RSI is directly proportional to the velocity of a change in the trend. The distance traveled by the RSI is proportional to the magnitude of the move. Wilder believed that tops and bottoms are indicated when RSI goes above 70 or drops below 30. Traditionally, RSI readings greater than the 70 level are considered to be in overbought territory, and RSI readings lower than the 30 level are considered to be in oversold territory. In between the 30 and 70 level is considered neutral, with the 50 level a sign of no trend. This indicator uses SMA instead of SMMA for caluclating RSI | ||||||||||||||||

49 | 48 | SMMA Envelope | Smoothing Moving Average used by Wilder in his 1978 book New Concepts in Technical Trading Defined in his book originally as: new_value = (old_value * (period - 1) + new_data) / period SMMA is a smoothened version of Moving average used to show trends clearly. The function gives SMMA and envelope bands separated “perc” from it | |||||||||||||||||

50 | 49 | Stochastic Oscillator | The stochastic oscillator is a momentum indicator comparing the closing price of a security to the range of its prices over a certain period of time. The sensitivity of the oscillator to market movements is reducible by adjusting that time period or by taking a moving average of the result. The stochastic oscillator can play in identifying overbought and oversold levels, because it is range bound. This range – from 0 to 100 – will remain constant, no matter how quickly or slowly a security advances or declines. Considering the most traditional settings for the oscillator, 20 is typically considered the oversold threshold and 80 is considered the overbought threshold. However, the levels are adjustable to fit security characteristics and analytical needs. Readings above 80 indicate a security is trading near the top of its high-low range; readings below 20 indicate the security is trading near the bottom of its high-low range. The general theory serving as the foundation for this indicator is that in a market trending upward, prices will close near the high, and in a market trending downward, prices close near the low. Transaction signals are created when the %K crosses through a three-period moving average, which is called the %D. | |||||||||||||||||

51 | 50 | TEMA | Triple Exponential Moving Average, Triple Exponential Moving Average Oscillator, T3 | The triple exponential moving average, or TEMA, was developed by Patrick Mulloy in 1994 to filter out volatility from conventional moving averages. The TEMA requires more periods for its calculation than the traditional EMA due to the EMA(EMA(EMA)) calculation. Most traders use the triple exponential moving average in conjunction with other technical indicators to maximize the odds of a successful trade. For example, they may look for a short-term breakout from a 26-period TEMA, but confirm the move by looking at volume. They may also look at the slope of the TEMA to determine the direction of a trade before identifying specific entry and exit points. | TEMA = 3 * EMA - 3 * EMA(EMA) + EMA(EMA(EMA)) | |||||||||||||||

52 | 51 | TEMA Envelope | TEMA Envelope | The triple exponential moving average, or TEMA, was developed by Patrick Mulloy in 1994 to filter out volatility from conventional moving averages. The TEMA requires more periods for its calculation than the traditional EMA due to the EMA(EMA(EMA)) calculation. Most traders use the triple exponential moving average in conjunction with other technical indicators to maximize the odds of a successful trade. For example, they may look for a short-term breakout from a 26-period TEMA, but confirm the move by looking at volume. They may also look at the slope of the TEMA to determine the direction of a trade before identifying specific entry and exit points. The function gives TEMA and envelope bands separated “perc” from it | tema (from TripleExponentialMovingAverage) top = tema * (1 + perc) bot = tema * (1 - perc) | |||||||||||||||

53 | 52 | Trix | Trix Signal | Trix is a momentum oscillator that displays the percent rate of change of a triple exponentially smoothed moving average. It was developed in the early 1980's by Jack Hutson, an editor for Technical Analysis of Stocks and Commodities magazine. With its triple smoothing, TRIX is designed to filter insignificant price movements. Traders can use Trix to generate signals similar to MACD. A signal line can be applied to look for signal line crossovers. A directional bias can be determined with the absolute level. Bullish and bearish divergences can be used to anticipate reversals. | ||||||||||||||||

54 | 53 | True high | Defined by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. in 1978 in his book “New Concepts in Technical Trading Systems” for the ATR Records the “true high” which is the maximum of today’s high and yesterday’s close | truehigh = max(high, close_prev) | ||||||||||||||||

55 | 54 | True Low | Defined by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. in 1978 in his book “New Concepts in Technical Trading Systems” for the ATR Records the “true low” which is the minimum of today’s low and yesterday’s close | truelow = min(low, close_prev) | ||||||||||||||||

56 | 55 | True Range | Defined by J. Welles Wilder, Jr. in 1978 in his book “New Concepts in Technical Trading Systems” for the ATR. The idea is to take the previous close into account to calculate the range if it yields a larger range than the daily range (High - Low). | max(high, prev_close) - min(low, prev_close) | ||||||||||||||||

57 | 56 | TSI | True Strength Indicator | Developed by William Blau and introduced in Stocks & Commodities Magazine, the True Strength Index (TSI) is a momentum oscillator based on a double smoothing of price changes. Even though several steps are needed for calculation, the indicator is actually pretty straightforward. By smoothing price changes, TSI captures the ebbs and flows of price action with a steadier line that filters out the noise. The True Strength Index (TSI) is an oscillator that fluctuates between positive and negative territory. As with many momentum oscillators, the centerline defines the overall bias. The bulls have the momentum edge when TSI is positive and the bears have the edge when it's negative. As with MACD, a signal line can be applied to identify upturns and downturns. Signal line crossovers are, however, quite frequent and require further filtering with other techniques. Chartists can also look for bullish and bearish divergences to anticipate trend reversals; however, keep in mind that divergences can be misleading in a strong trend. TSI is somewhat unique because it tracks the underlying price quite well. In other words, the oscillator can capture a sustained move in one direction or the other. The peaks and troughs in the oscillator often match the peaks and troughs in price. In this regard, chartists can draw trend lines and mark support/resistance levels using TSI. Line breaks can then be used to generate signals. | ||||||||||||||||

58 | 57 | Ultimate Oscillator | Ultimate Osc | Developed by Larry Williams in 1976 and featured in Stocks & Commodities Magazine in 1985, the Ultimate Oscillator is a momentum oscillator designed to capture momentum across three different timeframes. The multiple timeframe objective seeks to avoid the pitfalls of other oscillators. Many momentum oscillators surge at the beginning of a strong advance and then form a bearish divergence as the advance continues. This is because they are stuck with one timeframe. The Ultimate Oscillator attempts to correct this fault by incorporating longer timeframes into the basic formula. Williams identified a buy signal a based on a bullish divergence and a sell signal based on a bearish divergence. | ||||||||||||||||

59 | 58 | Vortex Indicator | VI | Developed by Etienne Botes and Douglas Siepman, the Vortex Indicator consists of two oscillators that capture positive and negative trend movement. In creating this indicator, Botes and Seipman drew on the work of Welles Wilder and Viktor Schauberger, who is considered the father of implosion technology. Despite a rather involved formula, the indicator is quite straightforward to understand and easy to interpret. A bullish signal triggers when the positive trend indicator crosses above the negative trend indicator or a key level. A bearish signal triggers when the negative trend indicator crosses above the positive trend indicator or a key level. The Vortex Indicator is either above or below these levels, which means it always has a clear bullish or bearish bias. | ||||||||||||||||

60 | 59 | Willams AD | AD, Accumulation and distribution | By Larry Williams. It does cumulatively measure if the price is accumulating (upwards) or distributing (downwards) by using the concept of UpDays and DownDays. Prices can go upwards but do so in a fashion that no longer shows accumulation because updays and downdays are canceling out each other, creating a divergence. | ||||||||||||||||

61 | 60 | WillamsR | Williams’ %R, WILLR | Williams %R, or just %R, is a technical analysis oscillator showing the current closing price in relation to the high and low of the past N days (for a given N). It was developed by a publisher and promoter of trading materials, Larry Williams. Its purpose is to tell whether a stock or commodity market is trading near the high or the low, or somewhere in between, of its recent trading range. Williams used a 10 trading day period and considered values below -80 as oversold and above -20 as overbought. But they were not to be traded directly, instead his rule to buy an oversold was: %R reaches -100%. Five trading days pass since -100% was last reached %R fall below -95% or -85%. or conversely to sell an overbought condition %R reaches 0%. Five trading days pass since 0% was last reached %R rise above -5% or -15%. The timeframe can be changed for either more sensitive or smoother results. The more sensitive you make it, though, the more false signals you will get | ||||||||||||||||

62 | 61 | Zero Lag EMA | ZLEMA, Zero Lag Exponential Moving Average Oscillator | The zero-lag exponential moving average (ZLEMA) is a variation of the EMA (see Exponential Moving Average) which adds a momentum term aiming to reduce lag in the average so as to track current prices more closely. The effect of the momentum term is to make recent prices “over weight” and thus tracked closely, and with negative weights on past terms. | lag = (period - 1) / 2 zlema = ema(2 * data - data(-lag)) | |||||||||||||||

63 | 62 | Zero Lag EMA Envelope | ZLEMA Envelope, Zero Lag Exponential Moving Average Oscillator Envelope | The zero-lag exponential moving average (ZLEMA) is a variation of the EMA (see Exponential Moving Average) which adds a momentum term aiming to reduce lag in the average so as to track current prices more closely. The effect of the momentum term is to make recent prices “over weight” and thus tracked closely, and with negative weights on past terms. The function gives ZLEMA and envelope bands separated “perc” from it. | zlem top = zlema * (1 + perc) bot = zlema * (1 - perc) | |||||||||||||||

64 | 63 | Zero Lag Indicator | The zero-lag indicator (ZLIndicator) is a variation of the EMA which modifies the EMA by trying to minimize the error (distance price - error correction) and thus reduce the lag | |||||||||||||||||

65 | 64 | Zero Lag Indicator Envelope | The zero-lag indicator (ZLIndicator) is a variation of the EMA which modifies the EMA by trying to minimize the error (distance price - error correction) and thus reduce the lag. ZeroLagIndicator and envelope bands separated “perc” from it | |||||||||||||||||

66 | 65 | haDelta | haD, Haikin Ashi Delta | Defined by Dan Valcu in his book “Heikin-Ashi: How to Trade Without Candlestick Patterns ”. This indicator measures difference between Heikin Ashi close and open of Heikin Ashi candles, the body of the candle. To get signals add haDelta smoothed by 3 period moving average. | ||||||||||||||||

67 | 66 | Chaikin A/D Oscillator | Chaikin AD, Chaikin Oscillator | Developed by Marc Chaikin, the Chaikin Oscillator measures the momentum of the Accumulation Distribution Line using the MACD formula. This makes it an indicator of an indicator. The Chaikin Oscillator is the difference between the 3-day EMA of the Accumulation Distribution Line and the 10-day EMA of the Accumulation Distribution Line. Like other momentum indicators, this indicator is designed to anticipate directional changes in the Accumulation Distribution Line by measuring the momentum behind the movements. A momentum change is the first step to a trend change. Anticipating trend changes in the Accumulation Distribution Line can help traders anticipate trend changes in the underlying security. The Chaikin Oscillator generates signals with crosses above/below the zero line or with bullish/bearish divergences. | ||||||||||||||||

68 | 67 | Balance of Power | BOP | Don Worden created the balance of power (BOP) indicator in the 1950’s to understand market activity between buyers and sellers. | Balance of Power = (Close price – Open price) / (High price – Low price) | |||||||||||||||

69 | 68 | Two Crows | The Two Crows is a three-line bearish reversal candlestick pattern. The pattern requires confirmation, that is, the following candles should break a trendline or the nearest support area which may be formed by the first candle's line. If the pattern is not confirmed it may act only as a temporary pause within an uptrend. | |||||||||||||||||

70 | 69 | Three Black Crows | Three black crows is a candlestick pattern that is used to predict the reversal of the current uptrend. This pattern consists of three consecutive long-bodied candlesticks that have opened within the real body of the previous candle and closed lower than the previous candle. Often times, traders use the indicator in conjunction with other technical indicators or chart patterns as confirmation of a reversal. | |||||||||||||||||

71 | 70 | Three Inside | Three Inside Up/Down | The three inside up is a bullish reversal pattern, where: The market is in a downtrend; The first candle is a black candle with a large real body; The second candle is a white candle with a small real body that opens and closes within the body of the first candle; And, the third candle is another white candle that closes above the close of the second candle. Similarly, the three inside down is a bearish reversal pattern, where: The market is in an uptrend; The first candle is a white candle with a large real body; The second candle is a black candle with a small real body that opens and closes within the body of the first candle; And, the third candle is another black candle that closes below the close of the second candle. The three inside patterns are essentially harami patterns that are followed by a final confirmation candle, which helps to increase the harami’s predictive power. | ||||||||||||||||

72 | 71 | Three-Line Strike | Three Line Strike | |||||||||||||||||

73 | 72 | Three Outside | Three Outside Up/Down | The three outside up is a candlestick pattern, where: The market is in a downtrend; The first candle is black; The second candle is white with a long real body and fully contains the first candle; And, the third candle is white with a higher close than the second candle. Similarly, the three outside down is a candlestick pattern, where: The market is in an uptrend; The first candle is white; The second candle is black with a long real body that fully contains the first candle; And, the third candle is black with a close lower than the second candle. The first candle marks the beginning of the end for the prevailing trend as the second candle engulfs the first candle. The third candle marks an acceleration of the reversal as there’s a failure to surpass the second candle to maintain to the prior trend. | ||||||||||||||||

74 | 73 | Three Stars In The South | 3 Stars In The South | The three stars in the south is a bullish reversal pattern, where: The market is in a downtrend; The first candle is black with a long real body, long lower shadow, and no upper shadow; The second candle is black with a shorter real body and a higher low than the first candle’s low; And, the third candle is black with a short real body and no shadows and a close that’s within the hi-lo range of the second candle. The theory behind the pattern is that bears are gradually losing momentum as time progresses, which eventually leads the bulls to attempt a rally to reverse the trend. The three stars in the south pattern is very reliable in terms of predicting a reversal, but in practice, it is very difficult to find in candlestick charts. The reversals also tend to be relatively muted, which translates to little upside for traders betting on a decline. Traders should use the pattern as a signal to exit any short position, but initiating a long position may provide little upside. In addition, traders should look for confirmations in other chart patterns or technical indicators to support a reversal thesis. | ||||||||||||||||

75 | 74 | Three White Soldiers | Three Advancing White Soldiers, 3 white soldiers | Three white soldiers is a bullish candlestick pattern that predicts the reversal of a downtrend. The pattern consists of three consecutive long-bodied candlesticks that open within the previous candle's real body and a close that exceeds the previous candle's high. These candlesticks should not have very long shadows and ideally open within the real body of the preceding candle in the pattern. | ||||||||||||||||

76 | 75 | Abandoned Baby | Abandoned baby is a rare, but reliable, candlestick pattern that is useful in alerting traders to a possible trend change to the upside. Although this pattern is usually dependable, the accuracy of the reversal signal is significantly improved when it is used in conjunction with other technical indicators such as the MACD and RSI to confirm the reversal. | |||||||||||||||||

77 | 76 | Advance Block | The advance block pattern is a bearish reversal pattern, where: The market is in an uptrend; Three white candles have progressively shorter real bodies; The open of the second and third candle should be within the real body of the previous candle; And, the shadows of the three candles gradually become taller – especially the upper shadows of the last two candles. The chart pattern performs best during temporary uptrends within a larger downtrend when candles have long real bodies. The bearish reversal is confirmed when the proceeding candle’s price overcomes the midpoint of the first candle’s real body. In practice, the advance block pattern is relatively rare to come across and actually leads to a bullish continuation more frequently than a bearish reversal. Traders shouldn’t place much trust in the advance block alone and instead use it as a confirmation for other chart patterns or technical indicators that may be more reliable. In addition, traders should be sure to look for tall real bodies to maximize the odds of success since they tend to be a better predictor of an upcoming reversal. | |||||||||||||||||

78 | 77 | Belt-hold | Belt Hold | The belt hold line candlestick is basically the white marubozu and black marubozu within the context of a trend. The bullish belt hold candle opens on the low of the day and closes near the high. This candle presents itself in a downtrend and is an early sign that there is a potential bullish reversal. Conversely the bearish belt candle opens at the high of the day and closes near the low. This candle presents itself in an uptrend and is an early sign that there is a potential bearish reversal. These candles are reliable reversal bars, but lose their importance if there are a number of belt hold lines in close proximity. | ||||||||||||||||

79 | 78 | Breakaway | This five candlestick pattern starts with a strong black candlestick. The next three days after the downside gap set consecutively lower prices. However, the last day completely erases the limited losses of down days and closes inside the gap between the first and second days. This suggests a short term reversal. | |||||||||||||||||

80 | 79 | Closing Marubozu | ||||||||||||||||||

81 | 80 | Concealing Baby Swallow | The first two days of the concealing baby swallow pattern are two black marubozus. The third day gaps down on the open, but the price eats into the body of the second day prior to closing lower. The fourth candlestick completely engulfs the third day and closes near its low. The last day could also be a black marubozu as well, but this version of the formation is so rare, its not worth discussing. The reason the formation leads to reversals is due to the overly bearishness in the market as a result of consecutive black marubozus and finally the engulfing pattern on the fourth candlestick. This extreme bearishness over a short-term time frame in the concealing baby swallow formation, often leads to sharp counter reversals. | |||||||||||||||||

82 | 81 | Counterattack | The bullish counterattack lines pattern occurs when: The market is in a downtrend; The first candle is black with a long real body; And, the second candle is white with a real body that’s similar in size to the first candle and a close that’s near the first candle’s close. The bearish counterattack lines pattern is the opposite: The market is in an uptrend; The first candle is white with a long real body; And, the second candle is black with a real body that’s similar in size to the first candle with a close that’s near the first candle’s close. The chart pattern is characterized by an initial gap lower or higher followed by a strong rally in the opposite direction. With the initial trend becoming unsustainable, the market tends to reverse direction and send prices higher. | |||||||||||||||||

83 | 82 | Dark Cloud Cover | The Dark Cloud Cover pattern involves a large black candle forming a "dark cloud" over the preceding bullish trend. As with a bearish engulfing pattern, bulls push the price higher at the open, but bears take over later in the session and push the price sharply lower. The "takeover" of the trend is a sign that there could be a near-term bearish reversal. | |||||||||||||||||

84 | 83 | Doji | Doji candlesticks look like a cross, inverted cross or plus sign. Alone, doji are neutral patterns that are also featured in a number of important patterns. A doji candlestick forms when a security's open and close are virtually equal for the given time period and generally signals a reversal pattern for technical analysts. | |||||||||||||||||

85 | 84 | Doji Star | It is a reversal candlestick pattern which is bullish in nature and appears at the end of a down trend. It is a complex pattern made of three candlelines. The first candle is bearish in nature, the second is indecisive doji candlestick and third candle is bullish in nature.
It is so named because just like the planet mercury, which is the star of early morning, appears just before the sun rise, this pattern appears just before price rise, and it contains a doji. | |||||||||||||||||

86 | 85 | Dragonfly Doji | A Dragonfly Doji is a type of candlestick pattern that signals indecision among traders. It's formed when the security's high, open, and close prices are the same. The long lower shadow suggests that the forces of supply and demand are nearing a balance and the direction of the trend may be nearing a major turning point. For example, the Dragonfly Doji in the image below could signal a bullish reversal. | |||||||||||||||||

87 | 86 | Engulfing Pattern | A bullish engulfing pattern is a chart pattern that forms when a small black candlestick is followed by a large white candlestick that completely eclipses or "engulfs" the previous day's candlestick. The shadows or tails of the small candlestick are short, which enables the body of the large candlestick to cover the entire candlestick from the previous day. | |||||||||||||||||

88 | 87 | Evening Star | Evening Doji Star | An evening star is a bearish candlestick pattern consisting of three candles that have demonstrated the following characteristics: the first bar is a large white candlestick located within an uptrend; the middle bar is a small-bodied candle, red or white, that closes above the first white bar; and, the last bar is a large red candle that opens below the middle candle and closes near the center of the first bar's body. This pattern is used by traders as an early indication the uptrend is about to reverse. | ||||||||||||||||

89 | 88 | Up/Down Gap Side-by-Side White Lines | The up gap side by side white lines is a bullish continuation pattern, where: The market is in an uptrend; The first candle is a white candle; The second candle opens above the close of the first candle (gap up); And, the third candle has a real body with the same length as the second candle with an open that’s at the same level or higher than the real body of the first candle. The down gap side by side white lines is a bearish continuation pattern, where: The market is in a downtrend; The first candle is a black candle; The second candle is a white candle that opens below the close of the first candle (gap down); And, the third candle is a white candle with a real body that’s the same length as the second candle and opens at the same level or below the real body of the first candle. The side by side white lines pattern is relatively accurate in predicting a continuation of the current trend, but is somewhat uncommon in the wild. Traders should be sure to use other chart patterns or technical indicators to confirm the chart pattern to maximize their odds of success | |||||||||||||||||

90 | 89 | Gravestone Doji | A gravestone doji is a bearish reversal candlestick pattern that is formed when the open, low, and closing prices are all near each other with a long upper shadow. The long upper shadow suggests that the bullish advance in the beginning of the session was overcome by bears by the end of the session, which often comes just before a longer term bearish downtrend. | |||||||||||||||||

91 | 90 | Hammer | The hammer candlestick pattern represents a possible reversal to the upside – a bullish reversal. The hammer candlestick pattern is composed of a relatively small bullish body, either no, or, a small upper shadow and a significantly longer lower shadow. | |||||||||||||||||

92 | 91 | Hanging Man | A hanging man is a bearish candlestick pattern that forms at the end of an uptrend. It is created when there is a significant sell-off near the market open, but buyers are able to push this stock back up so that it closes at or near the opening price. Generally, the large sell-off is seen as an early indication that the bulls (buyers) are losing control and demand for the asset is waning. | |||||||||||||||||

93 | 92 | Harami | A bullish harami is a candlestick chart pattern in which a large candlestick is followed by a smaller candlestick whose body is located within the vertical range of the larger body. The bullish harami is a downtrend or bearish candlestick (red) engulfing a small bullish candlestick (green), giving a sign of a reversal of the downward trend. Since the bullish harami indicates the bearish trend may be reversing, it may be a good time to enter into a long position. | |||||||||||||||||

94 | 93 | Harami Cross Pattern | A Harami cross is a Japanese candlestick pattern that consists of a large candlestick followed by a small doji candlestick. The doji is contained within the large candlestick’s body. The Harami cross pattern suggests that the previous trend may be about to reverse. A Harami cross pattern can be either bullish or bearish. | |||||||||||||||||

95 | 94 | High-Wave Candle | The high wave candlestick has a very small real body, and it typifies a stock or index plagued by uncertainty. The spinning top has small upper and lower shadows, whereas in the high wave the shadows are longer, revealing more volatility. | |||||||||||||||||

96 | 95 | Hikkake Pattern | A charting pattern used by technical traders which is used in identifying market direction. The Hikkake pattern is identified by its resemblance to an inside bar pattern, where the range of a new point or bar falls outside a previous point or bar. This breakout can be reflect both a bullish or bearish outlook, depending on the direction of the breakout (above or below a previous high or low). | |||||||||||||||||

97 | 96 | Modified Hikkake Pattern | The hikkake pattern is named after a Japanese verb that means to ‘trap’, but Western traders may refer to the pattern as an ‘inside day false breakout’. The pattern contains two bar where the first bar – or inside bar – has a lower high and higher low than the previous bar. If the next bar has a higher high and higher low than the inside bar, then a bearish hikkake occurs. If it has a lower high and lower low, then a bullish hikkake occurs. The basic hikkake pattern can be either a reversal or continuation pattern depending on the context.
The modified hikkake pattern is the same pattern, except the bar immediately preceding the inside bar must: Close at the top of its range for bearish patterns or the bottom of its range for bullish patterns. Have a range that’s less than the range of the previous bar. The modified hikkake pattern appears bar less often than the basic hikkake pattern, while the pattern almost always signals a reversal of the trend. Traders should use the modified hikkake pattern in conjunction with other forms of technical analysis, such as chart patterns or technical indicators, to maximize their odds of success. | |||||||||||||||||

98 | 97 | Homing Pigeon | The Homing Pigeon is a two-line bullish counterpart of the Descending Hawk. It is also closely related to the Bullish Harami pattern. All these patterns belong to the harami patterns family. The first line, being a black candle, engulfs the second line, being also a black candle. The length of the candles shadows does not matter. The first candle of the pattern can be any black candle appearing on as a long line, i.e.: Black Candle, Long Black Candle, Black Marubozu, Opening Black Marubozu, Closing Black Marubozu. The second candle can be any black candle appearing both as a short or a long line, i.e. Short Black Candle, Black Candle, Long Black Candle, Black Marubozu, Opening Black Marubozu, Closing Black Marubozu. As a bullish reversal pattern, the Homing Pigeon needs to be formed in a downtrend because it predicts its reversal. | |||||||||||||||||

99 | 98 | Identical Three Crows | The Identical Three Crows is a three-line bearish reversal candlestick pattern. Every candle appears as a long line having a black body.
The first line is located in an uptrend, the last two open at near the prior close. The Identical Three Crows should be interpreted the same way as the Three Black Crows pattern. You may treat the Identical Three Crows pattern as a specific variant of the Three Black Crows pattern. The pattern appears very infrequently on the candlestick charts. | |||||||||||||||||

100 | 99 | In-Neck Pattern | The in-neck pattern is a continuation pattern, where: The market is in a downtrend; The first candle is black with a long real body; And, the second candle is white with a close near the first candle’s close and an open that's below the first candle’s low. This candle’s real body and shadows can take a variety of different forms, ranging from a hammer to a doji. The chart pattern shows bulls attempting a rally that loses momentum and fails to reverse the trend. After failing to breakout from the first candle’s lows, the bears regain control over the market and send prices lower. |

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