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ABCDE
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SAE Test QuestionsagefaqegbraziKhasoítoívarikèvi
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1. Absence of any phonemic POA for stops further back than velar [half mark for only one stop-POA behind velar, or for prominent allophonic stops behind velar0.500.50
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2. Phonemic voicing contrast1111
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3. Phonemic voicing only on both stops and fricatives [half mark if only stops]110.51
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4. Voicing distinction on fricatives but only labial and/or coronal fricatives1101
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5. /v/ but no /w/1100
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6. One fewer phonemic POA for nasals than for stops and affricates combined0000
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7. No single MOA found at all POAs [half mark if only one MOA at all POAs]1111
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8. At least one non-glottal POA with at least one fricative but no stops1010
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9. Fricatives distinguish more POAs than (non-nasal) stops [half mark if they distinguish the same number]1101
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10. More non-stops than stops (not counting nasals as either stops or non-stops)1101
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11. Between 20 and 30 consonant phonemes [half mark if between 15 and 40] 1101
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12. One phonemic lateral, distinguished from rhotics [half mark if more than one]1101
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13. No lateral obstruents1111
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14. One phonemic rhotic [half mark if more than one]0.5101
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15. 5-7 POAs [half mark if at least 4 POAs]0.50.50.50.5
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16. 4 stop/affricate POAs0000
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17. No systematic secondary articulation at more than one POA and no double articulation [half mark if there is systematic palatal secondary articulation]110.51
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18. Voicing as the only phonation distinction1101
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19. No clicks, ejectives, or ingressive consonants of any kind [half mark if one of these categories occurs not as a series]1101
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20. 7 or more vowel qualities [half mark for 5 or more]1101
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21. Three or more diphthongs1001
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22. No non-low back unrounded vowels [half mark if no high back unrounded vowels]1010
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23. One front rounded vowel1101
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24. Two or more front rounded vowels1101
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25. No vowel harmony1111
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26. Vowels distinguished solely by height, frontness, roundedness and length. (i.e. no voice distinctions, rhotic vowels, ATR, nasal vowels, etc) [half mark for nasal vowels not occuring at all vowel qualities]0.50.50.51
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27. More than three degrees of vowel height1101
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28. Phonemic stress0010
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29. No phonemic tone [half mark for two-tone languages]1111
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30. Syllables without onset consonants allowed1101
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31. CVL syllables allowed (L = lateral or rhotic)1111
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32. CVN syllables allowed (N = nasal)1111
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33. CVF syllables allowed (F = fricative)1111
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34. CVS syllables allowed (S = stop)1111
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35. CVCC syllables allowed1101
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36. CVCCC syllables not allowed other than CVCCF [half mark if CVCCCC syllables not allowed other than CVCCCF] [no mark if CVCCC syllables not allowed]0000
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37. CLV syllables allowed1111
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38. FCV syllables allowed (F = fricative), where C is not a glide or a liquid. [but only half mark if C cannot be a member of a particular series (eg nasal, voiced, ejective, fricative etc) or POA]000.50
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39. CCCV syllables allowed110.51
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40. CCV syllables allowed but SSV or SSCV syllables not allowed (not including geminates)1111
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41. CCCV syllables allowed but CCNV syllables not allowed1111
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42. CCV syllables allowed but SNV syllables not allowed1111
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43. Sonority hierarchy violation in consonant clusters allowed only for fricatives (stops -> fricatives -> liquids -> approximants)0010
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44. One syllabic consonant, a rhotic [half mark if lateral or both]0000
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45. (At least some) affricates treated as phonemes1111
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46. A non-glottal POA where the only MOA is fricative [not counting /w/ as labial-velar or whatever]0010
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47. No more than four POAs for stops (affricates not counted) [half mark for five, or counting affricates]1010
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48. No initial nasal other than /m/ or /n/ (half mark if other initial nasals but not initial velar or uvular nasal)1101
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49. No phonemic distinction of consonant length, or gemination, except across morpheme boundaries1111
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50. Presence of an approximant/non-alveolar rhotic0000
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51. 9 or more vowel POAs AND no vowel harmony 1111
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52. No velar (or uvular, etc) nasals at all0000
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53. Words can end in any consonant [half mark if 1-2 exceptions found]00.500.5
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54. Vowel mergers in unstressed syllables0000
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55. More phonemes at a single coronal POA than at any other single POA1101
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S1. No initial velar nasal5505
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S2. No tone system with more than two tones5555
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S3. Syllables of both CCV and CVC form appear (not necessarily for all C), where all Cs can be non-glides [0.5 marks if this is true but some Cs must be glides]5555
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S4. At least 10 vowels in total (including length, quality, and syllable-specific tone, not including anything suprasegmental)5505
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S5. No non-pulmonic consonants5505
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S6. No phonation distinctions other than voiced/voiceless5505
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S7. Phonemic voice distinction [0.5 marks if it is only one aspect of a distinction]552.55
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S8. Fricatives and affricates, added together, outnumber plain non-nasal stops [0.5 marks if fricatives, affricates, liquids and glides together outnumber (nasals + stops), OR if the fricatives+affricates EQUALS non-nasal stops]5505
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S9. Ignoring stops and nasals: more fricatives than non-fricative consonants [0.5 marks if equal]2.5555
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Percentage:83.50%82.50%43.00%83.00%
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Completion:100.00%100.00%100.00%100.00%
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Comparison Data
* = Areas left blank are due to having a barely developed grammar. More information will come later.
69
? = not sure what this feature means
70
Danish - 82
71
French - 98
72
German - 90
73
Hawai'ian - 42.5
74
Latin - 62
75
PIE - 58
76
Spanish - 69.5
77
Zuni - 56
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