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Group NameEnter the topic/question where Gaia will have an impactEnter the Gaia results that will be needed Ground based under wayGround Based neededOn which of the releases will Gaia begin to have an impactIs there a benefit of going to G=21Rank the impact of this topic from 1 to 5Any other comment
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1Density of field BD in the Milky WayParallax, PhotometryCross-matching with existing BD photometric catalogues
Low or medium resolution spectroscopic follow-up
6/2016 2nd release 18 month solution all sky single objectsYes4This topics would benefit a larger volume probe, so to go to G=21. However might be not "greatly".
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1Brown subdwarfs, old populations classified from kinematicsParallax, Proper Motion, Spectroscopy, astrophysical parametersMore characterization needed from photometry and high resolution spectroscopy6/2016 2nd release 18 month solution all sky single objectsNo4The impact is not considered very high as few objects are expected. Going to 21 would increase the sample but from how much?
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1Photometric variability of UCD and BDVariability, alerts?More characterization needs photometric and high resolution spectroscopic follow-up2017 Binaries and classifcationYes1This topics has a big impact on the knowledge of BDs atmosphere. Going to 21 seems valuable to increase the sample.
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1BD in systems:
mass and radius of BD from transiting systems
orbital parameters distribution
link between massive exoplanets and low-mass stars
Parallax, Photometry, Spectroscopyphotometric and high spectroscopic (vrad) follow-up2017 Binaries and classifcationNo1This topics has a great impact on the knowledge of BD formation.
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1Benchmark systems with Fe/H, age known from the primary
Solving the problem of age-mass degeneracy
Parallax, Photometry, Spectroscopyphotometry and high resolution spectroscopy for the BD companion6/2016 2nd release 18 month solution all sky single objectsNo1This topics has a high impact on the knowledge of the BD atmospheres
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2Moving groups, new very low-mass members: complete census, IMF, and relation with the star forming historyParallax, Proper Motion, Photometry, SpectroscopyPhotometryRV, high-resolution spectroscopy6/2016 2nd release 18 month solution all sky single objectsYes1
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2Runawy low-mass objetsParallax, Proper MotionRV, binarity2017 Binaries and classifcationNo5Some discussion about the real importance and whether this only affect massive objects and if BD are expelled from dynamical interactions, whether it is possible to recover their origin
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2Model calibration using astrometric binaries, specifically very-low massesParallax, Proper Motion, good solition for the orbit2017 Binaries and classifcationYes2
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2agesParallaxMulti wavelength photometry2017 Binaries and classifcationNo4
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2Binaries and mass distribution: formation mechanismParallax, Spectroscopy, Scientific AdvancesSpectra2017 Binaries and classifcationYes3
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2Galactic dynamics, structure: Gould belt roleParallax, Proper MotionRV, Photometry6/2016 2nd release 18 month solution all sky single objectsNo5Not very clear about how much very-low mass objects, which by definition are going to be very nearby, would have an impact on the galactic structure and evolution
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3Luminosity Function of BD within a specified space volume (radius depending on spectral type)Parallax, Proper Motion, Photometry, Spectroscopyspectroscopy in case Gaia is only able to identify candidates6/2016 2nd release 18 month solution all sky single objectsYes4We did not rank the topics from 1 to 5 but gave an order of priority
from 1 to 5
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3BD in kinematic structures (moving groups, etc..)Parallax, Proper Motion, Photometry, Spectroscopyhigh-resolution spectroscopy to determine RVsHigh-resolution spectroscopy to determine RVs2017 Binaries and classifcationNo3
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3Ratio of stars/BD among field stars to investigate Galactic disc originParallax, Proper Motion, PhotometryLow-res spectroscopy for classification in case Gaia gives only candidate status2017 Binaries and classifcationYes4Actually this topic and the first one submitted (luminosity function of BDs) have similar scientific impact
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3Radii of single BDs to test evolutionary modelsParallax, Photometry, SpectroscopyOptical and near-infrared spectroscopy for classification and bolometric correction

Systematic error characterization of physical unknowns in different models
2017 Binaries and classifcationNo1
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3Binary fraction of star/BD, BD/planets, BD/BDParallax, Proper Motion, Photometry, SpectroscopyHigh-resolution spectroscopy to refine evolutionary models2017 Binaries and classifcationYes2
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4How does the distribution of brown dwarf separations vary with stellar parameters when found as astrometric companions.Parallax, Proper Motion, Photometry, Spectroscopy, separationsWe need Teff, Metallicity, Gravity, Stellar Mass, and Age to do this right. There is the Gaia-Eso survey that will provide some Detailed age analysis requires high resolution spectrography, pointed X-ray photometry, are also required.2024 Final + 2 yearsNo1
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4How dry is the brown dwarf desertAll observablesK band spectroscopy of the primaries to accurately constrain companion mass. Otherwise the statistics direct from Gaia will be sufficient to make a big science impact.2024 Final + 2 yearsNo1This was ranked equally as #1
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4What is the best strategy for measuring the BD mass from astrometric lensing. Parallax, Proper Motion, Photometry, VariabilityNone underwayPotential Follow-up RV monitoring of Gaia detections with High res spectra. Follow-up direct imagin campaign with Sphere or GPI.11/2015 1st release HTPMYes3This is a bit of an experimental question that can be examined in detail with calibration data.
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4What is the full extent of the indirect (piggy back) science we can do with Gaia.All observablesNo current efforts underwayWe would like to see deep imaging campaigns around nearby (100-150 pc) sources that would find wide companions. NIR or MIR are ideal to reach the coldest brown dwarfs. The idea is to get proper motions for objects that can be shown as co-moving with a Gaia star. Spectroscopy of any new imaged object would also be required.2017 Binaries and classifcationNo4Not ranked as high because the question was quite broad but the science that comes out of this is considerable.
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5Determination of BD luminosities through distance measurement.Parallax, Photometryspectroscopic characterization in the NIRRevised evolutionary models;
systematic spectroscopic characterization in the NIR and optical.
2nd release 18 month solutionNo4
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5Completing the L dwarf census in the solar neighbourhood;
determination of the galactic field mass function
Parallax, PhotometryWill open field to systematic studies of magnetic activity through Halpha surveys; can be correlated with variability found in Gaia photometry.2nd release 18 month solutionNo3
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5Determine binary orbits using space motion from perspective proper motion.Parallax, Proper MotionRadial velocity follow-upNo5
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5Identifying ultra cool moving group members through kinematics.Parallax, Proper Motion, Photometry, positionSpectroscopic follow-up for other youth diagnostics (Halpha and Lithium) after discovery.6/2016 2nd release 18 month solution all sky single objectsNo3
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5Metallicity constraints on BDs from the primary in binaries.Parallax, Proper MotionSpectroscopic follow-up for RV and metallicity determination (GES, WEAVE, LAMOST).Further spectroscopic follow-up specifically for the Gaia-detected binaries.2017 Binaries and classifcationNo3
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5What will Gaia do for defining brown dwarfs in various galactic populations (e.g. Halo, thick disk, thin, young groups).All observablesNone in placeSpectra or multi-color follow-up of new sources detected. (That is for the brown dwarfs. We didn't discuss the stellar constituents in the same groups and what they would require for follow-up...In theory its the same).2017 Binaries and classifcationYes2
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6Identifying new brown dwarfs in moving groups (or previously known brown dwarfs whose membership can now be established)Parallax, Proper Motion, Photometry, alpha, decmedium resolution spectra6/2016 2nd release 18 month solution all sky single objectsYes5
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6Identifying new subdwarf brown dwarfs in order to measure brown dwarf formation efficiency at low metallicitiesParallax, Proper Motion, Photometrylow-resolution classification spectra6/2016 2nd release 18 month solution all sky single objectsYes2
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6Identifying previously unrecognized moving groups and the brown dwarf members associated with themParallax, Proper Motion, Photometry, alpha, decmedium-resolution spectra6/2016 2nd release 18 month solution all sky single objectsYes3
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6Measuring the intrinsic scatter in luminosity per spectra bin and determining its underlying cause.Parallax, Photometrylow-resolution spectra2022 Final catalogYes5We ranked this topic seventh out of seven.
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6Determine with more accuracy the membership of high-mass brown dwarfs in nearby clustersParallax, Proper Motion, Photometry, alpha, decmedium-resolution spectra6/2016 2nd release 18 month solution all sky single objectsYes5We ranked this sixth out of seven.
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6Identifying "exemplar" brown dwafs that will have masses, radii, and ages all measured by Gaia; these will serve as bellwethers to test/refine model predictions.Parallax, Proper Motion, Variability, full orbital parameters, alpha, dec1) time-series photometry, 2) medium-resolution spectra2024 Final + 2 yearsNo1
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6Test the frequency and magnitude of variability at optical wavelengths for late-M, L, and T dwarfs to gain more clues about their atmospheric physics.Variabilitynonenone2022 Final catalogYes4
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Richard SmartDetermination of masses of BDs not seen by Gaia via gravitational lensing Parallax, Proper Motion, epoch observationsProper motions of all BDsParallax of the BD targets.from todayNo1Masses will become *the* physical parameter to calibrate once Gaia has calibrated the various distance measures.
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Paco GalindoThe distance dependence of the Initial Mass Function (IMF).
Derive IMF (both to the field and young open clusters)
assume several hypothesis, one the distance.
However Gaia will be provide accurate parallaxes of a big number of open clusters. In short, we can obtain a 3D map a of a billion of a stars and remove the distance IMF bias.
Parallax, Proper Motion* Multi-object spectroscopy for characterize a big amount of stellar sources (the LAMOST telescope for example): Radial Velocities and Spectral Types. 2024 Final + 2 yearsYes1
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