Mavericks & Heretics - public data
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0-Al-Razi al-razi989
“Fever is a natural defence mechanism” & other medical insights
Medicine895301279384414na30beatenBeaten and mocked.His fame and western teachings brought him into conflict with the local hierarchy, whilst his criticisms of Galen drew accusations of arrogance and ignorance from other physicians. He went blind (& one account attributes this to have been due a blow to the head by his patron, al-Mansour, another to a beating ordered by a mullah who was offended by his main work, al-Hawi). AIdeas AdoptedConsidered the father of paediatrics.unknown date of publication of al-Hawi so date of heresy taken as average of year of birth & death#CBDACCMedicineMale865925
Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science; New World Encyclopedia; Uxula; Universitas Hasanuddin,_ibn_Zakariya_al-
“Movement of fluids can generate magnetic fields & electric currents”
Astronomy1937291970336225ignoredSeen as an engineer encroaching on "pure" physics. Difficulty publishing in Anglo-American scientific journals, due to the peer review system, seen as an engineer encroaching on "pure" physicsNNobel PrizeFor Physics - 1970.#F6C5D9AstrophysicsMale19081995
Los Alamos National Laboratory, Wikipedia
2SvanteArrheniusarrhenius503“Salt solutions can conduct electricity”
Physical Science
1885261903184424rejectedAwarded a fourth class university degree, upgraded to a third after oral defence.Awarded a fourth class university degree, upgraded to a third after oral defence.NNobel PrizeFor Chemistry - 1903.Served on the Nobel Committee, helped set up the Institute and Prizes#D9C7DE
Physics / Chemistry
Wikipedia, Nobel Prize, Royal Swedish Academy of Engineering Sciences
3Ibn ZuhrAvenzoaravenzoar231“The Earth evolves & is self-renewing”Medicine11414811904997na21ridiculed
Banned from teaching or writing (persecuted) and spent the rest of his life doing manual labour.
Galen's theories were the official favourites of most major religions. Banned from teaching or writing (persecuted) and spent the rest of his life doing manual labour.AIdeas AdoptedEarly ideas on evolution adopted.#CBDACCMedicineMale10931162
Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science; Ecnyclopedia; The Sage of Seville; JIMA (2006)
“Radio waves can be used to create a visual broadcast”
Engineering192537192944117ridiculedDescribed as a "lunatic".Daily Express described him as a "lunatic", Royal Society were uninterested.AIdeas AdoptedThe BBC adopted his system.#EFDEBAEngineeringMale18881946
Australian Centre for the Moving Image, Wikipedia
“Some dinosaurs were warm-blooded & evolved into birds”
Physical Science
1968231975730-rejectedNo academic appointments (still), seen as a populist controversialist.No academic appointments (still), seen as a populist controversialist.RRecognitionTriggered ‘dino renaissance’.#D9C7DEPaleontologyMale1945-
Berkeley, East Tennessee State University, Wikipedia
“[A complicated chemical reaction too difficult to explain in this little box]”
Physical Science
19515819802987na19rejectedRepeatedly rejected until he gave up his research.Early articles proposing his discovery were all rejected, so he gave up on his research. Eventually other scientists continued his work and it was found to be correct.PPrizeLenin Prize - 1980.In 1977 Ilya Prigogine received the Nobel Prize for work in this field#D9C7DEChemistryMale18931970
Rohrer, Gimzeski
“A scanning tunnelling microscope can image surfaces at an atomic level”
Physical Science
1982351986439-ridiculedLaughed off the stage at a conference.Laughed off the stage at a conference.NNobel PrizeFor Physics - 1986.Age shown is Gerd Binnig#D9C7DEPhysicsMale1947-Science News
8J HarlenBretzbretz119
“The Scabland deserts in the US were created by massive flooding”
Physical Science
192341197956972ridiculedDebated and publicly discredited by six elder scientists. Non-Ivy League so lacked status.Invited to a debate against six 'challenging elders' to humiliate him and publicly discredit research; seen as lacking in status because of being non-Ivy League.PPrizePenrose Medal - 1979.#D9C7DEGeologyMale18821981
Geological Society of America, Ice Age Floods Institute, Wikipedia
“The Sun is a star, one of an infinity in the universe”
Astronomy1592441889297341na8killedBurnt at the stake for many progressive, anti-clerical ideas.Burned at the stake as a heretic, partially due to his ideas about pantheism: he wrote a number of violently anti-clerical and heretical tracts.RRecognitionGolden statue erected where he was executed.Catholic church has said in both 1942 and 2000 that his execution was either justified or understandable.#F6C5D9AstronomyMale15481600
The Harbinger, Wikipedia
chandrasekhar339“White dwarf stars can lead to black holes”Astronomy1936261983477312discreditedHis colleague Arthur Eddington viciously attacked and discredited him. He fled to the USA to continue his work.His colleague, Arthur Eddington, attacked him viciously and managed to completely discredit Chandrasekhar in Britain, to the extent that he had to work in the USA from 1937 onwards.NNobel PrizeFor Physics - 1983.Possibly racially motivated#F6C5D9AstrophysicsMale19101995
Nobel Prize Lecture, Royal Astronomical Society, Wikipedia
“Meteorites fall from outer space, not from volcanoes”
Physical Science
179438180394724ridiculedRidiculed, most believed that meteorites were part of a volcanic cycle.Ridiculed, most believed that meteorites were part of a volcanic cycle.AIdeas AdoptedTheory confirmed.Biot was working under the commission of the French government#D9C7DEPhysicsMale17561827
University of Cambridge, WIkipedia
12Alice CatherineEvansevans73
"Milk should be pasteurised to avoid human infections"
Biology1917361930134945rejectedShe was met with skepticism, particularly because she was a woman and did not have a PhD.
She was met with skepticism, particularly because she was a woman and did not have a Ph.D.
ARecognitionPasteurisation introduced in the US 1930. Rates of the milk-induced Brucellosis disease dropped.#CEE9F6MicrobiologyFemale18811975Wikipedia
13Robert L.Folkfolk265
“Tiny nanobacteria exist, playing an important role in rock & crystal formation”
Physical Science
19926720081683-rejectedRidiculed as nanobacteria were considered too small to possibly live.Belief that nanobacteria are too small to possibly live, objects of their size can be produced inorganically, they may not existAIdeas AdoptedStill some controversy.#D9C7DEGeoscienceMale1925-
PLoS Pathogens
14Galileo Galileigalilei2990
“The Earth is not the centre of the solar system – the Sun is”
Physical Science
1616521835219271na26imprisonedFound 'vehemently suspect of heresy' by a Catholic Inquisition. Placed under house arrest. All works suppressed..Found 'vehemently suspect of heresy' by a Catholic Inquisition in 1633, and placed under house arrest with the publication of all of his works suppressed.AIdeas AdoptedModel of solar system confirmed.Formal apology by Pope John Paul II in 2000#D9C7DEPhysicsMale15641642
Wikipedia, The Crime of Galileo
“The nervous system sends electrical signals ('bioelectricity')”
Medicine177134179726601ignoredCalled "the frog's dancing master". His contemporary Volta strongly disagreed.Alessandro Volta, a contemporary, tried Galvani's experiments, but believed that the results depended on the kind of metal used. Galvani believed that electricity came from the muscle, and was inseparable from biology. To disprove this, Volta invented an early type of battery.AIdeas Adopted‘Galvanism’ is electricity produced by chemical action.Bioelectricity was the inspiration for Mary Shelley's 'Frankenstein'; see Volta#CBDACCMedicineMale17371798
Brain Research Bulletin, Wikipedia, Etymology Online, Skeptical Investigations
“Spaceships can be powered by liquid-fuelled rockets”
Physical Science
19092719696087na36ridiculedOpenly mocked by the NYTimes in 1920. Became secretive & protective.Openly mocked by the NY Times in 1920, became increasingly secretive and protectiveAIdeas AdoptedLaunch of Apollo 11 in 1969.#D9C7DEPhysicsMale18821945
NY Times, Wikipedia
“Blood is pumped by the heart & circulates around the body”
Medicine16285016603282na29discreditedMost doctors refused to believe his idea which contradicted the accepted view.Harvey's thesis contradicted the accepted views of Galen, and most physicians refused to believe his ideas. His career in the College of Physicians continued to advance, but his opportunities as a practising physician diminished.AIdeas AdoptedTheories confirmed.#CBDACCMedicineMale15781657
William Harvey: Masters of Medicine, Wikipedia
18Antoine-LaurentLavoisierlavoisier436“Oxygen plays a key role in combustion”Medicine17783517951752na16rejected
Much opposition from the field, especially the British.
Lavoisier encountered much opposition in trying to change the field, especially from British phlogistic scientists
AIdeas AdoptedExonerated by French government.Considered the father of modern chemistry#CBDACCMedicineMale17431794
Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science, Wikipedia
“Tiny blood cells circulate in the blood stream”
Medicine166032166994125beatenHouse was burnt down. Physically beaten and threatened.Well received outside of Italy, but subject to a number of attacks by other professors in his home country. After writing pamphlets against Galenists, his house was burnt down, destroying his library. On a number of occasions he was physically attacked and threatened.AIdeas AdoptedMember of the Royal Society.#CBDACCMedicineMale16281694
Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science, Wikipedia
20Barry, Robin
Marshall, Warren
470“Bacteria cause mostpeptic ulcers”Medicine19823120052354-rejectedWidely disbelieved. To convince everyone, Marhsall drank a petri dish containing bacteria to give himself a stomach ulcer.Hypothesis was developed in 1982 but widely disbelieved. In order to prove their ideas, Marshall drank a petri dish containing the bacteria to give himself a stomach ulcer.NNobel PrizeFor Medicine - 2005.Age shown is Barry Marshall#CBDACCMedicineMale1951-
Academy of Achievement, Nobel Prize Lecture
“Certain DNA elements can move around the genome”
Biology195149198332819rejectedMet with puzzlement & hostility, maybe due to her gender.Work published in 1950s was met with puzzlement and hostility, possibly due to her gender; her findings were disregarded for at least 15 yearsNNobel PrizeFor Medicine - 1983.#CEE9F6GeneticsFemale19021992
National Library of Medicine, Nature Education
22JosiahNottnott96“Malaria, yellow fever spread by mosquitos”Medicine18484419005296na25ignoredMostly ignored. People believe diseases were caused by noxious swamp gases.Common conception was that diseases were caused by noxious swamp gases. Nott's findings were based on years of observation but not backed by empirical results. Pasteur's germ theory had not yet been proposed, and Nott was largely ignored. When Pasteur's germ theory was popularised, people still had trouble believing in mosquito transmissionAIdeas AdoptedStill doesn’t get much credit.See Louis Pasteur#CBDACCMedicineMale18041873Skeptic
“New brain cells continue to form into adulthood”
Biology19894920061766-ignoredGenerally ignored by mainstream science until the mid-1990s.Generally ignored by mainstream science until the mid-1990s.PPrizeBenjamin Franklin Medal in Life Science - 2006.#CEE9F6NeuroscienceMale1940-
Rockefeller University, Science, Lafayette University
“Electrical current, voltage & resistance are related”
Physical Science
182738185225632discreditedColdly received. Forced to resign his university post.Coldly received at the time, took approx. 20 years to be fully recognised. Ohm was forced to resign his post at the Jesuit College of CologneRRecognitionAcademic role at Munich University.#D9C7DEPhysicsMale17891854
American Journal of Physics, University of St Andrews, Wikipedia
25LouisPasteurpasteur2410“Infections are spread by invisible germs”Medicine18624018953373naignoredMany surgeons ignored him and saw 75% of amputees die due to unclean instruments.Largely ignored, so he took to addressing younger students. Military surgeons ignoring his advice saw three quarters of amputees die because of unclean instruments PPrizeGrand Croix Legion of Honour - 1895. #CBDACC
Medicine / Microbiology
Skeptic, Wikipedia
“Prions are infectious, self-reproducing proteins”
Biology19824019971555-rejectedThe basic premise of the ideas seemed to threaten certain basic principles of molecular biology, and thus were seen as heretical.Prusiner announced the protein before his experiments had isolated it, so was accused of seeking fame. A number of questions remained unanswered, and the basic premise of the ideas seemed to threaten certain basic principles of molecular biology, and thus were seen as hereticalNNobel PrizeFor Physiology - 1997.#CEE9F6
Neurology / Biochemistry
Wikipedia, Nobel Prize, Science Magazine
27Francis PeytonRousrous486“Viruses can cause cancer”Medicine191132196655874ignoredWas ignored or refuted as a relative newcomer. No one bothered to repeat his experiments.Made original claims in 1911, but they were either ignored or refuted and because he was a relative newcomer, nobody bothered to repeat his experiments. NNobel PrizeFor Medicine - 1966.Nominated for a Nobel Prize as early as 1926, possibly the longest gap between a discovery and an award of the prize#CBDACCMedicineMale18791970
Bulletin to the NY Academy of Medicine, Wikipedia, Nobel Prize
28Vera Rubinrubin612"Stars orbit the galaxy at roughly same speed, meaning a hidden force - dark matter - exists & affects gravity."Astronomy197652198045636rejectedMet with skepticisms and "intense discussion".Met with skepticisms and "intense discussion".BPrizeMany prizes & awards. 90% of the universe now considered to be "dark matter".#F6C5D9AstronomyFemale19282016Wikipedia, NPR
“Disinfection of surgeons' hands would prevent fatal child-bed fever”
Medicine184729186215443killedHis idea met with great hostility from doctors who felt accused of being 'unclean'. Dismissed from his hospital post and died in obscurity after a beating in a mental asylum.His ideas were met with great hostility: doctors were either embarrassed or outraged at being considered unclean. He was dismissed from the Vienna hospital, and eventually died in obscurity in a mental asylum, from a gangrenous wound after receiving a beating from guards.AIdeas AdoptedFather of antiseptic treatment.He was wrong overall, but only in suggesting that surgeons disinfect only after trips to the morgue.#CBDACCMedicineMale18181865
Wikipedia, The Etiology, Concept, and Prophylaxis of Childbed Fever,+Concept+and+Prophylaxis+of+Childbed+Fever#v=onepage&q&f=false
“Blood flows from the heart to the lungs ('pulmonary circulation')”
Medicine1545342011466500na8killedDeemed a heretic. Escaped the Inquisition in Spain but was caught in Switzerland and burnt at the stake.His book outlining ideas about circulation also included his ideas for reforming Christianity and was deemed heretical. Despite escaping from Spain and its Catholic Inquisition, the Protestant Inquisition in Switzerland — under the orders of John Calvin — sentenced him to death, and he was burnt at the stake by the shores of Lake Geneva, with his books.RRecognitionGeneva erects a statue in 2011 (but Protestants snub the event).#CBDACCMedicineMale15111553
Wired, WIkipedia
Numerous electrical inventions & technologies
Engineering18842819435987na59rejectedPossibly exploited by Thomas Edison. Died penniless.When he came to the USA in 1884, he was employed by Thomas Edison, who underpaid him and allegedly exploited him. Despite his fame and success, as well as his role in the development of the radio, he died penniless and in debt in a New York hotel. His work on wireless energy transfer was suppressed or underfunded. In later life he became seen as an eccentric: almost an archetypal mad scientist.RRecognition
Regarded as one of the greatest inventors of all time.
Physics / Engineering
Male18561943Wikipedia, PBS
32AndreasVesaliusvesalius549“De humani corporis fabrica”Medicine154329155512419exiledAttacked and accused of murder. Famous court physician but attacked for controversially refuting Galenic & Aristotelian medicine & for encouraging human dissections. In 1551, Charles V (of Spain) commissioned an inquiry to investigate the religious implications of these methods. Although Vesalius' work was cleared, the attacks continued & Vesalius was eventually accused of murder, after performing an autopsy on a Spanish nobelman,during which he discovered that the heart was still beating. It is speculated that as a result of this, Vesalius left for a pilgrimage & received a death sentence, only to die on his way back in a shipwreck. His work had been vindicated in 1555 by a previous critic, who claimed that both Galen & Vesalius were right & so the human body must have changed. AIdeas AdoptedFather of modern anatomy.The anecdote about murder may be apocryphal! It's possible he chose to go on the pilgrimage himself. Date posited ideas = year De humani corporis fabrica was published.#CBDACCMedicineMale15141564
Annals of Clinical and Laboratory Science, Wikipedia; New World Encyclopedia; Medical Faculty, Zagreb
33AlfredWegenerwegener988“The continents slowly drift around the Earth”
Physical Science
191232198068100na18ignoredHis theories were misread and badly recevied. Symposiums organised specifically to critique his work.Theories were misread and badly received. He died in the course of a polar expedition and after his death George Gaylord Simpson, an influential palaeontologist, wrote a strong rebuttal that argued for a permanent formation of continents, and Wegener's theories were ignored. FFoundationWegener Institute & Medal -
American Journal of Science, Wikipedia, Alfred Wegener Institute
"After Bacteria & Eukaryota, there is a 3rd domain of organisms: the Archaea"
Biology197749198585727ridiculedProminent biologists objected. Dubbed a "crank" and a "scarred revolutionary".Prominent biologists objected. Dubbed a "crank" and a "scarred revolutionary".ARecognitionMany medals & prizes. Had 3 microbes named after him.#CEE9F6MicrobiologyMale19282012Wikipedia
Wright Brothers
wright2007“Human flight is possible”Engineering19033219484577na45ignoredThe press were uninterested. The Smithsonian refused to acknowledge their flight.The press were generally uninterested, and the Smithsonian Institute refused to acknowledge their flight in the Flyer at Kitty Hawk as the first manned flight, instead naming a member of the board whose own attempts had failed. The Wright Brothers moved to Europe to try and convince people, but there was still scepticism that they had achieved flight. The idea of the first manned plane became an early equivalent of the Space Race, and was a political issueRRecognitionSmithsonian displays the Wrights’ plane.Not necessarily the first manned flight! A number of early aviators disputed the claims and historians are still uncertain. Age shown is oldest sibling Orville.#EFDEBAEngineeringMale18711948
Wikipedia, US Govt Centennial of Flight Commission, Smithsonian Institute
“Protons & neutrons are made up of even smaller particles called quarks”
Physical Science
19642719811744-rejectedInitially rejected for publication. He wanted to call the new particles "aces" but was ignored.Article on the new theory was initially rejected for publication, his choice of name (aces) was ignoredPPrizeMacArthur Prize Fellowship - 1981.Idea was proposed at the same time as Murray Gell-Mann in 1964, who received the Nobel Prize in 1968#D9C7DEPhysicsMale1937-
CERN, Wikipedia, Discovery of Cosmic Fractals
“Unseen “dark matter” pervades & affects the cosmos”
Astronomy193335197239742ignoredSeen as an uncharismatic eccentric. Widely ignored for forty years.Seen as an uncharismatic eccentric (who tried to win arguments through physical fights). He hypothesised dark matter to account for missing mass in galaxy clusters in the 1930s, but was widely ignored until the 1970sPPrizeGold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society - 1972.#F6C5D9AstronomyMale18981974
Beam Line, Wikipedia
“animals produce costly flashy ornaments to signal their genetic strength”
Biology1975471990156226ridiculedDiscredited by his fellow scientists, inc. Richard Dawkins in his book 'The Selfish Gene'.The scientific community resisted his ideas. Richard Dawkins discredited his idea in 'The Selfish Gene', and John Maynard Smith published a mathematical model showing the principle was unworkable. RecognitionDawkins published a reversal of his view in the 30th anniversary edition of 'The Selfish Gene'. BiologyMale19282017
Nature, Wikipedia, Encyclopedia of Evolutionary Psychological Science
"there are many possible sizes for infinite sets"
Mathematics1874291904305913ridiculedFiercely opposed by some, mocked & ridiculed by others. Publication & appointment to faculty blocked by Kronecker. His theory was controversial among mathematicians and philosophers. The idea was ridiculed and many considered it bizarre, silly, or irrelevant. Kronecker was a fierce opponent & blocked the paper's publication as well as Cantor's appointment to faculty at the University of Berlin.PrizeRoyal Society Sylvester Medal - 1904Ultimately his ideas were largely accepted, & his theory influenced a whole new area of research. MathematicsMale18451918
University of St Andrews, Wikipedia, Brittanica
"The origin of plants & animals is endosymbiosis"
Biology1966281978124033rejectedRejected by a dozen journals, had to fight for acceptanceHer radical paper was rejected by a dozen journals. With no training in molecular biology, & with DNA sequencing years away, she had to stand up for her ideas repeatedly. PrizeUS President's National Medal of Science, Darwin–Wallace Medal of the Linnean Society of London, & election to the US & Russian science academiesBiologyFemale19382011
Nature, Wikipedia
"Oxidative phosphorylation is the biochemical mechanism of ATP synthesis"
Chemistry1961411978175813ridiculedRidiculed for two decades, with Jennifer Moyle his only professional supporter.At the time that Mitchell proposed his hypothesis there was not a shred of evidence in support of it, and this led to a conflict between Mitchell and the “establishment.”Nobel PrizeFor Chemistry - 1978ChemistryMale19201992
Royal Society, BAMBED
42Dan Shechtman559"there are crystal structures that are mathematically regular, but do not repeat themselves"
Physical Science
1982411987546-rejectedVilified. Made to leave his research group & couldn't publish his findings for 2yrs. The types of structures possible in a crystal had been considered a closed book since the 1890s. Asked to leave his research group at the National Bureau of Standards. Wasn't able to publish his findings for 2yrs. Nobel PrizeFor Chemisty - 2011Born in what was formerly the British Mandate of Palestine, now Israel. ChemistryMale1941-
Wikipedia, Nobel Prize, Britannica
JimAllison8706"The immune system can fight cancer."Medicine19944620182470-ridiculedDoubt from his peers, told he was foolish.A quarter-century later, after countless medical trials, doubt from his peers and uncertainty of whether a product based on his discovery would ever be available to the public, Allison was a co-recipient of the 2018 Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for his work on how to use the body’s immune system to combat cancer.Nobel PrizeFor Physiology or Medicine, 2018Shared his prize with Tasuku HonjoMedicineMale1948-
Washington Post