State level primary & ballot access laws
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ABCDEF
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State
Allows party "designations"?
Primary type
Parties control franchise in primaries?
Primaries legally required?Population
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Alabamanoopen (Rep only)yesNo (Acts 1975, No. 1196, p. 2349, §1; §17-16-5)4,863,300
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Alaskayesopenyes, parties can set arbitrary restrictions on franchiseYes, all political parties (Alaska Code § 15-25-010)741,894
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Arizonayessemi-closednoYes, all political parties (Arizona Code § 16-301)6,931,071
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ArkansasnoopennoYes, all political parties (Arkansas Code § 7-7-102)2,988,248
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Californianosemi-closedopen/closed onlyTop-two primary; parties have no control over which candidates are allowed to list them as their "party preference"39,250,017
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Coloradoyessemi-closednoYes, for parties whose gubernatorial candidate earned over 10% of the vote (Colorado Code § 1-4-101)5,540,545
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Connecticutyesclosedopen/closed onlyYes, for parties whose gubernatorial candidate earned over 20% of the vote (Connecticut Code § 153-9-415)3,576,452
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DelawarenoclosednoYes, for parties with a voter registration share of 5% or more (Delaware Code § 15-3101A)952,065
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FloridanoclosednoYes, for parties with a voter registration share of 5% or more20,612,439
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GeorgiayesopennoYes, all political parties (O.C.G.A. § 21-2-151)10,310,371
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HawaiinoopennoYes, all political parties (Hawaii Code § 1-2-12-1)1,428,557
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Idahonosemi-closedopen/closed onlyYes (Idaho Code § 34-703)1,683,140
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IllinoisyesopennoYes, all political parties12,801,539
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Indianayesopenno6,633,053
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IowayesopennoYes, for parties whose candidate for governor received more than 2% of the vote3,134,693
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Kansasnosemi-closednoYes, for parties whose candidate for governor received more than 5% of the vote (Kansas Code § 25-202)2,907,289
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KentuckyyesclosednoYes, for all parties (Kentucky Code § 118.105)4,436,974
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LouisiananoothernoRunoff primary system; parties have no control over party designations on the ballot4,681,666
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MaineyesclosedyesYes, for all parties (Maine Code § 21-A.5.1.4.331)1,331,479
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MarylandnoclosedyesYes, for parties whose gubernatorial candidate received the highest or second highest number of votes in the last cycle (Maryland Code § 5-701)6,016,447
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Massachusettsyessemi-closedno6,811,779
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MichigannoopennoYes, for all political parties whose candidates for Secretary of State receive more than 5% of the vote9,928,300
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MinnesotayesopennoYes, for "major political parties" (Minnesota Code § 204B.03)5,519,952
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MississippinoopennoYes, for all political parties (Mississippi Code 23-15-291)2,988,726
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MissourinoopennoYes, for all political parties (Missouri Code 115.339)6,093,000
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MontanayesopennoYes, for parties who ran a candidate for statewide office in the past two cycles who received more than 5% of the vote (Montana Code 13-10-601)1,042,520
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Nebraskanosemi-closedyes1,907,116
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NevadanoclosednoYes, for parties with a voter registration share of 10% or more (Nevada Code 293.175)2,940,058
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New Hampshireyessemi-closedno1,334,795
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New Jerseyyessemi-closedno8,944,469
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New MexiconoclosednoYes, for political parties whose gubernatorial candidate won more than 5% of the vote in the last cycle (NM Code 1-8-1)2,081,015
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New YorkyesclosednoYes, all political parties (NY Code §17-6-110)19,745,289
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North Carolinanosemi-closedno10,146,788
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North Dakotanoopenno757,952
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OhionoopennoYes (OH Code 3513), and major parties must elect central committees by primary11,614,373
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Oklahomanosemi-closedopen/closed onlyYes, for all recognized parties (OK Code 26-1-102)3,923,561
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OregonnoclosednoYes, for parties with a voter registration share above 5% (Oregon Code §248.007)4,093,465
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PennsylvaniayesclosednoYes, for parties with a voter registration share above 15% (Article IX)12,784,227
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Rhode Islandyessemi-closedno1,056,426
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South CarolinanoopennoNo, but parties which currently nominate candidates via primary must get approval from primary voters before switching to a non-primary method (SC Code 7-11-10)4,961,119
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South Dakotanosemi-closed (Dem only)open/closed only865,454
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TennesseenoopennoYes, for parties whose candidate for governor received more than 5% of the vote (Tenn. Code Ann. § 2-13-202)6,651,194
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TexasnoopennoYes, for parties whose candidate for governor received more than 20% of the vote27,862,596
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Utahyessemi-closednoYes, for all recognized political parties (Utah Code 20A-9-4-403)3,051,217
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VermontyesYes, for major political parties624,594
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VirginiayesNo (Virginia Code § 24.2-509)8,411,808
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WashingtonyesothernoTop-two primary; parties have no control over which candidates are allowed to list them as their "party preference"7,288,000
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Washington, D.C.
yes
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West Virginiayessemi-closedopen/closed only1,831,102
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WisconsinyesYes, for parties that ran a candidate for statewide office in the last election and received more than 1% of the vote (WI Code 5.62.1b)5,778,708
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WyomingnoYes, for parties that ran a candidate for statewide office or for US House in the last election and received more than 10% of the vote (WY Code 22-5-202)585,501
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Pop. of "no" statesPop. of "open" states
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182,783,386115,458,087
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