AQA GCSE Biology - Retrieval roulette
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QuestionAnswerTopicSub-topic
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1How do we calculate the total magnification of a microscope?Eyepiece lens x Objective lens magnifying power
B1 Cell structure and transport
B1.1 The world of microscope
SEPARATES ONLY
Topic listSub-topicPAG
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State the equation that links magnification, image size and actual size.
Image Size = Actual Size x Magnification
B1 Cell structure and transport
B1 Cell structure and transport
B1.1 The world of microscope
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3Define 'resolution'.
The ability to distinguish between two separate points that are very close together
B1 Cell structure and transport
Q1-84B1.2 Animal and plant cells
PAG1 Using light microscopes
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4
Which type of microscope has higher magnification and resolving power - Light or electron?
Electron microscopes
B1 Cell structure and transport
B1.3 Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells
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Why does the tissue sample need to be stained before looking at it under the microscope?
To visualise/see structures clearly
B1 Cell structure and transport
PAG1 Light microscopeB1.4 Specialisation in animal cells
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6Which objective lens should we start using?Low power objective lens
B1 Cell structure and transport
B1.5 Specialisation in plant cells
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Which focus knob should be used during low and medium power magnification?
Coarse focus knob
B1 Cell structure and transport
B1.7 Osmosis
PAG3 Osmosis potato
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8Which focus knob should be used during high power magnification?Fine focus knob
B1 Cell structure and transport
B1.8 Osmosis in plants
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Why must we not use the coarse focus knob during high power magnification?
It moves the stage by too much, may break the lens and the slide
B1 Cell structure and transport
B1.9 Active transport
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10What is the function of a scale bar?To allow us to calculate the actual size of the sample using I=AM
B1 Cell structure and transport
B1.10 Exchanging materials
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11State the function of the nucleus.Controls all activities of the cell, contains genetic information
B1 Cell structure and transport
B1.2 Animal and plant cells
B2 Cell divisionB2.1 Cell division
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12State the function of the cytoplasm.Site for chemical reactions to take place
B1 Cell structure and transport
Q85-114B2.2 Growth and differentiation
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13State the function of the cell membrane.Controls what substances go in and out of the cell
B1 Cell structure and transport
B2.3 Stem cells
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14State the function of the mitochondria.Site of aerobic respiration, releasing energy
B1 Cell structure and transport
B2.4 Stem cell dilemmas
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15State the function of the ribosomes.Site of protein synthesis
B1 Cell structure and transport
B3 Organisation and the digestive system
B3.1 Tissues and organs
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16State the function of the cell wall.Strengthens the cell, provide support
B1 Cell structure and transport
Q115-183B3.2 The human digestive system
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17State the function of the chloroplasts.Contain chlorophyll, absorb light to do photosynthesis
B1 Cell structure and transport
B3.3 The chemistry of food
PAG4 Food tests
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18State the function of the permanent vacuole.Contains cell sap to keep plant cells rigid, provide support
B1 Cell structure and transport
B3.4 Catalysts and enzymes
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19State three differences between animal and plant cells.
Plant cells have chloroplasts, permanent vacuole and cellulose cell wall. Animal cells do not
B1 Cell structure and transport
B3.5 Factors affecting enzyme action
PAG5 pH effect on amylase
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20What substance makes up plants' cell walls?Cellulose
B1 Cell structure and transport
B3.6 How the digestive system works
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21Convert 5mm to µm.5000µm
B1 Cell structure and transport
B1.3 Eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells
B3.7 Making digestion efficient
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22State a key difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes.Prokaryotes do not have a nucleus. Eukaryotes do.
B1 Cell structure and transport
B4 Organising animals and plants
B4.1 The blood
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23State one organism that is prokaryotic.Bacteria
B1 Cell structure and transport
Q184-241B4.2 The blood vessels
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24Prokaryotes have a cell wall. True or false?TRUE
B1 Cell structure and transport
B4.3 The heart
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Some bacteria have an extra layer on top of their cell walls. What is the name of that layer?
Slime capsule
B1 Cell structure and transport
B4.4 Helping the heart
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26Where does the genetic material of a prokaryotic cell exist?Cytoplasm
B1 Cell structure and transport
B4.5 Breathing and gas exchange
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27What is a difference between prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA?Prokaryotic DNA is circular; Eukaryotic DNA is linear
B1 Cell structure and transport
B4.6 Tissues and organs in plants
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What is the name of extra small DNA rings found in some prokaryotes?
Plasmid
B1 Cell structure and transport
B4.7 Transport systems in plants
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29What is the function of flagella?To allow the cell to swim and move around
B1 Cell structure and transport
B4.8 Evaporation and transpiration
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30State a difference between animal cells and bacteria.
A: No cell wall and plasmid, linear DNA; B: Cell wall and plasmid, circular DNA
B1 Cell structure and transport
B4.9 Factors affecting transpiration
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31State a similarity between plant cells and bacterial cells.Both have cell walls (but different material)
B1 Cell structure and transport
B5 Communicable diseases
B5.1 Health and disease
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32What is the function of the slime capsule?Protect the cell
B1 Cell structure and transport
Q242-305B5.2 Pathogens and disease
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33Explain the use of a tail in sperm cells.To swim and move around (to reach the egg)
B1 Cell structure and transport
B1.4 Specialisation in animal cells
B5.3 Growing bacteria in the lab
PAG2 Antiseptics/Antibiotics effect on bacterial growth
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34Why do sperm cells have lots of mitochondria?To provide lots of energy for swimming
B1 Cell structure and transport
B5.4 Preventing bacterial growth
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What is the structure of a sperm cell that contains digestive enzymes to break down the surface of an egg cell?
Acrosome
B1 Cell structure and transport
B5.5 Preventing infections
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36Describe the adaptations of a nerve cell.Lots of dendrites; Long axon
B1 Cell structure and transport
B5.6 Viral diseases
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37What is the function of a nerve cell?Carry electrical impulses
B1 Cell structure and transport
B5.7 Bacterial diseases
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38How does having a long axon help neurones with their function?Carry electrical impulses over long distances
B1 Cell structure and transport
B5.8 Diseases caused by fungi and protists
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39Describe how a muscle cell is adapted for its function.
Special proteins for contraction; Many mitochondria for energy; Store glycogen to release glucose for respiration
B1 Cell structure and transport
B5.9 Human defence responses
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40
Root hair cells have lots of mitochondria to release energy. What is the energy used for?
Active transport of mineral ions into root hair cells
B1 Cell structure and transport
B1.5 Specialisation in plant cells
B5.10 More about plant diseases
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41How do the extensions in root hair cells help with their function?Increase surface area for efficient water absorption
B1 Cell structure and transport
B5.11 Plant defence responses
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42What is another name for photosynthetic cells in plants?Palisade mesophyll cells
B1 Cell structure and transport
B6 Preventing and treating disease
B6.1 Vaccination
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43How are photosynthetic cells adapted for photosynthesis?Lots of chloroplasts with chlorophyll to absorb light
B1 Cell structure and transport
Q306-327B6.2 Antibiotics and painkillers
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44
Which specialised cell in plants make up the tissue for transporting water?
Xylem cells
B1 Cell structure and transport
B6.3 Discovering drugs
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Name the substance found in xylem cells that allows the cells to withstand high water pressure.
Lignin
B1 Cell structure and transport
B6.4 Developing drugs
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46State a difference in structure between xylem and phloem.X: dead, hollow tube, has lignin; P: living, has sieve plates, no lignin
B1 Cell structure and transport
B6.5 Making monoclonal antibodies
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47Name the cell that keeps phloem alive.Companion cells
B1 Cell structure and transport
B6.6 Uses of monoclonal antibodies
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48Define 'diffusion'.
Net movement of particles from an area of high to low concentration (down concentration gradient)
B1 Cell structure and transport
B1.6 Diffusion
B7 Non-communicable diseases
B7.1 Non-communicable diseases
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49What does it mean by 'net movement'?
Overall movement: particles can move in any direction, but generally speaking, most of the particles are moving in one particular direction, hence 'net' movement
B1 Cell structure and transport
Q328-353B7.2 Cancer
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50State three factors that affect the rate of diffusion.Concentration gradient, temperature, surface area
B1 Cell structure and transport
B7.3 Smoking and the risk of disease
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51How does concentration difference affect the rate of diffusion?Higher conc difference/Steeper conc gradient --> faster diffusion
B1 Cell structure and transport
B7.4 Diet, exercise and disease
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52Explain why a higher temperature results in faster diffusion.More kinetic energy, particles move around more
B1 Cell structure and transport
B7.5 Alcohol and other carcinogens
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53Name a substance that diffuses into our cells for use.Oxygen, glucose
B1 Cell structure and transport
B8 PhotosynthesisB8.1 Photosynthesis
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54Name a substance that diffuses out of our cells to be removed.Carbon dioxide, urea
B1 Cell structure and transport
Q354-366B8.2 The rate of photosynthesis
PAG6 Light intensity effect on photosynthetic rate
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Name a structure in the body that is adapted to increase diffusion rate.
Alveoli, villi
B1 Cell structure and transport
B8.3 How plants use glucose
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56Define 'osmosis'.
Net movement of water molecules down the water concentration gradient through a partially permeable membrane
B1 Cell structure and transport
B1.7 Osmosis
B8.4 Making the most of photosynthesis
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57Define 'dilute'.A solution with a high water conc, but low solute conc
B1 Cell structure and transport
B9 RespirationB9.1 Aerobic respiration
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58Define 'concentrated'.A solution with a low water conc, but high solute conc
B1 Cell structure and transport
Q367-380B9.2 The response to exercise
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59What are partially permeable membranes?Membranes that only allow some types of substances to pass through
B1 Cell structure and transport
B9.3 Anaerobic respiration
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60What is an isotonic solution?A solution with the same solute conc as the cell
B1 Cell structure and transport
B9.4 Metabolism and the liver
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61What is a hypertonic solution?A solution with a higher solute conc than the cell
B1 Cell structure and transport
B10 The human nervous system
B10.1 The principles of homeostasis
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62What is a hypotonic solution?A solution with a lower solute conc than the cell
B1 Cell structure and transport
Q381-415
B10.2 The structure and function of the nervous system
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If a cell is in a hypertonic solution, water will ___ (enter/leave) the cell.
Leave
B1 Cell structure and transport
B10.3 Reflex actions
PAG7 Reaction time
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If a cell is in a hypotonic solution, water will ___ (enter/leave) the cell.
Enter
B1 Cell structure and transport
B10.4 The brain
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65What will happen to an animal cell if it is in a hypertonic solution?Water leaves cell --> shrivelled
B1 Cell structure and transport
B10.5 The eye
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66What will happen to an animal cell if it is in a hypotonic solution?Water enters cell --> burst
B1 Cell structure and transport
B10.6 Common problems of the eye
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67Why do animal cells burst in hypotonic solutions?No cell wall
B1 Cell structure and transport
B11 Hormonal coordination
B11.1 Principles of hormonal control
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68What will happen to a plant cell if it is in a hypertonic solution?Water leaves cell --> plasmolysed
B1 Cell structure and transport
B1.8 Osmosis in plantsQ416-470
B11.2 The control of blood glucose levels
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69What will happen to a plant cell if it is in an isotonic solution?No net water movement --> flaccid
B1 Cell structure and transport
B11.3 Treating diabetes
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70What will happen to a plant cell if it is in a hypotonic solution?Water enters cell --> turgid
B1 Cell structure and transport
B11.4 The role of negative feedback
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71What does 'plasmolysed' mean?The cell membrane becomes detached from cell wall
B1 Cell structure and transport
B11.5 Human reproduction
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Why does the potato skin needs to be removed before putting the potato cylinders into the solutions?
Skin is impermeable
B1 Cell structure and transport
PAG3 Osmosis potato
B11.6 Hormones and the menstrual cycle
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73How do we calculate % change in mass?(final mass - intial mass)/initial mass x 100
B1 Cell structure and transport
B11.7 The artificial control of fertility
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74Define 'active transport'.
Movement of particles against the concentration gradient (low to high) using energy in the form of ATP
B1 Cell structure and transport
B1.9 Active transportB11.8 Infertility treatments
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75Explain the importance of active transport in plants.Root hair cells carry out AT to absorb mineral ions effectively in dilute soil
B1 Cell structure and transport
B11.9 Plant hormones and responses
PAG8 Photo-/Geotropism
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76Explain the importance of active transport in animals.
Cells in gut lining does AT to absorb glucose effectively from the bloodstream
B1 Cell structure and transport
B11.10 Using plant hormones
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State one adaptations cells may have if they need to carry out active transport.
Lots of mitochondria for respiration for energy
B1 Cell structure and transport
B12 Homeostasis in action
B12.1 Controlling body temperature
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78How does active transport differ from diffusion and osmosis?AT uses energy, D and O do not
B1 Cell structure and transport
Q471-504B12.2 Removing waste products
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79State two differences beween diffusion and osmosis.
D: Any particles, does not need a membrane; O: Water specific, needs partially permeable membrane
B1 Cell structure and transport
B12.3 The human kidney
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80
State the relationship between size and surface area to volume ratio.
The bigger the size, the smaller the SA:V
B1 Cell structure and transport
B1.10 Exchanging materials
B12.4 Dialysis - an artifical kidney
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81Describe three adaptations of exchange surfaces.Large SA, thin membrane/surface, ability to maintain high conc difference
B1 Cell structure and transport
B12.5 Kidney transplants
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82How are alveoli adapted for efficient gaseous exchange?
Large SA, thin membrane (short diffusion distance), rich blood supply (maintain steep conc gradient)
B1 Cell structure and transport
B13 ReproductionB13.1 Types of reproduction
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How are plant roots adapted for efficient water and mineral absoprtion?
Large SA (root hairs), transpiration stream
B1 Cell structure and transport
Q505-563
B13.2 Cell division in sexual reproduction
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84How does stomata help maintain efficient gas exchange in leaves?
Allow gases to move in and out of leaf, maintaining steep concentration gradient
B1 Cell structure and transport
B13.3 The best of both worlds
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85What is a gene?A short section of DNA that codes for a protein/controls a characteristicB2 Cell divisionB2.1 Cell divisionB13.4 DNA and the genome
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86What are chromosomes?Structures in the nucleus that carry genesB2 Cell division
B14.5 DNA structure and protein synthesis
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87How many chromosomes are in one human body cell?46B2 Cell division
B14.6 Gene expression and mutation
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88Chromosomes are arranged in ___ pairs in a human body cell.23B2 Cell divisionB13.7 Inheritance in action
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89
How many percent of your chromosomes have you inherited from your father?
50%B2 Cell divisionB13.8 More about genetics
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90Briefly describe the cell cycle.
Cell content (including DNA) is replicated, mitosis occurs to make two genetically identical cells
B2 Cell divisionB13.9 Inerited disorders
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91Define 'mitosis'.Cell division that produces two genetically identical daughter cellsB2 Cell division
B13.10 Screening of genetic disorders
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92Which type of reproduction is based only on mitosis?AsexualB2 Cell division
B14 Variation and evolution
B14.1 Variation
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93State three key importances of mitosis.Growth, repair, asexual reproductionB2 Cell divisionQ564-596B14.2 Evolution by natural selection
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94Briefly describe the first stage in the cell cycle.Cell size increase, DNA and organelle replicationB2 Cell divisionB14.3 Selective breeding
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95Briefly describe the second stage (mitosis) in the cell cycle.
Nucleus divides - One set of chromosomes is pulled to each end of the dividing cell
B2 Cell divisionB14.4 Genetic engineering
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96Briefly describe the third stage in the cell cycle.Cytoplasm and cell membrane divides into two daughter cellsB2 Cell divisionB14.5 Cloning
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97
What has to happen to the cell before mitosis to ensure we can two genetically identical daughter cells?
DNA and organelles must replicate before divisionB2 Cell division
B14.6 Gene expression and mutation
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98Define 'differentiation'.
The process where a cell becomes specialised/adapted to perform specific functions
B2 Cell division
B2.2 Growth and differentiation
B14.7 Ethics of genetic technologies
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99Define 'stem cell'.Undifferentiated cell with the potential to become specialisedB2 Cell division
B15 Genetics and evolution
B15.1 The history of genetics
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