IEEE VIS papers 1990-2019
The version of the browser you are using is no longer supported. Please upgrade to a supported browser.Dismiss

Comment only
XploreCitationCount - 2020-01
Interdisciplinary visualization: lessons learned at NCSA
10.0000/00000002 J. CoxDonna J. Cox0
Surface representations of two- and three-dimensional fluid flow topology
13, 460
CThe use of critical point analysis to generate representations of the vector field topology of numerical flow data sets is discussed. Critical points are located and characterized in a two-dimensional domain, which may be either a two-dimensional flow field or the tangential velocity field near a three-dimensional body. Tangent curves are then integrated out along the principal directions of certain classes of critical points. The points and curves are linked to form a skeleton representing the two-dimensional vector field topology. When generated from the tangential velocity field near a body in a three-dimensional flow, the skeleton includes the critical points and curves which provide a basis for analyzing the three-dimensional structure of the flow separation.<<ETX>>James Helman;Lambertus HesselinkJ.L. Helman;L. HesselinkStanford Univ., CA, USA;Stanford Univ., CA, USA67011BP
FAST: a multi-processed environment for visualization of computational fluid dynamics
27, 461-2
CThe authors discuss FAST (flow analysis software toolkit), an implementation of a software system for fluid mechanics analysis. Visualization of computational aerodynamics requires flexible, extensible, and adaptable software tools for performing analysis tasks. An overview of FAST is given, and its architecture is discussed. Interactive visualization control is addressed. The advantages and disadvantages of FAST are discussed.<<ETX>>
Gordon V. Bancroft;Fergus Merritt;Todd Plessel;Paul G. Kelaita;R. Kevin McCabe;Al Globus
G.V. Bancroft;F.J. Merritt;T.C. Plessel;P.G. Kelaita;R.K. McCabe;A. GlobusSterling Federal Syst. Inc., Palo Alto, CA, USA;Sterling Federal Syst. Inc., Palo Alto, CA, USA;Sterling Federal Syst. Inc., Palo Alto, CA, USA;Sterling Federal Syst. Inc., Palo Alto, CA, USA;Sterling Federal Syst. Inc., Palo Alto, CA, USA;Sterling Federal Syst. Inc., Palo Alto, CA, USA71620
The VIS-5D system for easy interactive visualization
35, 462
CThe VIS-5D system provides highly interactive visual access to five-dimensional data sets containing up to 50 million data points. VIS-5D runs on the Stardent ST-1000 and ST-2000 workstations and generates animated three-dimensional graphics from gridded data sets in real time. It provides a widget-based user interface and fast visual response which allows scientists to interactively explore their data sets. VIS-5D generates literal and intuitive depictions of data, has user controls that are data oriented rather than graphics oriented, and provides a WYSIWYG (what-you-see-is-what-you-get) response. The result is a system that enables scientists to produce and direct their own animations.<<ETX>>William L. Hibbard;David A. SantekB. Hibbard;D. SantekSpace Sci. & Eng. Center, Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI, USA;Space Sci. & Eng. Center, Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI, USA6752
A procedural interface for volume rendering
44, 462
CThe author presents a simple, procedural interface for volume rendering. The interface is built on three types of objects: volumes, which contain the data to be visualized, environments, which set up viewing and lighting, and image objects, which convert results to a user-definable format. A volume is rendered against a particular environment with the results sent to an image object for conversion. By defining volume qualities such as color, opacity, and gradient in terms of user-definable transfer functions, the rendering process is made independent of the data set's underlying representation.<<ETX>>James L. MontineJ.L. MontineAlliant Comput. Syst., Littleton, MA, USA1339
Techniques for the interactive visualization of volumetric data
50, 462-3
CSome ideas and techniques for visualizing volumetric data are introduced. The methods presented are different from both the volume rendering techniques and surface contour methods. Volumetric data is data with a domain of three independent variables. The independent variables do not have to indicate a position in space and can be abstract in the sense that they can represent any quantity. The authors cover only the case where the dependent data is a single scalar. The authors describe a collection of techniques and ideas for graphing cuberille grid data. All of these techniques are quite simple and rather easy to implement. During the development of these techniques, the authors were particularly concerned with allowing the user to interact with the system in order to interrogate and analyze the relationships indicated by the volumetric data.<<ETX>>Gregory M. Nielson;Bernd HamannG.M. Nielson;B. HamannDept. of Comput. Sci., Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ, USA;Dept. of Comput. Sci., Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ, USA10.1109/VISUAL.1990.14638819235
Displaying voxel-based objects according to their qualitative shape synthesis
58, 463-4
CThe use of qualitative shape synthesis for the display of 3-D binary objects is presented. The proposed approach is applicable to multi-object scenes and to outdoor scenery as well. It makes use of a new method, the diffusion process, that simulates diffusion of particles within the interior of a 3-D discrete object. Starting with initial concentrations of particles at the boundary-voxels, the diffusion procedure simulates the propagation of these particles inwards. Boundary voxels of the object are colored according to the concentration of particles obtained by suspending the diffusion process. This method assists shape characterization by providing a qualitative measure of boundary curvature and was used in achieving display of a variety of voxel-based objects. Examples of the use of this approach on synthetic, terrain, and range data, are provided.<<ETX>>Yaser YacoobY. YacoobDept. of Comput. Sci., Maryland Univ., College Park, MD, USA21134
Interpreting a 3D object from a rough 2D line drawing
10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146365 the third dimension while designing three-dimensional (3-D) objects is an awkward process in mechanical computer-aided-design (CAD) systems, given the current state of the art. The authors describe a computer system that automatically constructs the shape of a 3-D object from a single 2-D sketch. The method makes it convenient to create and manipulate 3-D objects, and is thus seen as an intelligent user interface for CAD and 3-D graphics applications. The proposed technique is built on well-known results in image analysis. These results are applied in conjunction with some perceptual rules to determine 3-D structure from a rough line drawing. The principles are illustrated by a computer implementation that works in a nontrivial object domain.<<ETX>>Del Lamb;Amit BandopadhayD. Lamb;A. BandopadhayDept. of Comput. Sci., State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY, USA;Dept. of Comput. Sci., State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY, USA681210
Animation techniques for chain-coded objects
10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146366 animation of two-dimensional objects in a 2-D planar environment is discussed. The use of chain codes as a boundary representation for 2-D objects undergoing animation is shown to be practical for several typical transformations. Various methods for implementing the transformations are described. Quantized methods transform groups of chain code elements into other groups, while incremental methods construct the transformed chain code element by element. The low cost of quantized methods, which rely on table lookup and minimal arithmetic, are weighed against the increased accuracy offered by incremental methods, which maintain error indicators to ensure minimal differences between ideal and generated chain codes. Methods for scaling, rotation, and elastic deformation of objects based solely on chain code elements are discussed.<<ETX>>Anthony J. MaederA.J. MaederDept. of Comput. Sci., Monash Univ., Clayton, Vic., Australia3136
Extracting geometric models through constraint minimization
82, 464-5
CThe authors propose a methodology that will extract a topologically closed geometric model from a two-dimensional image. This is accomplished by starting with a simple model that is already topologically closed and deforming the model, based on a set of constraints, so that the model grows (shrinks) to fit the feature within the image while maintaining its closed and locally simple nature. The initial model is a non-self-intersecting polygon that is either embedded in the feature or surrounds the feature. There is a cost function associated with every vertex that quantifies its deformation, the properties of simple polygons, and the relationship between noise and feature. The constraints embody local properties of simple polygons and the nature of the relationship between noise and the features in the image.<<ETX>>
James V. Miller;David E. Breen;Michael J. Wozny
J.V. Miller;D.E. Breen;M.J. WoznyRensselaer Design. Res. Center, Rensselaer Polytech Inst., Troy, NY, USA;Rensselaer Design. Res. Center, Rensselaer Polytech Inst., Troy, NY, USA;Rensselaer Design. Res. Center, Rensselaer Polytech Inst., Troy, NY, USA151414
Wide-band relativistic Doppler effect visualization
92, 465-7
CThe authors present a flexible and efficient method to simulate the Doppler shift. In this new method the spectral curves of surface properties and light composition are represented by spline functions of wavelength. These functions can cover the entire electromagnetic (EM) waves bandwidth, and incorporate the thermal radiation of objects into the surface property description. In particular, a temperature-dependent emission spectral distribution can be assigned to each object for imaging the nonvisible thermal spectra which may become visible due to blue shift. The Doppler shift and shading operations are performed through the manipulation of spline coefficients. The evaluation of the spline functions, which is computationally expensive, is only carried out once-at the end of each shading loop for generating the display RGB values.<<ETX>>
Ping-Kang Hsiung;Robert H. Thibadeau;Christopher B. Cox;Robert H. P. Dunn;Michael Wu;Paul Andrew Olbrich
P.-K. Hsiung;R.H. Thibadeau;C.B. Cox;R.H.P. Dunn;M. Wu;P.A. OlbrichCarnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA, USA;Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA, USA;Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA, USA;Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA, USA;Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA, USA;Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA, USA1038
Dynamic graphics for network visualization
96, 467
CThe authors describe several dynamic graphics tools for visualizing network data involving statistics associated with the nodes or links in a network. The authors suggest a number of ideas for the static display of network data, while motivating the need for interaction through dynamic graphics. A brief discussion of dynamic graphics in general is presented. The authors specialize this to the case of network data. An example is presented.<<ETX>>
Richard A. Becker;Stephen G. Eick;Eileen O. Miller;Allan R. Wilks
R.A. Becker;S.G. Eick;E.O. Miller;A.R. WilksAT&T Bell Lab., Murray Hill, NJ, USA;AT&T Bell Lab., Murray Hill, NJ, USA;AT&T Bell Lab., Murray Hill, NJ, USA;AT&T Bell Lab., Murray Hill, NJ, USA1253
Techniques for visualizing Fermat's last theorem: a case study
106, 467-8
CThe authors describe some mathematical approaches and computer graphics techniques for illustrating concepts related to Fermat's last theorem. They present a selection of visualization methods, and describe observations made in the process of creating a three-minute computer animated videotape dealing with some elementary aspects of Fermat's last theorem, a problem in number theory. The approach to the representation of the different concepts presented in the video was influenced by many factors: the available hardware, real and perceived constraints of the available software, constraints imposed by the video medium, and a number of peculiarities and features of the mathematical domain itself. The authors describe the experiences with the software systems that played a part in these efforts, some specific successful visualization techniques, and some unexpected mathematical insights.<<ETX>>
Andrew J. Hanson;Pheng-Ann Heng;B. C. Kaplan
A.J. Hanson;P.A. Heng;B.C. KaplanIndiana Univ., Bloomington, IN, USA;Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN, USA;Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN, USA0215
Visualizing computer memory architectures
10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146371 authors describe a conceptual model, the memory hierarchy framework, and a visual language for using the model. The model is more faithful to the structure of computers than the Von Neumann and Turing models. It addresses the issues of data movement and exposes and unifies storage mechanisms such as cache, translation lookaside buffers, main memory, and disks. The visual language presents the details of a computer's memory hierarchy in a concise drawing composed of rectangles and connecting segments. Using this framework, the authors improved the performance of a matrix multiplication algorithm by more than an order of magnitude. The framework gives insight into computer architecture and performance bottlenecks by making effective use of human visual abilities.<<ETX>>Bowen Alpern;Larry Carter;Ted SelkerB. Alpern;L. Carter;T. SelkerIBM Thomas J. Watson Res. Center, Yorktown Heights, NY, USA;IBM Thomas J. Watson Res. Center, Yorktown Heights, NY, USA;IBM Thomas J. Watson Res. Center, Yorktown Heights, NY, USA16137
A methodology for scientific data visualisation: choosing representations based on a natural scene paradigm
10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146372 methodology for guiding the choice of visual representations of data is presented. The methodology provides objective and directed display design facilities. Such facilities can guide interactive visualization design, generate standard visualizations automatically, and assess the extent to which chosen representations can convey the required information to data analysis. The methodology is based on objectively distinguishing the types of information conveyed by various visual representations and matching these to the intrinsic characteristics of data and to aims for its interpretation. This approach is directed toward developing a stronger theoretical basis for visualization in scientific computation. The methodology is developed using a natural scene paradigm in which data variables are represented by identifiable properties of realistic scenes.<<ETX>>Philip K. RobertsonP.K. RobertsonCSIRO, Canberra, ACT, Australia0921
Moving iconic objects in scientific visualization
130, 468
CThe idea of independently moving, interacting graphical objects is introduced as a method for the visualization of continuous fields. Bird-oid objects or boids are discussed. These boids derive from: (1) icons which are geometric objects whose shape and appearance are related to the field variables, (2) three-dimensional cursors by which a user interactively picks a point in space, (3) particle traces, which are numerically integrated trajectories in space, (4) moving frames of vectors along space curves, and (5) actors, which are programming objects that can create and destroy instances of themselves, act according to internal logic, and communicate with each other and with a user. A software prototype in the C++ language has been developed which demonstrates some of the capabilities of these objects for the visualization of scalar, vector, and tensor fields defined over finite elements or finite volumes.<<ETX>>G. David KerlickD.G. KerlickTektronix Labs., Beaverton, OR, USA32322
Classifying visual knowledge representations: a foundation for visualization research
10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146374 exploratory effort to classify visual representations into homogeneous clusters is discussed. The authors collected hierarchical sorting data from twelve subjects. Five principal groups of visual representations emerged from a cluster analysis of sorting data: graphs and tables, maps, diagrams, networks, and icons. Two dimensions appear to distinguish these clusters: the amount of spatial information and cognitive processing effort. The authors discuss visual information processing issues relevant to the research, methodology and data analyses used to develop the classification system, results of the empirical study, and possible directions for future research.<<ETX>>
Gerald L. Lohse;Henry H. Rueter;Kevin Biolsi;Neff Walker
J. Lohse;H. Rueter;K. Biolsi;N. WalkerCognitive Sci. & Machine Intelligence Lab., Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI, USA;Cognitive Sci. & Machine Intelligence Lab., Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI, USA;Cognitive Sci. & Machine Intelligence Lab., Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI, USA;Cognitive Sci. & Machine Intelligence Lab., Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor, MI, USA35632
A problem-oriented classification of visualization techniques
143, 469
CProgress in scientific visualization could be accelerated if workers could more readily find visualization techniques relevant to a given problem. The authors describe an approach to this problem, based on a classification of visualization techniques, that is independent of particular application domains. A user breaks up a problem into subproblems, describes these subproblems in terms of the objects to be represented and the operations to be supported by a representation, locates applicable visualization techniques in a catalog, and combines these representations into a composite representation for the original problem. The catalog and its underlying classification provide a way for workers in different application disciplines to share methods.<<ETX>>Stephen Wehrend;Clayton LewisS. Wehrend;C. LewisColorado Univ., Boulder, CO, USA;Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO, USA22246
Visualization and three-dimensional image processing of positron emission tomography (PET) brain images
149, 469
CThe author applied image processing and volume rendering algorithms together with considerations on the physiology of the human visual system to improve the quality of perception of the information contained in positron emission tomography (PET) brain images, and to highlight the existing anatomical information. The psychophysical considerations for selecting color and brightness level are used to visualize functional and anatomical structures in three dimensions. One is able to perceive in the images the levels of rates of glucose metabolism of regions in the brain and their relative locations. In addition, some of the anatomic structures, such as the interhemispheric fissure, the caudate nucleus, and the thalamus, are apparent.<<ETX>>Nahum D. GershonN.D. GershonMITRE Corp., McLean, VA, USA085
Applying space subdivision techniques to volume rendering
159, 470
CThe authors present a ray-tracing algorithm for volume rendering designed to work efficiently when the data of interest is distributed sparsely through the volume. A simple preprocessing step identifies the voxels representing features of interest. Frequently this set of voxels, arbitrarily distributed in three-dimensional space, is a small fraction of the original voxel grid. A median-cut space partitioning scheme, combined with bounding volumes to prune void spaces in the resulting search structure, is used to store the voxels of interest in a k-d tree. The k-d tree is used as a data structure. The tree is then efficiently ray-traced to render the voxel data. The k-d tree is view independent, and can be used for animation sequences involving changes in positions of the viewer or positions of lights. This search structure has been applied to render voxel data from MRI, CAT scan, and electron density distributions.<<ETX>>Kalpathi R. Subramanian;Donald S. FussellK.R. Subramanian;D.S. FussellCenter for High Performance Comput., Texas Univ., Austin, TX, USA;Center for High Performance Comput., Texas Univ., Austin, TX, USA55521
Vis1990Volume visualization in cell biology
168, 471-2
CThe authors discuss the special properties of volumetric cell data (e.g., noise, discontinuity, raggedness) and the particular difficulties encountered when trying to visualize them in three dimensions. The authors describe some of the solutions adopted, specifically in surface discrimination and shading. Nerve cells (neuroblastoma) grown in tissue culture were selected as the biological preparation because these cells possess very rich actin structures. The cells were stained with a fluorescent probe specific for actin (rhodamine-phalloidin) and were viewed and optically sectioned using the Bio-Rad MRC 600 confocal fluorescence microscope. The slice dataset was then reconstructed and processed in the BioCube environment, a comprehensive system developed for volume visualization of cellular structures. The actin cytoskeleton of single cells was visualized and manipulated using this system.<<ETX>>
Arie E. Kaufman;Roni Yagel;Reuven Bakalash;I. Spector
A. Kaufman;R. Yagel;R. Bakalash;I. SpectorDept. of Comput. Sci., State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY, USA;Dept. of Comput. Sci., State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY, USA;Dept. of Comput. Sci., State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY, USA23129
Hierarchical triangulation using terrain features
10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146379 hierarchical triangulation built from a digital elevation model in grid form is described. The authors present an algorithm that produces a hierarchy of triangulations in which each level of the hierarchy corresponds to a guaranteed level of accuracy. The number of very thin triangles (slivers) is significantly reduced. Such triangles produced undesirable effects in animation. In addition the number of levels of the triangulated irregular network (TIN) tree is reduced. This speeds up searching within the data structure. Tests on data with digital elevation input have confirmed the theoretical expectations. On eight such sets the average sliveriness with the method was between 1/5 and 1/10 of old triangulations and number of levels was about one third. There was an increase in the number of descendants at each level, but the total number of triangles was also lower.<<ETX>>Lori L. Scarlatos;Theodosios PavlidisL. Scarlatos;T. PavlidisGrumman Data Syst., Woodbury, NY, USA1910120
Rendering and managing spherical data with sphere quadtrees
10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146380 sphere quadtree (SQT), which is based on the recursive subdivision of spherical triangles obtained by projecting the faces of an icosahedron onto a sphere, is discussed. Most databases for spherically distributed data are not structured in a manner consistent with their geometry. As a result, such databases possess undesirable artifacts, including the introduction of tears in the data when they are mapped onto a flat file system. Furthermore, it is difficult to make queries about the topological relationship among the data components without performing real arithmetic. The SQT eliminates some of these problems. The SQT allows the representation of data at multiple levels and arbitrary resolution. Efficient search strategies can be implemented for the selection of data to be rendered or analyzed by a specific technique. Geometric and topological consistency with the data are maintained.<<ETX>>Gyorgy FeketeF. GyorgyNASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD, USA833613
Vis1990Methods for surface interrogation
193, 472
CThe authors discuss various visualization techniques that have the goal of identifying unwanted curvature regions interactively on screen. The authors give a critical survey of surface interrogation methods. Several isoline and contouring techniques are presented, and the reflection line method, which simulates the so-called light cage by computer graphics, is presented. The isophote method analyzes surfaces by determining lines of equal light intensity. Silhouettes are special isophotes. A different approach to these problems is the mapping-technique. The mapping methods recognize unwanted curvature regions by detecting singularities of a special mapping of the curve or surface investigated. Curvature plots are a practical means of analyzing free-form surfaces. All these methods are effective, but generally need a lot of computational effort. The free-form surface visualization by ray tracing is discussed.<<ETX>>
Hans Hagen;Thomas Schreiber;Ernst Gschwind
H. Hagen;T. Schreiber;E. GschwindKaiserslautern Univ., Germany;Kaiserslautern Univ., Germany36108
A three-dimensional/stereoscopic display and model control system for Great Lakes forecasts
201, 473-4
CA forecasting system for the Great Lakes in which the data generated by a three-dimensional numerical model is visualized by a 3-D/stereoscopic display module is discussed. The module consists of a control panel and a display window with the capability of interactively rendering the results. The event scheduling for scenario testing to steer the 3-D numerical model is achieved by a similar panel. These panels set up the simulation and control the data flow between the graphics workstation and supercomputer. Rendering methods, stereo imagery, and animation are incorporated to display the results. Interaction between the user, the workstation, and the supercomputer allows steering of the simulation and tracing of the simulation output. Distributed software for postprocessing and volume rendering are used to enhance the representation.<<ETX>>
Chieh-Cheng Yen;Keith W. Bedford;Jill Kempf;Robert E. Marshall
C.-C.J. Yen;K.W. Bedford;J.L. Kempf;R.E. MarshallDept. of Civil Eng., Ohio State Univ., OH, USA;Dept. of Civil Eng., Ohio State Univ., OH, USA101112
Spline-based color sequences for univariate, bivariate and trivariate mapping
208, 474-5
CAlternative models that use B-spline curves and surfaces for generating color sequences for univariate, bivariate, and trivariate mapping are introduced. The main aim is to break away from simple geometric representation in order to provide more flexibility and control over color selection. This facilitates the task of constructing a customized color scheme for a particular map. The author gives a brief description of existing color schemes and their characteristics, and provides some background for B-spline curves and surfaces.<<ETX>>Binh Pham 0001B. PhamDept. of Comput. Sci., Monash Univ., Melbourne, Vic., Australia12215
Interactive visualization of quaternion Julia sets
218, 475-6
CThe first half of a two-step quaternion Julia set visualization system is described. This step uses a quarternion square root function to adapt the classic inverse iteration algorithm to the quaternions. The augmented version produces a 3-D Julia set defined by a point cloud that can be interactively manipulated on a graphics workstation. Several cues are assigned to the point cloud to increase depth perception. Finally, a short theorem is proven that extends the domain of the inverse iteration method to a rotational family of quadratic quaternion Julia sets.<<ETX>>John C. Hart;Louis H. Kauffman;Dan SandinJ.C. Hart;L.H. Kauffman;D.J. SandimElectron. Visualization Lab., Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL, USA;Electron. Visualization Lab., Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL, USA;Electron. Visualization Lab., Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL, USA121111
Vis1990A journey into the fourth dimension
229, 476-477
CIt is shown that by a simple (one-way) mapping from quaternions to complex numbers, the problem of generating a four-dimensional Mandelbrot set by iteration of a quadratic function in quaternions can be reduced to iteration of the same function in the complex domain, and thus, the function values in 4-D can be obtained by a simple table lookup. The computations are cut down by an order. Simple ways of displaying the fractal without shading and ways of fast ray tracing such a fractal using the table so generated are discussed. Further speedup in ray tracing can be achieved by estimates of a distance of a point from the Mandelbrot set. Animation is a key factor in visualizing 4-D objects. Three types of animation are attempted: translation in 4-D, rotation in 4-D, and fly-through in 3-D.<<ETX>>Yan Ke;E. S. PandurangaY. Ke;E.S. PandurangaDept. of Comput. Sci., Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, Sask., Canada1009
Vis1990Exploring N-dimensional databases
10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146386 authors present a tool for the display and analysis of N-dimensional data based on a technique called dimensional stacking. This technique is described. The primary goal is to create a tool that enables the user to project data of arbitrary dimensions onto a two-dimensional image. Of equal importance is the ability to control the viewing parameters, so that one can interactively adjust what ranges of values each dimension takes and the form in which the dimensions are displayed. This will allow an intuitive feel for the data to be developed as the database is explored. The system uses dimensional stacking, to collapse and N-dimension space down into a 2-D space and then render the values contained therein. Each value can then be represented as a pixel or rectangular region on a 2-D screen whose intensity corresponds to the data value at that point.<<ETX>>
Jeffrey LeBlanc;Matthew O. Ward;Norman Wittels
J. LeBlanc;M.O. Ward;N. WittelsWorcester Polytech. Inst., MA, USA;Worcester Polytech. Inst., MA, USA;Worcester Polytech. Inst., MA, USA200016
Shape coding of multidimensional data on a microcomputer display
246, 478
CThe author presents a simple and flexible method of sharp coding for higher dimensional data sets that allows the database operator or the scientist quick access to promising patterns within and among records or samples. The example used is a 13-parameter set of solar wind, magnetosphere, and ground observation data collected hourly for 21 days in 1976. The software system is a prototype developed to demonstrate the glyph approach to depicting higher-dimensional data sets. The experiment was to depict all parameters simultaneously, to see if any global or local patterns emerged. This experiment proves that much more complex data can be presented for visual pattern extraction than standard methods allow.<<ETX>>Jeff BeddowJ. BeddowMicrosimulations Res., Minneapolis, MN, USA8015
Visualization of irregular multivariate data
254, 478-9
CThe authors discuss effective techniques for representing scalar and vector valued functions that interpolate to irregularly located data. Special attention is given to the situations where the sampling domain is a two-dimensional plane, 3-D volume, or a closed 3-D surface. The authors first discuss the multiquadric and thin-plate spline methods for interpolating scalar data sampled at arbitrary locations in a plane. Straightforward generalizations are then made to data sampled in 3-D volumetric regions as well as in higher dimensional spaces. The globally defined interpolants can be evaluated on a fine regular grid and they can then be visualized using conventional techniques. Triangular and tetrahedral based visualization techniques are also presented.<<ETX>>Thomas A. Foley;David A. LaneT.A. Foley;D.A. LaneDept. of Comput. Sci., Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ, USA;Dept. of Comput. Sci., Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ, USA19931
Visualizing a scalar field on an N-dimensional lattice
262, 479-480
CThe authors address the problem of visualizing a scalar dependent variable which is a function of many independent variables. In particular, cases where the number of independent variables is three or greater are discussed. A new hierarchical method of plotting that allows one to interactively view millions of data points with up to 10 independent variables is presented. The technique is confined to the case where each independent variable is sampled in a regular grid or lattice-like fashion, i.e., in equal increments. The proposed technique can be described in either an active or a passive manner. In the active view the points of the N-dimensional independent variables lattice are mapped to a single horizontal axis in a hierarchical manner, while in the passive view an observer samples the points of the N-dimensional lattice in a prescribed fashion and notes the values of the dependent variable. In the passive view a plot of the dependent variable versus a single parametric variable, which is simply the sampling number, forms the multidimensional graph.<<ETX>>
Ted Mihalisin;E. Grawlinksi;John Timlin;John Schwegler
T. Mihalisin;E. Gawlinski;J. Timlin;J. SchweglerDept. of Phys., Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA, USA;Dept. of Phys., Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA, USA;Dept. of Phys., Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA, USA;Dept. of Phys., Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA, USA2603
Ray traced scalar fields with shaded polygonal output
272, 480-481
CAn algorithm for rendering scalar field data that reduces rendering times by as much as two orders of magnitude over traditional full resolution images is presented. Less than full-resolution sampling of the scalar field is performed using a fast ray tracing method. The sampling grid points are output as a set of screen-based Gouraud shaded polygons which are rendered in hardware by a graphics workstation. A gradient-based variable resolution algorithm that further improves rendering speed is presented. Several examples are presented.<<ETX>>Ray J. Meyers;Michael B. StephensonR.J. Meyers;M.B. StephensonSandia Nat. Lab., Albuquerque, NM, USA6417
The application of transport theory to visualization of 3D scalar data fields
280, 481-2
CThe author describes a visualization model for three-dimensional scalar data fields based on linear transport theory. The concept of virtual particles for the extraction of information from data fields in introduced. The role of different types of interaction of the data field with those particles such as absorption, scattering, source and color shift are discussed and demonstrated. Special attention is given to possible tools for the enhancement of interesting data features. Random texturing can provide visual insights as to the magnitude and distribution of deviations of related data fields, e.g., originating from analytic models, and measurements, or in the noise content of a given data field. Hidden symmetries of a data set can often be identified visually by allowing it to interact with a preselected beam of physical particles with the attendant appearance of characteristic structural effects such as channeling.<<ETX>>Wolfgang KrügerW. KruegerART+COM e.V., Berlin, Germany481924
Visualization of scalar data defined on a structured grid-applications to petroleum research
288, 482-3
CThe authors describe some simple visualization techniques that may be used to explore dynamic three-dimensional scalar fields in an interactive way. Scalar data are assumed to have been already computed, and graphic manipulations are done afterwards on a graphics workstation. Structured grids (finite-difference grids) are used, leading to an easy and fast exploration of the interior of a volume. Smooth animation and simultaneous visualization of two or three scalar fields is described. These methods were tested on various types of data from different fields of petroleum engineering, i.e. oil reservoir simulation, geophysics, geology, and combustion engine simulations.<<ETX>>J. L. Pajon;V. Bui TranJ.L. Pajon;V.B. TranInst. Francais due Petrole, Rueil Malmaison, France;Inst. Francais due Petrole, Rueil Malmaison, France307
A numerical method for rendering spherical reflections
297, 483-4
CMethods of rendering reflections in curved surfaces are examined. A numerical algorithm to derive spherical reflections is presented. This algorithm has many attractive qualities, such as low computation costs, object space coherence, device and resolution independence, and generation of maximum information about reflections in curved surfaces. The authors demonstrate that rendering reflections is a difficult problem, as it defies analytic solutions. The authors indicate several alternatives for generalizing this method to a broader domain.<<ETX>>David P. Dobkin;E. S. Panduranga;M. ZhuD. Dobkin;E.S. Panduranga;M. ZhuDept. of Comput. Sci., Princeton Univ., NJ, USA0115
Superposing images with shadow casting
306, 484-5
CAlgorithms for rendering complex and shaded animation sequences are described. The target display device for these image rendering algorithms is a multichannel display based on the superposing technique realized in hardware. An animation sequence is displayed by superposing a dynamic foreground on a static background. The static background can be a very complex scene, and the dynamic foreground can be an image with a simple to medium complexity. These two algorithms were developed based on raytracing.<<ETX>>Philip C. Hsu;John StaudhammerP. Hsu;J. StaudhammerDept. of Electr. Eng., Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL, USA;Dept. of Electr. Eng., Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL, USA9615
Automatic illustration of 3D geometric models: surfaces
314, 485-6
CThe authors present techniques for automating the illustration of geometric models based on traditional hand illustration methods. A system based on the techniques of traditional illustrators for automatically generating illustrations of complex three-dimensional models is described. The system relies on a richer set of display primitives, which are also outlined. Algorithmic details for emphasizing significant model components are discussed, and some preliminary results are presented.<<ETX>>Debra Dooley;Michael F. CohenD. Dooley;M.F. CohenDept. of Comput. Sci., Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT, USA;Dept. of Comput. Sci., Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT, USA3635714
Scattered data interpolation tools in a microcomputer visualization environment
10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146396 package that can bridge the connection between scattered data sets and the highly structured sets required by graphics algorithms is described. Although export of evaluation data is a necessary capability, it is very important that this package has a fully featured three-dimensional graphics subsystem to interactively guide the researcher toward the final visualization results. At that point the option exists of using more sophisticated and more powerful graphics tools to achieve the desired presentation. The application presented has been designed to effectively meet these needs and to promote the awareness of the value of interpolation tools in visualization. Full details of this design are presented.<<ETX>>Keith VoegeleK. VoegeleDept. of Comput. Sci., Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ, USA3014
Design of an end-user data visualization system
328, 487
CThe authors describe the architecture of an end-user visualization system that supports interactive analysis of three-dimensional scalar and vector data in a heterogeneous hardware environment. The system supports a variety of visualization methods with applicability in disciplines such as computational fluid dynamics, earth, and space sciences, and finite-element analysis. The authors discuss how design goals and hardware constraints lead to a simple, cohesive paradigm for implementing a powerful, flexible, and portable visualization system. To assure efficient operation across a broad range of hardware platforms, the tools were implemented so that their interactivity is largely independent of data complexity. To gain portability, the system was built on a platform-independent graphics layer and user interface management system. The authors outline general concerns with current visualization methods and show how the approach simplifies the visualization process.<<ETX>>
Donald L. Brittain;Josh Aller;Michael Wilson;Sue-Ling C. Wang
D.L. Brittain;J. Aller;M. Wilson;S.-L.C. WangWavefront Technol. Inc., Santa Barbara, CA, USA;Wavefront Technol. Inc., Santa Barbara, CA, USA;Wavefront Technol. Inc., Santa Barbara, CA, USA;Wavefront Technol. Inc., Santa Barbara, CA, USA1008
A system for three-dimensional acoustic 'visualization' in a virtual environment workstation
10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146398 authors describe the real-time acoustic display capabilities developed for the virtual environment workstation (VIEW) project. The acoustic display is capable of generating localized acoustic cues in real time over headphones. An auditor symbology, a related collection of representational auditory objects or icons, can be designed using the auditory cue editor, which links both discrete and continuously varying acoustic parameters with information or events in the display. During a given display scenario, the symbology can be dynamically coordinated in real time with three-dimensional visual objects, speech, and gestural displays. The types of displays feasible with the system range from simple warnings and alarms to the acoustic representation of multidimensional data or events.<<ETX>>
Elizabeth M. Wenzel;Scott S. Fisher;Philip K. Stone;Scott H. Foster
E.M. Wenzel;P.K. Stone;S.S. Fisher;S.H. FosterNASA Ames Res. Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA;NASA Ames Res. Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA48236
An interpersonal multimedia visualization system
10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146399 is a computer program that provides a generic infrastructure for authoring and interacting with multimedia documents. Among its applications is the ability to furnish a user with a comprehensive environment for analysis and visualization. With this program the user can produce a document that contains mathematics, datasets and associated visualizations. From the dataset or embedded mathematics animated sequences can be produced in situ. Equations that appear in a document have a backing format that is compatible with the Mathematica language. Thus, by clicking on an equation, its semantics are conveyed to Mathematica, where the user can perform a variety of symbolic and numerical operations. Since the document is all digital, it can be shared on a local network or mailed electronically to a distant site. Animations and any other substructures of the document persist through the mailing process and can be awakened at the destination by the recipient.<<ETX>>Richard L. PhillipsR.L. PhillipsLos Alamos Nat. Lab., NM, USA708
Techniques for visualizing 3-dimensional manifolds
352, 487-8
CComputer graphics has long been concerned with representing and displaying surfaces in three-dimensional space. The author addresses the questions of representation and display in a higher dimensional setting, specifically, that of 3-manifolds immersed in four-dimensional space. The author describes techniques for visualizing the cross-section surfaces of a 3-manifold formed by a cutting hyperplane. The manifold is first triangulated, so that the cross-section may be computed on a per tetrahedron basis. The triangulated manifold is stored in a data structure which efficiently supports calculation of curvature. These techniques have been implemented on Personal IRIS.<<ETX>>Michael J. LaszloM.J. LaszloDept. of Electr. Eng. & Comput. Sci., Illinois Univ., Chicago, IL, USA4127
Accurate display of tensor product isosurfaces
360, 489
CA general method for rendering isosurfaces of multivariate rational and polynomial tensor products is described. The method is robust up to degree 15, handling singularities without introducing spurious rendering artifacts. The approach does not solve the problem of singularities in general, but it removes the problem from the rendering domain to the interpolation/approximation domain. It is based on finding real roots of a polynomial in Bernstein form. This makes it particularly suitable for parallel and pipelined processing. It is envisioned that the tensor products will be used as approximants or interpolants for empirical data or scalar fields. An interpolation scheme is given as an example.<<ETX>>Alyn P. RockwoodA. RockwoodSilicon Graphics Comput. Syst., Mountain View, CA, USA9619
Parallel coordinates: a tool for visualizing multi-dimensional geometry
10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146402 methodology for visualizing analytic and synthetic geometry in R/sup N/ is presented. It is based on a system of parallel coordinates which induces a nonprojective mapping between N-dimensional and two-dimensional sets. Hypersurfaces are represented by their planar images which have some geometrical properties analogous to the properties of the hypersurface that they represent. A point from to line duality when N=2 generalizes to lines and hyperplanes enabling the representation of polyhedra in R/sup N/. The representation of a class of convex and non-convex hypersurfaces is discussed, together with an algorithm for constructing and displaying any interior point. The display shows some local properties of the hypersurface and provides information on the point's proximity to the boundary. Applications are discussed.<<ETX>>Alfred Inselberg;Bernard DimsdaleA. Inselberg;B. DimsdaleIBM Sci. Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA;IBM Sci. Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA917047
Vis1990Visualization of free form volumes
10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146403 algorithm that creates planar and arbitrarily curved sections of free-form volumes is presented. The definition of free-form volumes generalizes techniques from free-form curves and surfaces to trivariate representation. The definition is given for volumes in the Bernstein-Bezier representation. The author illustrates an intersection algorithm that can be used to perform intersection operations on free-form volumes. Some calculated examples are given. The algorithm can be used as a subroutine for algorithms which are able to perform more general intersections of free-form volumes, e.g. Boolean operations on two free-form volumes.<<ETX>>Dieter LasserD. LasserFachbereich Inf., Kaiserslautern Univ., Germany2025
Visualization for nonlinear engineering FEM analysis in manufacturing
423, 490
CThis case study describes how visualization tools were used in a nonlinear finite-element method (FEM) analysis of rivet deformation. After summarizing the problem at hand, it is concluded that three factors that aided the visualization process in this case can be extracted as general principles: first, focus the viewer on the area of interest; second, do not confuse the viewer with strange color scales; and finally, do not try to convey too much information in one image. Images should convey a maximum amount of information with a minimum of confusion. In this particular case the most useful techniques proved to be animations of color-shaded contours, where the viewer could zoom in on any area of particular interest. Animation was used for each of the seven different data types produced by the analysis package.<<ETX>>Gerald W. EdgarG.W. EdgarBoeing Comput. Services, Seattle, WA, USA223
Volume microscopy of biological specimens based on non-confocal imaging techniques
10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146413 approach that uses advanced computer graphics workstations and volume rendering algorithms for accurate reconstruction of volumetric microscopy data is described. It has been found that excellent reconstructions can be made from serial sections acquired using a charge-coupled device and a conventional light microscope. Both confocal and nonconfocal reconstructions are examined. The effects of differing light sources are considered 3D image processing results are presented.<<ETX>>
Stephen L. Senft;Vincent J. Argio;William L. van Zandt
S.L. Senft;V.J. Argiro;W.L. VanZandtWashington Univ. Sch. of Med., St. Louis, MO, USA6110
Vis1990Visualization for the information age
10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146414 form only given. The basic parameters of current TV, the origins of HDTV, and the various types of TV systems being proposed in Japan, America and Europe are reviewed. Available HDTV hardware, new applications that this hardware enables, and the economics involved are discussed. How HDTV fits into the film and television industries from the perspectives of production, distribution, and creativity, HDTV's demands upon telecommunications, and why data compression plays a critical role have been examined. The evolution of the present workstation from many analytical perspectives, leading up to the most recent product introductions of all the major vendors, developments in accelerator boards and interactive graphics peripherals, and the evolution of the man/machine interface are discussed.<<ETX>>Laurin HerrL. HerrPacific Interface, New York, NY, USA050
Case study in scientific visualization: factors inducing periodic breathing in humans with blunted hypoxic sensitivity
10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146415 problem of presenting and gaining deeper understanding of a multidimensional system, a mathematical model Predicting 20-90 s oscillations in breathing, is presented. The authors utilized custom software for interactive analysis of a three-dimensional model, plus Wavefront software to render translucent images of the 3D surfaces. The results show that under conditions of no peripheral chemosensor sensitivity, periodic breathing is predicted to occur with (1) an increase in circulatory transit time between the lungs and brain, (2) the presence of marked steady state hypoventilation, and/or (3) an increase in brain blood flow rate. It is concluded that the peripheral chemosensors (carotid bodies) are not essential for the development of periodic breathing.<<ETX>>Wayne E. Fordyce;Jeffrey VentrellaW.E. Fordyce;J.J. VentrellaRes. Comput. Services, Syracuse Univ., NY, USA;Res. Comput. Services, Syracuse Univ., NY, USA05210
Interactive investigation of fluid mechanics data sets
439, 490
CFIELDVIEW, a visual analysis tool designed to facilitate the interactive investigation of fluid mechanics data sets by providing an easy-to-use interface to the flow field data, is presented. Operating on NASA Plot three-dimensional format data, FIELDVIEW computes scalar and vector flow quantities and displays them using a variety of representations, including animation. An interactive viewing interface allows free motion around the data under study to allow the researcher to locate and study the interesting flow features of three-dimensional fluid dynamic data.<<ETX>>Steve M. LegenskyS.M. Legensky945
Real-world applications of visualization solutions
10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146417 data analysis (VDA) is a visualization approach that combines vector and raster graphics to provide insights into various aspects of multidimensional datasets. VDA methods have found application in aerospace engineering research, VDA is being used to develop nondestructive evaluation testing techniques for graphite epoxy composites by providing insights into stress waves propagating through them. Visual data analysis was used to analyze stress wave propagation, determine the origin of an unexplained wave distortion, and create a theoretical model to eliminate the distortion utilizing mathematical modeling.<<ETX>>David A. PrawelD.A. PrawelPrecision Visuals Inc., Boulder, CO, USA11193
Personal visualization system: applications in research and engineering
448, 490-1
CThe authors describe an innovative personal visualization system and its application to several research and engineering problems. The system bridges both hardware and software components to permit a user to graphically describe a visualization problem to the computer; thereby reducing program development time to a few hours. Low-cost visualization is achieved using PC-based software that can either be executed on a PC or drive graphic workstations for high-resolution displays. In either case, supercomputer computation rates are available for the visualization process. On PCs this is done with one or more PiP plug in cards, each of which is capable of 100 million floating point operations per second. On workstations this is done with the QUEN array processor. Applications mentioned include: ocean wave imaging; characterizing superconductors; and solar sail visualization.<<ETX>>
Quentin E. Dolecek;K. Moorjani;B. F. Kim;D. G. Tilley;Thomas S. Denney Jr.
Q.E. Dolecek;K. Moorjani;B.F. Kim;D.G. Tilley;T.S. DenneyAppl. Phys. Lab., Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD, USA;Appl. Phys. Lab., Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD, USA;Appl. Phys. Lab., Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD, USA;Appl. Phys. Lab., Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD, USA;Appl. Phys. Lab., Johns Hopkins Univ., Laurel, MD, USA009
A graphical interface for robotic remediation of underground storage tanks
10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146419 investigations into the application of intelligent robot control technology to the problem of removing waste stored in tanks is discussed. The authors describe the experimental environment used, with particular attention to the hardware and software control environment and the graphical interface. Intelligent system control is achieved through the integration of extensive geometric and kinematic world models with real-time sensor-based control. All operator interactions with the system are through fully animated graphical representations which validate all operator commands before execution to provide for safe operation. Sensing is used to add information to the robot system's world model and to allow sensor-based servo control during selected operations. The results of an initial critical features test are reported, and the potential to apply advanced intelligent control concepts to the removal of waste in storage tanks is discussed.<<ETX>>Brian K. Christensen;Lisa M. DesjarlaisB.K. Christensen;L.M. DesjarlaisSandia Nat. Lab., Albuquerque, NM, USA;Sandia Nat. Lab., Albuquerque, NM, USA4264
Scientific visualization from inside the metacomputer
10.1109/VISUAL.1991.175767 form only given, as follows. Historically, scientific visualization has been carried out in two primary modes: interactive on desktop computers, and batch on high-performance computers. The next decade will see a merging of these two approaches with the advent of high-speed networking. The networking is hierarchical in speed from Ethernet to FDDI to HiPPI. This network effectively unites desktop computers with higher-value remote resources into a single metacomputer. To take advantage of this new hardware configuration, distributed visualization software is being developed which allows the flexibility of the local workstation to be coupled with the computing power of distant supercomputers. Examples are discussed for 2D raster graphics and 3D rendered surface and volumetric graphics. These new capabilities are having a remarkable impact on computational science.<<ETX>>Larry L. SmarrL.L. SmarrNato Centre for Supercomput. Appls., Champaign, IL, USA100
Visualizing causal effects in 4D space-time vector fields
16, 406
CA method is presented for juxtaposing 4D space-time vector fields, of which one contains a source variable and the other the response field. Thresholding, ellipsoid fitting, and vortex line generation are used to reduce the amount of information and help analyze the relationship between two 3D vector variables evolving in time. The technique helps to highlight the topological relationship between the two in an effort to understand the causal connection. These concepts are applied to on-going research in evolving fluid dynamics problems.<<ETX>>Deborah Silver;M. Gao;Norman J. ZabuskyD. Silver;M. Gao;N. ZabuskyRutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ, USA;Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ, USA;Rutgers Univ., Piscataway, NJ, USA9258
The virtual windtunnel: An environment for the exploration of three-dimensional unsteady flows
24, 407
CA recently completed implementation of a virtual environment for exploring numerically generated three-dimensional unsteady flowfields is described. A boom-mounted six-degree-of-freedom head-position-sensitive stereo CRT system is used for viewing. A hand-position-sensitive glove controller is used for injecting various tracers (e.g. smoke) into the virtual flowfield. A multiprocessor graphics workstation is used for computation and rendering. The techniques for visualizing unsteady flows are described, and the computer requirements for a variety of visualization techniques are discussed. These techniques generalize to visualization of other 3D vector fields.<<ETX>>Steve Bryson;Creon LevitS. Bryson;C. LevitNASA Ames Res. Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA;NASA Ames Res. Center, Moffett Field, CA, USA141111BP
Volume rendering of flow-visualization point data
10.1109/VISUAL.1991.175772 survey of 2D and 3D flow visualization techniques is provided. The approach is based on applying volume rendering to flow-visualization data. Linear interpolation and B-spline approximation are used, and several views are given for both. Suggestions for efficient volume rendering are provided.<<ETX>>
Paul Gene Swann;Sudhanshu Kumar Semwal
P.G. Swann;S.K. SemwalDept. of Comput. Sci., Colorado Univ., Colorado Springs, CO, USA;Dept. of Comput. Sci., Colorado Univ., Colorado Springs, CO, USA717727
A tool for visualizing the topology of three-dimensional vector fields
40, 408
CA description is given of a software system, TOPO, that numerically analyzes and graphically displays topological aspects of a three-dimensional vector field, v, to produce a single, relatively simple picture that characterizes v. The topology of v considered consists of its critical points (where v=0), their invariant manifolds, and the integral curves connecting these invariant manifolds. The field in the neighborhood of each critical point is approximated by the Taylor expansion. The coefficients of the first nonzero term of the Taylor expansion around a critical point are the 3*3 matrix Delta v. Critical points are classified by examining Delta v's eigenvalues. The eigenvectors of Delta v span the invariant manifolds of the linearized field around a critical point. Curves integrated from initial points on the eigenvectors a small distance from a critical point connect with other critical points (or the boundary) to complete the topology. One class of critical surfaces that is important in computational fluid dynamics is analyzed.<<ETX>>Al Globus;Creon Levit;T. LasinskiA. Globus;C. Levit;T. Lasinski10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146360;10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146359187644
Two widely-different architectural approaches to computer image generation
10.1109/VISUAL.1991.175776 description is given of the computer graphics aspects of two architectures designed for imaging and graphics. The two systems use parallel and pipelined architectures for high-performance graphics operations. UWGPSP3 uses only commercially available off-the-shelf chips, and consists of a TM34020 graphics system processor and four TMS34082 floating point coprocessors that can be configured into pipelined or SIMD modes depending on the algorithm. UWGSP4 uses dedicated ASIC chips for higher performance, and consists of two main computational parts: a parallel vector processor with 16 vector processing units, used mainly for image processing, and a graphics subsystem which utilizes a parallel pipelined architecture for image synthesis.<<ETX>>
H. W. Park;K. S. Eo;D. L. Kim;B. K. Choi;Yongmin Kim 0001;T. Alexander
H.W. Park;K.S. Eo;D.L. Kim;B.K. Choi;Y. Kim;T. AlexanderDept. of Electr. Eng., Washington Univ., Seattle, WA, USA408
Fast rotation of volume data on parallel architectures
57, 409
CAn algorithm for rendering of orthographic views of volume data on data-parallel computer architectures is described. In particular, the problem or rotating the volume in regard to the communication overhead associated with finely distributed memory is analyzed. An earlier technique (shear decomposition) is extended to 3D, and it is shown how this can be mapped onto a data-parallel architecture using only grid communication during the resampling associated with the rotation. The rendering uses efficient parallel computation constructs that allow one to use sophisticated shading models and still maintain high-speed throughout. This algorithm has been implemented on the connection machine and is used in an interactive volume-rendering application, with multiple frames-per-second performance.<<ETX>>Peter Schröder;James B. SalemP. Schroder;J.B. SalemThinking Machines Corp., Cambridge, MA, USA;Thinking Machines Corp., Cambridge, MA, USA64324
Achieving direct volume visualization with interactive semantic region selection
65, 410
CThe authors have achieved rates as high as 15 frames per second for interactive direct visualization of 3D data by trading some function for speed, while volume rendering with a full complement of ramp classification capabilities is performed at 1.4 frames per second. These speeds have made the combination of region selection with volume rendering practical for the first time. Semantic-driven selection, rather than geometric clipping, has proved to be a natural means of interacting with 3D data. Internal organs in medical data or other regions of interest can be built from preprocessed region primitives. The resulting combined system has been applied to real 3D medical data with encouraging results.<<ETX>>
Terry S. Yoo;Ulrich Neumann;Henry Fuchs;Stephen M. Pizer;Tim J. Cullip;John Rhoades;Ross T. Whitaker
T.S. Yoo;U. Neumann;H. Fuchs;S.M. Pizer;T. Cullip;J. Rhoades;R. WhitakerNorth Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC, USA;North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC, USA;North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC, USA;North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC, USA;North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC, USA;North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC, USA;North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC, USA24113
Span filtering: an optimization scheme for volume visualization of large finite element models
75, 411
CTechniques for displaying 3D isovalues of scalar fields such as stress within a solid finite-element model generally involve examining each element for values of interest. An inexpensive, straightforward method is discussed for reducing the number of elements searched for such isovalues. It takes advantage of one traversal of the element data to yield a compact classification of the model by result values and ranges, with no sorting required. This data structure can then relate any scalar isovalue to a set of element groups which are closely inclusive of the isovalue. This method is intended for applications requiring repeated access to the analysis data, such as animation and interactive rendering of isosurfaces and scalar fields. While applicable to general volume visualization problems, it is particularly well suited to optimizing real-valued continuum field results such as those found in finite-element data.<<ETX>>Richard S. GallagherR.S. GallagherSwanson Analysis Systems Inc., Houston, PA, USA10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146390504121
Visualization of equations in an interactive environment
82, 412
CA method of visualizing equations in their explicit form using 3D fields is described. Equations are written algebraically, interpreted by an equation parser, and then expressed as scalar fields. Fields are represented as isosurfaces, making use of an algorithm similar to the method of marching cubes. The implementation allows the real-time interaction of equation parameters, isosurface rotations, and coloring. A variety of applications from mathematics and physics are given, together with examples of construction of data probes using equations.<<ETX>>
David Watson;Jakub Wejchert;David W. Williams;Bri M. Collins
D. Watson;J. Wejchert;D.W. Williams;B.M. CollinsIBM European Visualization Centre, Winchester, UK;IBM European Visualization Centre, Winchester, UK;IBM European Visualization Centre, Winchester, UK;IBM European Visualization Centre, Winchester, UK10.1109/VISUAL.1990.14640112228
The asymptotic decider: resolving the ambiguity in marching cubes
91, 413
CA method for computing isovalue or contour surfaces of a trivariate function is discussed. The input data are values of the trivariate function, F/sub ijk/, at the cuberille grid points (x/sub i/, y/sub j/, z/sub k/), and the output of a collection of triangles representing the surface consisting of all points where F(x,y,z) is a constant value. The method is a modification that is intended to correct a problem with a previous method.<<ETX>>Gregory M. Nielson;Bernd HamannG.M. Nielson;B. HamannDept. of Comput. Sci., Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ, USA;Dept. of Comput. Sci., Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ, USA10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146363367116
Acoustic imaging: the reconstruction of underwater objects
101, 414
CReconstruction of 3D scenes using data from an acoustic imaging sonar is addressed. The acoustic lens is described, and issues concerning underwater 3D scene reconstruction from the lens data are examined. Two methods for visualizing objects in an acoustic snapshot of the ocean are discussed: mathematical morphology and a synthesis of 3D digital imaging with volume rendering.<<ETX>>
Lawrence J. Rosenblum;Behzad Kamgar-Parsi;Edward O. Belcher;Ola Engelsen
L. Rosenblum;B. Kamgar-Parsi;E. Belcher;O. EngelsenUS Naval Res. Lab., Washington, DC, USA;US Naval Res. Lab., Washington, DC, USA71111
Computer assisted sphere packing in higher dimensions
10.1109/VISUAL.1991.175785 computer was used to help study the packing of equal spheres in dimension four and higher. A candidate of the densest packing in 4-space is described. The configuration of 24 spheres touching a central sphere in this packing is shown to be rigid, unlike the analog in 3-space, in which the spheres can slide past each other. A system for interactively manipulating and visualizing such configurations is described. The Voronoi cell for a sphere is the set of points closer to its center than to any other sphere center in the packing. The packing density is the ratio of a sphere's volume to the average of the volumes of the Voronoi cells. A method of constructing Voronoi cells and computing their volumes that works in any dimension is presented. Examples of Voronoi cell volumes are given.<<ETX>>Nelson L. MaxN. MaxCalifornia Univ., Davis, CA, USA1923
The electronic structure of oxygen in silicon as revealed by volume visualization of Ab initio calculations
115, 415
CVolumetric rendering is applied to the interpretation of atomic-scale data generated from quantum molecular dynamics computations. In particular, for silicon computations it is found that volumetric visualization of the computed 3D electronic charge density is a valuable tool for identifying defect states in silicon lattices in which oxygen atoms occur as impurities. Rendering of several judiciously selected ranges of charge density in translucent colors provides an effective means of identifying broken or altered molecular bonds and induced charge excesses in the lattice. The resulting 3D images reveal important features missed previously in 2D charge density contour maps. Stereoscopic 'blink comparison' of image pairs is an extremely valuable way to study the structural differences among various configurations, and animation provides significant insight into the molecular dynamics.<<ETX>>
Robert H. Wolfe;Mark Needels;John D. Joannopoulos
R.H. Wolfe;M. Needels;J.D. JoannopoulosIBM Thomas J. Watson Res. Center, Yorktown Heights, NY, USA;IBM Thomas J. Watson Res. Center, Yorktown Heights, NY, USA4277
Vis1991Golf green visualization
123, 416
CTelevision coverage of golf fails to bring the viewer an appreciation of the complex topography of a golf green and how that topography affects the putting of golf balls. A computer graphics simulation that enhances the viewer's perception of these features using shaded polygonal models of the actual golf green used in tournaments is presented. Mathematical modeling of the golf ball's trajectory on its way toward the hole further enhances viewer understanding. A putting difficulty map assesses the relative difficulty of putting from each location on the green to a given pin position. The object-oriented system is written in C and runs on a variety of 3D graphics workstations. As an experiment, the system was used at a professional golf tournament and correctly simulated all putts during the final round.<<ETX>>William E. Lorensen;Boris YamromW.E. Lorensen;B. YamronGeneral Electric Co., Schenectady, NY, USA;General Electric Co., Schenectady, NY, USA11214
The stream polygon: A technique for 3D vector field visualization
132, 417
CA method is presented for the visualization of 3D vector fields. The stream polygon, which is a regular, n-sided polygon, oriented normal to the local vector, can present local deformations due to rigid body rotation and both normal and shear strain. The effect of translation and scalar functions can be represented by sweeping the stream polygon along the streamline, and by appropriately varying the radius and shading the surface of the resulting streamtube. A mathematical foundation for the stream is developed, and examples with application to velocity field visualization are provided.<<ETX>>
William J. Schroeder;Christopher R. Volpe;William E. Lorensen
W.J. Schroeder;C.R. Volpe;W.E. LorensenGeneral Electric Corp. Res. & Dev., Schenectady, NY, USA;General Electric Corp. Res. & Dev., Schenectady, NY, USA;General Electric Corp. Res. & Dev., Schenectady, NY, USA85210
Vis1991The hyperbox
139, 418
CA hyperbox is a two-dimensional depiction of an N-dimensional box (rectangular parallelepiped). The authors define the visual syntax of hyperboxes, state some properties, and sketch two applications. Hyperboxes can be evocative visual names for tensors or multidimensional arrays in visual programming languages. They can also be used to simultaneously display all pairwise relationships in an N-dimensional dataset. This can be helpful in choosing a sequence of dimension-reducing transformations that preserve interesting properties of the dataset.<<ETX>>Bowen Alpern;Larry CarterB. Alpern;L. CarterIBM Thomas J. Watson Res. Center, Yorktown Heights, NY, USA;IBM Thomas J. Watson Res. Center, Yorktown Heights, NY, USA10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146386;10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146402;10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146387;10.1109/VISUAL.1990.1463894719
Gray scale diagrams as business charts
10.1109/VISUAL.1991.175791 diagrams, which can present large amounts of quantitative information in a compact format, are considered as a candidate for business charts. Hundreds of data points can easily be represented in one diagram, using small gray-scale squares (or tiles), without visually overloading a viewer. An experiment was done to compare the subjects' responses to questions from three types of charts, traditional column and line charts and gray-scale tile charts. The results showed that questions were answered more correctly and more quickly using gray-scale tile charts than using traditional charts. However, subjects reported they experienced more strain using gray-scale charts.<<ETX>>W. R. FeeneyW.R. FeeneyDept. of Inf. & Decisions Syst., San Diego State Univ., San Diego, CA, USA2312
Shadowed hedgehogs: a technique for visualizing 2D slices of 3D vector fields
10.1109/VISUAL.1991.175792 technique of placing directed line segments at grid points, known as hedgehogging, which has been used for visualizing 2D vector fields, is considered. A means of rapidly rendering a slice of a 3D field, suitable for a bilevel display, is provided. Shape and shadowing are used to disambiguate orientation. Liberal use of lookup tables makes the technique very fast.<<ETX>>R. Victor Klassen;Steven J. HarringtonR.V. Klassen;S.J. HarringtonXerox Webster Res. Center, Webster, NY, USA;Xerox Webster Res. Center, Webster, NY, USA3178
Interactive data visualization using focusing and linking
163, 419
CTwo basic principles for interactive visualization of high-dimensional data-focusing and linking-are discussed. Focusing techniques may involve selecting subsets, dimension reduction, or some more general manipulation of the layout information on the page or screen. A consequent of focusing is that each view only conveys partial information about the data and needs to be linked so that the information contained in individual views can be integrated into a coherent image of the data as a whole. Examples are given of how graphical data analysis methods based on focusing and linking are used in applications including linguistics, geographic information systems, time series analysis, and the analysis of multi-channel images arising in radiology and remote sensing.<<ETX>>
Andreas Buja;John Alan McDonald;J. Michalak;Werner Stuetzle
A. Buja;J.A. McDonald;J. Michalak;W. StuetzleBellcore, Morristown, NJ, USA192134
Color icons: merging color and texture perception for integrated visualization of multiple parameters
170, 420
CA technique that harnesses color and texture perception to create integrated displays of 2D image-like multiparameter distributions is presented. The power of the technique is demonstrated by an example of a synthesized dataset and compared with several other proposed techniques. The nature of studies that are required to measure objectively and accurately the effectiveness of such displays is discussed.<<ETX>>Haim LevkowitzH. LevkowitzDept. of Comput. Sci., Lowell Univ., MA, USA89516
Visualization and analysis of multi-variate data: a technique for all fields
178, 421
CA technique is presented for plotting large multivariate data sets that involves the mapping of n independent variable dimensions on to a single hierarchical horizontal axis with a single dependent variable being plotted on the vertical axis. The emphasis is on visual statistical analysis of either discrete variables or continuous variables that have been sampled on, or binned to, a regular n-dimensional lattice. The general applicability of the technique is discussed, and ways are explored of representing the hierarchical data-driven symbols that are particularly well suited to a variety of visual analysis tasks.<<ETX>>Ted Mihalisin;John Timlin;John SchweglerT. Mihalisin;J. Timlin;J. SchweglerMihalisin Associates, Ambler, PA, USA;Mihalisin Associates, Ambler, PA, USA;Mihalisin Associates, Ambler, PA, USA33119
The visual comparison of three sequences
10.1109/VISUAL.1991.175797 method of visual comparison is described, that provides the scientist with a unique tool to study the qualitative relationships between three sequences of numbers or symbols. The program displays a 3D shape containing the sequence similarities and differences, which manifest themselves as simple geometric shapes and colors that a human observer can easily detect and classify. The method presents all possible correlations to the user, giving it a considerable advantage over existing sequence comparison tools that only search for a programmed subset of all possible correlations. Thus, using this technique, researchers may detect sequence similarities that other analytic methods might completely overlook. The program can also filter out undesirable or insignificant correlations. The technique is easily adapted to a wide range of applications.<<ETX>>Kenneth P. Hinkley;Matthew O. WardK.P. Hinckley;M.O. WardDept. of Comput. Sci., Worchester Polytech. Inst., MA, USA;Dept. of Comput. Sci., Worchester Polytech. Inst., MA, USA1610
Enhanced visualization of multi-dimensional structures. Applications in positron emission tomography and climate data
193, 422
CAn algorithm based on mathematical morphology, image processing, and volume rendering has been developed to enhance the visual perception of definite and abstract structures embedded in multidimensional data undergoing visualization. This erosion procedure enhances the depth and shape perception of structures present in the data beyond the perception facilitated by shading and contrasting colors alone. The utility of this algorithm is demonstrated for medical imaging (positron emission tomography) and climate (sea surface temperature) data. The resulting information is displayed in stereo.<<ETX>>Nahum D. GershonN.D. GershonMitre Corp., McLean, VA, USA198
Topographical mapping of brain electrical activity
10.1109/VISUAL.1991.175800 topographical mapping methods and problems associated with mapping are reviewed, and one approach for improving the spatial resolution of scalp recorded EEGs is detailed. In particular, techniques for interpolating the potential distribution and estimating the surface Laplacian from multichannel data are presented and applied to human evoked potential data. Although developed for electroencephalographic data, these spline algorithms can be applied to a variety of fields where visualization of spatial information is desired.<<ETX>>
S. K. Law;P. L. Nunez;A. F. Westdorp;A. V. Nelson;K. L. Pilgreen
S.K. Law;P.L. Nunez;A.F. Westdorp;A.V. Nelson;K.L. PilgreenDept. of Biomed. Eng., Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA, USA;Dept. of Biomed. Eng., Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA, USA;Dept. of Biomed. Eng., Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA, USA;Dept. of Biomed. Eng., Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA, USA;Dept. of Biomed. Eng., Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA, USA7820
In vivo blood flow visualization with magnetic resonance imaging
209, 423
CBlood movement investigated by magnetic resonance (MR) velocity mapping is generally presented in the form of velocity components in one or more chosen velocity encoding directions. By viewing these components separately, it is difficult for MR practitioners to conceptualize and comprehend the underlying flow structures, especially when the image data have strong background noise. A flow visualization technique that adapts the idea of particle tracing used in classical fluid dynamics for visualizing flow is presented. The flow image processing relies on the strong correlation between the principal flow direction estimated from the distribution of the modulus of the velocity field and the direction derived from the raw image data. By correlation calculation, severe background noise can be eliminated. Flow pattern rendering and animation provide an efficient way for representing internal flow structures.<<ETX>>
Guang-Zhong Yang;Peter Burger;Philip J. Kilner;Raad Mohiaddin
G.Z. Yang;P. Burger;P.J. Kilner;R.H. MohiaddinDept. of Comput., Imperial Coll., London Univ., UK;Dept. of Comput., Imperial Coll., London Univ., UK131010
Visualizing 4-D medical ultrasound data
10.1109/VISUAL.1991.175802 standard rendering methods applied to 4-D medical ultrasound data are discussed. In particular, maximum value projection, sum of values projection, transparent gray level gradient shading, and surface shading have been tested. Due to the fact that ultrasound data suffer from a low signal to noise ratio, image processing and image analysis are used to enhance and classify the volumetric data set.<<ETX>>Nils Thune;Bjørn OlstadN. Thune;B. OlstadDept. of Sci. & Technol., Christian Michelsen Inst., Fantoft, Norway91010
Vis1991Multi-valued volumetric visualization
225, 424
CEffective methods for visualizing several sets of volumetric data simultaneously are presented. The methods involve the composition of multiple volumetric rendering techniques. These techniques include contour curves, color-blended contour regions, projection graphs on surfaces, isovalue surface construction, and hypersurface projection graphs.<<ETX>>Thomas A. Foley;David A. LaneT.A. Foley;D.A. LaneDept. of Comput. Sci., Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ, USA;Dept. of Comput. Sci., Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ, USA10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146388;10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146373;10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146362;10.1109/VISUAL.1991.175782;10.1109/VISUAL.1990.1463637623
Vis1991Realistic volume imaging
231, 425
CA set of volume visualization tools that are based on the use of recursive ray tracing as the primary vehicle for realistic volume imaging is presented. The tools include shadows, mirrors, specularity, and constructive solid geometry. The underlying representation for the ray tracer is a 3-D raster of voxels that holds the discrete form of the scene. Unlike traditional volume rendering techniques, the discrete recursive ray tracer models many illumination phenomena by traversing discrete rays in voxel space. The approach provides true ray tracing of sampled or computed datasets, as well as ray tracing of hybrid scenes where sampled or computed data are intermixed with geometric models and enhances the understanding of complex biomedical datasets.<<ETX>>Roni Yagel;Arie E. Kaufman;Qiang ZhangR. Yagel;A. Kaufman;Q. ZhangDept. of Comput. Sci., State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY, USA;Dept. of Comput. Sci., State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY, USA;Dept. of Comput. Sci., State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY, USA524
A fast ray tracing casting algorithm using adaptive isotriangular subdivision
238, 426
CThe use of ray casting in volume rendering and its uses and advantages over surface rendering algorithms are discussed. Various adaptive algorithms that attempt to overcome its problem of high computational cost by taking advantage of image coherency and the bandlimited nature of volume data are described. A method of subdividing the image plane with isosceles triangles, instead of quadrants as is usually done is proposed. It results in fewer rays being fired without sacrificing image quality. A brief theoretical analysis of the algorithm in comparison with other methods is given.<<ETX>>Renben Shu;Alan LiuR. Shu;A. LiuInst. of Syst. Sci., Nat. Univ. of Singapore, Kent Ridge, Singapore;Inst. of Syst. Sci., Nat. Univ. of Singapore, Kent Ridge, Singapore1440313
NetV: an experimental network-based volume visualization system
10.1109/VISUAL.1991.175807 experimental volume visualization system, NetV, that distributes volume imaging tasks to appropriate network resources is described. NetV gives offsite scientists easy access to high-end volume imaging software and hardware. The system allows a user to submit volume imaging jobs to an imaging spooler on a visualization-server. Remote high-power compute engines process rendering tasks, while local workstations run the user-interface. The time required to submit a job, render the job on a mini-supercomputer-class machine, and return the volume imaging to the offsite scientist is far less than the time it would take to create a similar image on a local workstation-class machine.<<ETX>>T. Todd Elvins;David R. NadeauT.T. Elvins;D.R. NadeauSan Diego Supercomput. Center, Adv. Sci. Visualization Lab., CA, USA;San Diego Supercomput. Center, Adv. Sci. Visualization Lab., CA, USA10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146362;10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146397;10.1109/VISUAL.1990.146382;10.1109/VISUAL.1991.17581414016
Interactive data exploration with a supercomputer
10.1109/VISUAL.1991.175809 experiment in exploratory data visualization using a massively parallel processor is described. In exploratory data visualization, it is typically not known what is being looked for: instead, the data are explored with a variety of visualization techniques that can illuminate its nature by demonstrating patterns in it. With this approach, the authors were able to find new features in some of their oldest datasets and to create more vivid presentations of familiar features in these datasets. Their experience has also led to a better understanding of the nature of the exploratory visualization and has resulted in some formal representations of the interaction process in this environment.<<ETX>>
Stuart Smith;Georges G. Grinstein;R. Daniel Bergeron
S. Smith;G. Grinstein;R.D. BergeronDept. of Comput. Sci., Lowell Univ., MA, USA;Dept. of Comput. Sci., Lowell Univ., MA, USA29337
Run-time visualization of program data
10.1109/VISUAL.1991.175810 improvement to visualization systems that provides a graphics window into an application displaying program data at run-time through an easy-to-use graphical interface is discussed. With little or no instrumentation of the application the user will be able to dynamically select data for graphical display as the program executes on a remote computer system. The data to be displayed and the type of display to be used are chosen interactively while the application is executing. Any data display can be enabled and disabled at any time; it is not necessary to specify the data or graphics technique before compilation as with conventional graphics tools. An architecture for such a remote visualization system is proposed, and an implementation, called Vista, is described. Designed primarily for scientific visualization, Vista or offers an environment for more effective debugging and program development.<<ETX>>
Allan Tuchman;David Jablonowski;George Cybenko
A. Tuchman;D. Jablonowski;G. CybenkoCenter for Supercomput. Res. & Dev., Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL, USA;Center for Supercomput. Res. & Dev., Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL, USA;Center for Supercomput. Res. & Dev., Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL, USA2168
Vis1991A scientific visualization synthesizer
10.1109/VISUAL.1991.175811 for displaying scientific data using textures and raster operations rather than geometric techniques are described. The flexibility and simplicity of raster operations allow a greater choice of visualization techniques with only a small set of basic operations. In addition, texture mapping techniques that allow the representation of several variables simultaneously, without a high degree of clutter, are shown. The combination of traditional geometric techniques, image composition techniques, and image rendering techniques can be integrated into a single framework for the display of scientific data. A system for generating and operating on textures and images for the purposes of scientific visualization is presented. To illustrate its advantage, the development of bump maps for vector filters and contour lines is demonstrated.<<ETX>>Roger Crawfis;M. J. AllisonR.A. Crawfis;M.J. AllisonLawrence Livermore Nat. Lab., CA, USA;Lawrence Livermore Nat. Lab., CA, USA4388
Integration of visualization and scientific calculation in a software system
274, 428
CThe problems and advantages of integrating scientific computations and visualization into one common program system are examined. An important point is the direct feedback of information from the visualization into an ongoing simulation. Some strong and weak points of the varying approaches in different software packages are shown. The visualization component of the authors' program system and the advantages of its integration into the overall system are explained. The weak points in their system and the work remaining to deal with them are described.<<ETX>>Ulrich Lang;Ruth E. Lang;Roland RühleU. Lang;R. Lang;R. RuhleStuttgart Univ. Comput. Center, Germany;Stuttgart Univ. Comput. Center, Germany;Stuttgart Univ. Comput. Center, Germany16128
Image handling in a multi-vendor environment
10.1109/VISUAL.1991.175814 developed to deal with differing image file formats, mismatched byte order and word sizes, and confusing hardcopy device interfaces is described. The SDSC Image Tool suite provides a simple, extensible, and portable mechanism for the support of a variety of common image formats so that tool-writers can concentrate on the task in hand, rather than on the quirks of a particular image file format. Users of such tools are able to work with images generated from a variety of sources, without being restricted to an arbitrary standard format. The SDSC Visualization Printing suite creates a unified view of hardcopy devices.<<ETX>>
David R. Nadeau;T. Todd Elvins;Michael J. Bailey
D.R. Nadeau;T.T. Elvins;M.J. BaileySan Diego Supercomput. Center, CA, USA;San Diego Supercomput. Center, CA, USA;San Diego Supercomput. Center, CA, USA10.1109/VISUAL.1991.17580711329
Tree-maps: a space-filling approach to the visualization of hierarchical information structures
10.1109/VISUAL.1991.175815 method for visualizing hierarchically structured information is described. The tree-map visualization technique makes 100% use of the available display space, mapping the full hierarchy onto a rectangular region in a space-filling manner. This efficient use of space allows very large hierarchies to be displayed in their entirety and facilitates the presentation of semantic information. Tree-maps can depict both the structure and content of the hierarchy. However, the approach is best suited to hierarchies in which the content of the leaf nodes and the structure of the hierarchy are of primary importance, and the content information associated with internal nodes is largely derived from their children.<<ETX>>Brian Johnson;Ben ShneidermanB. Johnson;B. ShneidermanDept. of Comput. Sci., Maryland Univ., College Park, MD, USA;Dept. of Comput. Sci., Maryland Univ., College Park, MD, USA1091223
How shall we connect our software tools?
10.1109/VISUAL.1991.175816 tools are traditionally connected using human-readable files, an approach that buys flexibility and understandability at some cost in performance relative to binary file formats. The possibility of using shared-memory functions to retain most of the existing style while leapfrogging the speed of reading binary files, at least in some environments and for some applications, is explored. Results of a benchmarking experiment confirm the benefits of this alternative.<<ETX>>Eric GrosseE. GrosseAT&T Bell Lab., Murray Hill, NJ, USA114
A data model for scientific visualization with provisions for regular and irregular grids
10.1109/VISUAL.1991.175818 mathematical data model for scientific visualization that is based on the mathematics of fiber bundles is presented. Previous results are extended to the case of piecewise field representations (associated with grid-based data representations), and a general mathematical model for piecewise representations of fields on irregular grids is presented. The various types of regularity that can be found in computational grids and techniques for compact field representation based on each form of regularity are discussed. These techniques can be combined to obtain efficient methods for representing fields on grids with various regular or partially regular structures.<<ETX>>
Robert B. Haber;Bruce Lucas;Nancy S. Collins
R.B. Haber;B. Lucas;N. CollinsDept. of Theor. & Appl. Mech., Illinois Univ., Urbana, IL, USA7508
Cooperative, computer-aided design of scientific visualizations
313, 430
CPartial automation of the task of designing graphical displays that effectively depict the data to be visualized through cooperative computer-aided design (CCAD) is described. This paradigm combines the strengths of manual and automated design by interspersing guiding design operations by the human user with the exploration of design alternatives by the computer. The approach is demonstrated in the context of the IVE design system, a CCAD environment for the design of scientific visualizations using a set of design rules that combine primitive visualization components in different ways. These alternatives are presented graphically to the user, who can browse through them, select the most promising visualization, and refine it manually.<<ETX>>
Sandeep Kochhar;Mark Friedell;Mark Vincent LaPolla
S. Kochhar;M. Friedell;M. LaPollaHarvard Univ., Cambridge, MA, USA;Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA, USAGrammar-directed design, cooperative design and modeling, design automation, human-computer interaction, automated design of graphical displays15322
Deixis and the future of visualization excellence
320, 431
CThe authors maintain that of particular importance for visualization excellence is an understanding of effective deictic facilities, especially new techniques made possible by computation. They explain what deixis is and why it is fundamental to visualization and they analyze some of the requirements for effective deixis in the context of emergent visualization technology.<<ETX>>William C. Hill;James D. HollanW.C. Hill;J.D. Hollan2202
Visualizing the fourth dimension using geometry and light
328, 432
CTechniques for visualizing mathematical objects in four-dimensional (4D) space that exploit four-dimensional lighting effects are explored. The geometry of image production, stereography, and shadows in 4D is analyzed. Alternatives for smooth and specular shaded rendering of curves, surfaces, and solids in 4D are examined and a new approach that systematically converts curves or surfaces into uniquely renderable solids in 4D space by attaching spheres or circles to each point is proposed. Analogs of 3D shading methods are used to produce volume renderings that distinguish objects whose 3D projections from 4D are identical. Analyzing the procedures needed to justify and evaluate a system as this for teaching humans to 'see' in four dimensions leads to the proposal of a generally applicable four-step visualization paradigm.<<ETX>>Andrew J. Hanson;Pheng-Ann HengA.J. Hanson;P.A. HengDept. of Comput. Sci., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN, USA;Dept. of Comput. Sci., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN, USA10.1109/VISUAL.1990.14637028122
Applying 3D visualization techniques to finite element analysis
10.1109/VISUAL.1991.175823 3D visualization techniques now being developed that are specific to coarse, irregular grid fields such as finite-element models. These include direct-generation of isovalues from finite elements, display of 3D gradient and tensor quantities, and the display of multiple states of behavior, items common to general 3D visualization, but with specific algorithmic and implementation issues in finite element analysis.<<ETX>>
Richard S. Gallagher;Robert B. Haber;Gordon Ferguson;David Parker;Douglas W. Stillman;James Winget
R.S. Gallagher;R.B. Haber;G. Ferguson;D. Parker;D. Stillman;J. Winget012
Color vs. black-and-white in visualization
10.1109/VISUAL.1991.175824 the issue of the use of color, as compared to monochromatic displays, in visualization. The paper presents the advantages and disadvantages of color displays, and those of monochromic displays, identifies situations where color can improve the representation, those where it will degrade it, and suggest guidelines on how (and when) to use color.<<ETX>>
Haim Levkowitz;Richard A. Holub;Gary W. Meyer;Philip K. Robertson
H. Levkowitz;R.A. Holub;G.W. Meyer;P.K. RobertsonInst. for Visualization & Perception Res., Lowell Univ., MA, USA00
Remote visualization: challenges and opportunities
10.1109/VISUAL.1991.175825 paper emphasizes the need for and importance of remote visualization. The potential impact of remote visualization on application algorithms, communication protocols, and underlying networks is assessed. Opportunities for research and development to support remote visualization in the context of the National Research and Education network are outlined.<<ETX>>
Guru M. Parulkar;Jack Bowie;Hans-Werner Braun;Roch Guerin;Daniel Stevenson
G.M. Parulkar;J. Bowie;H.-W. Braun;R. Guerin;D. StevensonWashington Univ., St. Louis, WA, USA60