|Vocabulary word or concept||Explanation|
|Acute Mountain Sickness (AMS)|
Symptoms experienced by people exposed to high altitude, resulting from difficulty adjusting to low oxygen pressure at high altitude. Improves over time
The process by which specific genetic variants (and linked neighboring variants) have been favorably passed down in a population over hundreds of generations. The adaptive variants provide a survival advantage. After many generations, this process leaves a homogeneous pattern of variation distinct from neutrally inherited variation in the genome.
|Apnea hypopnia index (AHI)|
Number of sleep apneic events per hour
Hemoglobin molecule with at least one carbon monoxide (CO) molecule bound. Represented as the % of total hemoglobin stores bound to CO.
Chemoreceptor organ that senses changes in arterial PO2, PCO2 and pH and triggers ventilatory, cardiovascular, metabolic and autonomic responses.
|Central sleep apnea (CSA)|
interruption of breathing due to reduced effort (signals from brain not producing effort) to breathe. More common at high altitude.
Whales and dolphins
Physiological mechanism to sense changes in oxygen, carbon dioxide and pH in the body.
|Cheyne Stokes Respiration (CSR)|
Abnormal pattern of breathing that waxes and wanes, common at high altitude
|Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS)|
Characterized by high levels of red blood cells and low levels of oxygen in blood. Occurs in long-term high-altitude residents
Independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages. (e.g. evolution of flight in insects, birds, and bats)
A dinucleotide in which cytosine is immediately preceding guanine, and is a site in the genome that is commonly methylated. And DNA methylation as an epigenetic mechanism in which a methyl group is attached typically to the 5' carbon of a cytosine in the DNA.
The gene for Prolyl Hydroxylase 2 (PHD2), which is involved in [necessary for?] the breakdown of HIF-2alpha [only, not 1 too??] in normoxia
|Excessive Erythrocytosis (EE)|
quantitative definition = [Hemoglobin] > 19 g/dL in females; > 21g/dl in males; a component of Chronic Mountain Sickness (CMS)
|Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)|
Enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of heme, resulting in the production of biliverdin, ferrous iron and carbon monoxide (CO). HO-1 is inducible and found in many cells and tissues.
|Heme oxygenase-2 (HO-2)|
Enzyme that catalyzes the degradation of heme, resulting in the production of biliverdin, ferrous iron and carbon monoxide (CO). HO-1 is constituatively expressed and is typically only found in certain tissues (e.g. testes, vasculature, CNS respiratory centers)
Primary oxygen carrying heme protein in blood. Found inside red blood cells.
|High altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE)|
fluid accumulation in the lungs from high-altitude exposure
|High-altitude cerebral edema (HACE)|
brain swells with fluid from high-altitude exposure
Reduced oxygen partial pressure in blood
Reduced oxygen partial pressure or content in gas or liquid
|Hypoxic ventilatory response|
HVR, a reflex increase in ventilation in response to decreased arterial PO2, primarily mediated by carotid bodies in humans.
Reduction in blood flow to tissues
|Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA)|
intermittent blockage of upper airway during sleep
|Oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve|
Curve that plots the the percent of hemoglobin bound to oxygen against the dissolved oxygen tension (pO2) in blood. Important tool for understanding how oxygen binds and releases from hemoglobin.
Seals and sea lions
|Ventilatory aclimatization to Hypoxia|
VAH, a time-dependent increase in ventilatory sensitivity to O2 (the slope of the HVR) and normoxic ventilatory drive (arterial PCO2 set-point) occurring over days to months of sustained hypoxia.