Behavior Change Toolkit
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Select your stage(s) of changeSelect your level(s) of interventionNumberNameFocusList of things to consider for changing behaviorDefinition of of those thingsPotential strategies for applying those thingsHow to measure variablesWiki linkAcademic linksTranslate variables to design: KPIsTranslate variables to design: DESIGN PRINCIPLESTranslate variables to design: DESIGN EXERCISESTranslate variables to design: RESEARCH METHODS
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Unaware
Precontemplation
Contemplation
Preparation
Action
Individual1Health Belief ModelIndividual's perceptions of the threat posed by a health problem, the benefits of avoiding the threat, and factors influencing the decision to actPerceived susceptibility
Perceived severity
Perceived benefits
Perceived barriers
Cues to action
Self-efficacy
Perceived susceptibility - Beliefs about the chances of getting a condition
Perceived severity - Beliefs about the seriousness of a condition and its consequences
Perceived benefits - Beliefs about the effectiveness of taking action to reduce risk or seriousness
Perceived barriers - Beliefs about the material and psychological costs of taking action
Cues to action - Factors that activate ”readiness to change”
Self-efficacy - Confidence in one’s ability to take action
Perceived susceptibility:
• Define what populations(s) are at risk and their levels of risk
• Tailor risk information based on an individual’s characteristics or behaviors
• Help the individual develop an accurate
perception of his or her own risk

Perceived severity
• Specify the consequences of a condition and recommended action

Perceived benefits
• Explain how, where, and when to take action and what the potential positive results will be

Perceived barriers
• Offer reassurance, incentives, and assistance; correct misinformation

Cues to action
• Provide ”how to” information, promote awareness, and employ reminder systems

Self-efficacy
• Provide training and guidance in performing action
• Use progressive goal setting
• Give verbal reinforcement
• Demonstrate desired behaviors
Health Behavior and Health Education - https://drive.google.com/open?id=1nkoBXFRpzXC6GmnXm7allm0P2pX6zPV9https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Health_belief_modelTheory at a glance - https://drive.google.com/open?id=1cDM-GjqHsOZnsjo92DKadUQV-YJq2Hb2

Health Behavior and Health Education - https://drive.google.com/open?id=1nkoBXFRpzXC6GmnXm7allm0P2pX6zPV9
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Precontemplation
Contemplation
Preparation
Action
Maintenance
Individual2Stages of Change ModelIndividuals’ motivation and readiness to change a problem behaviorPrecontemplation
Contemplation
Preparation
Action
Maintenance
Termination (Completion)
Precontemplation - Has no intention of taking action within the next
six months

Contemplation - Intends to take action in the next six months

Preparation - Intends to take action within the next thirty days and has taken some behavioral steps in
this direction

Action - Has changed behavior for less than six months

Maintenance - Has changed behavior for more than six months
Precontemplation - Increase awareness of need for change; personalize information about risks and benefits

Contemplation - Motivate; encourage making specific plans

Preparation - Assist with developing and implementing concrete action plans; help set
gradual goals

Action - Assist with feedback, problem solving, social support, and reinforcement

Maintenance - Assist with coping, reminders, finding alternatives, avoiding slips/relapses (as applicable)
Health Behavior and Health Education - https://drive.google.com/open?id=1nkoBXFRpzXC6GmnXm7allm0P2pX6zPV9https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transtheoretical_modelTheory at a glance - https://drive.google.com/open?id=1cDM-GjqHsOZnsjo92DKadUQV-YJq2Hb2

Health Behavior and Health Education - https://drive.google.com/open?id=1nkoBXFRpzXC6GmnXm7allm0P2pX6zPV9
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Contemplation
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Individual3Integrated Model of Behavior ChangeA particular behavior is most likely to occur if (1) a person has a strong intention to perform it and the knowledge and skill to do so, (2) there is no serious environmental constraint preventing performance, (3) the behavior is salient, and (4) the person has performed the behavior previouslyBehavioral intention
Experiential/Instrumental Attitudes
Descriptive/Injunctive norms
Perceived behavioral control
Self-efficacy
Behavioral intention - Perceived likelihood of performing behavior

Experiential/Instrumental Attitudes - Personal evaluation of the behavior. Overall affective evaluation of the behavior / Overall evaluation of the behavior

Descriptive/Injunctive norms - Belief about whether most people perform the behavior / Beliefs about whether key people approve or disapprove of the behavior; motivation to behave in a way that gains their approval

Perceived behavioral control - Belief that one has, and can exercise, control over performing the behavior

Self-Efficacy - Overall measure of ability to perform behavior
Once critical belief targets are identified, the next steps in designing an interven- tion are to develop persuasive arguments to change those beliefs and then to select channels by which to deliver persuasive communications to target populations.Health Behavior and Health Education - https://drive.google.com/open?id=1nkoBXFRpzXC6GmnXm7allm0P2pX6zPV9https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I-Change_ModelHealth Behavior and Health Education - https://drive.google.com/open?id=1nkoBXFRpzXC6GmnXm7allm0P2pX6zPV9
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Precontemplation
Contemplation
Preparation
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Maintenance
Individual4Precaution Adoption Process ModelIndividuals’ journey regarding a hazardous behavior from lack of awareness to action and maintenanceUnaware of issue
Unengaged by issue
Deciding about acting
Deciding not to act
Deciding to act
Acting
Maintenance
Unaware of issue - In the first stage of the PAPM, an individual may be completely unaware of a hazard (e.g., radon exposure, the link between unprotected sex and HIV).

Unengaged by issue - The person may subsequently become aware of the issue but remain unengaged by it

Deciding about acting - Next, the person faces a decision about acting

Deciding not to act - may decide not to act

Deciding to act - may decide to act

Acting - taking action

Maintenance - trying to maintain action
Stage 1 to Stage 2: Media messages about the hazard and precaution

Stage 2 to Stage 3: Media messages about the hazard and precaution. Communications from significant others.
Personal experience with hazard

Stage 3 to Stage 4 or Stage 5:
Beliefs about hazard likelihood and severity
Beliefs about personal susceptibility.
Beliefs about precaution effectiveness and difficulty. Behaviors and recommendations of others. Perceived social norms
. Fear and worry

Stage 5 to Stage 6: Time, effort, and resources needed to act. Detailed “how-to” information
Reminders and other cues to action. Assistance in carrying out action
Health Behavior and Health Education - https://drive.google.com/open?id=1nkoBXFRpzXC6GmnXm7allm0P2pX6zPV9Theory at a glance - https://drive.google.com/open?id=1cDM-GjqHsOZnsjo92DKadUQV-YJq2Hb2

Health Behavior and Health Education - https://drive.google.com/open?id=1nkoBXFRpzXC6GmnXm7allm0P2pX6zPV9
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Social
5Social Cognitive TheoryPersonal factors, environmental factors, and human behavior exert influence on each other. In other words: how individuals, environments and health behaviors interact.Reciprocal determinism
Outcome expectations
Self-efficacy
Collective efficacy
Observational learning
Incentive motivation
Facilitation
Self-regualtion
Moral disengagement
Reciprocal determinism - Environmental factors influence individuals and groups, but individuals and groups can also influence their environments and regulate their own behavior

Outcome expectations - Beliefs about the likelihood and value of the consequences of behavioral choices

Self-efficacy - Beliefs about personal ability to perform behaviors that bring desired outcomes

Collective efficacy - Beliefs about the ability of a group to perform concerted actions that bring desired outcomes

Observational learning - Learning to perform new behaviors by exposure to interpersonal or media displays of them, particularly through peer modeling

Incentive motivation - The use and misuse of rewards and punishments to modify behavior

Facilitation - Providing tools, resources, or en- vironmental changes that make new behaviors easier to perform

Self-regualtion - Controlling oneself through self-monitoring, goal-setting, feedback, self reward, self- instruction, and enlistment of social support

Moral disengagement - Ways of thinking about harmful behaviors and the people who are harmed that make infliction of suffering acceptable by disengaging self-regulatory moral standards
Reciprocal determinism - Consider multiple ways to promote behavior change, including making adjustments to the environment or influencing personal attitudes

Outcome expectations - Model positive outcomes of healthful behavior. Changing expectations about the pleasure associated with condoms (McAlister and others, 2000)

Self-efficacy - Promote mastery learning through skills training. Approach behavior change in small steps to ensure success; be specific about the desired change. Example: Improving women’s beliefs about their ability to convince partners to use condoms (McAlister and others, 2000)

Collective efficacy - Organization of parents’ groups to or- ganize safe parties and advocate other environmental changes to reduce under- age alcohol use (Perry and others, 2002)

Observational learning - Offer credible role models who perform the targeted behavior. Example: Behavioral journalism promoting condom use (McAlister, Johnson, and others, 2000) and entertainment-education fea- turing women empowered with literacy skills (Singhal and Rogers, 1999)

Incentive motivation - Laws prosecuting teen smokers may have unwanted effects (Loukas and others, 2006), but taxes can deter the onset of tobacco use (Hopkins and others, 2001).

Facilitation - Distribution of condoms at no cost (McAlister and others, 2000) and busi- ness assistance to help women escape prostitution (Sherman and others, 2006)

Self-regualtion - Computerized self-management training for asthma patients (Lorig and others, 2001) and telephone counseling for smok- ing cessation (Rabius and others, 2004)

Moral disengagement - Dehumanization and diffusion of responsibility influence aggression and corporate transgressions that harm public health (Bandura and others, 1996, 2000)
Health Behavior and Health Education - https://drive.google.com/open?id=1nkoBXFRpzXC6GmnXm7allm0P2pX6zPV9https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_cognitive_theoryTheory at a glance - https://drive.google.com/open?id=1cDM-GjqHsOZnsjo92DKadUQV-YJq2Hb2

Health Behavior and Health Education - https://drive.google.com/open?id=1nkoBXFRpzXC6GmnXm7allm0P2pX6zPV9
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Social
6Social Networks & Social SupportSocial network and social support do not connote theories per se. Rather, they are concepts that describe the structure, processes, and functions of social relationshipsStructural characteristics of social networks:
Reciprocity
Intensity / strength
Complexity
Formality
Density
Homogeneity
Geographic dispersion
Directionality

Functions of social networks:
Social capital
Social influence
Social undermining
Companionship
Social support

Types of social support:
Emotional support
Instrumental support
Informational support
Appraisal support
Structural characteristics of social networks:
Reciprocity - Extent to which resources and support are both given and received in a relationship
Intensity / strength - Extent to which social relationships offer emotional closeness
Complexity - Extent to which social relationships serve many functions
Formality - Extent to which social relationships exist in the context of organizational or institutional roles
Density - Extent to which network members know and interact with each other
Homogeneity - Extent to which network members are demographically similar
Geographic dispersion - Extent to which network members live in close proximity to focal person
Directionality - Extent to which members of the dyad share equal power and influence

Functions of social networks:
Social capital - Resources characterized by norms of reciprocity and social trust
Social influence - Process by which thoughts and actions are changed by actions of others
Social undermining - Process by which others express negative affect or criticism or hinder one’s attainment of goals
Companionship - Sharing leisure or other activities with network members
Social support - Aid and assistance exchanged through social relationships and interpersonal transactions

Types of social support:
Emotional support - Expressions of empathy, love, trust, and caring
Instrumental support - Tangible aid and services
Informational support - Advice, suggestions, and information
Appraisal support - Information that is useful for self-evaluation
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_network

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_support
Theory at a glance - https://drive.google.com/open?id=1cDM-GjqHsOZnsjo92DKadUQV-YJq2Hb2

Health Behavior and Health Education - https://drive.google.com/open?id=1nkoBXFRpzXC6GmnXm7allm0P2pX6zPV9
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Social7Community OrganizationCommunity-driven approaches to assessing and solving health and social problemsEmpowerment
Community capacity
Participation
Relevance
Issue selection
Critical consciousness
Social capital
Empowerment - A social action process through which people gain mastery over their lives and their communities

Community capacity - Characteristics of a community that affect its ability to identify, mobilize around, and address problems

Participation - Engagement of community members as equal partners; reflects the principle, “Never do for others what they can do for themselves”

Relevance - Community organizing that ”starts where the people are”

Issue selection - Identifying immediate, specific, and realizable targets for change that unify and build community strength

Critical consciousness - Awareness of social, political, and economic forces that contribute to social problem

Social capital - Relationships between community members including trust, reciprocity, and civic engagement
Empowerment - Community members assume greater power, or expand their power from within, to create desired changes

Community capacity - Community members participate actively in community life, gaining leadership skills, social networks, and access to power

Participation - Community members develop leadership skills, knowledge, and resources through their involvement

Relevance - Community members create their own agenda based on felt needs, shared power, and awareness of resources

Issue selection - Community members participate in identifying issues; targets are chosen as part of a larger strategy

Critical consciousness - Community members discuss the root causes of problems and plan actions to address them

Social capital - Community members collectively improve leadership, social networks, and quality of neigh- borhood life
Health Behavior and Health Education - https://drive.google.com/open?id=1nkoBXFRpzXC6GmnXm7allm0P2pX6zPV9Theory at a glance - https://drive.google.com/open?id=1cDM-GjqHsOZnsjo92DKadUQV-YJq2Hb2

Health Behavior and Health Education - https://drive.google.com/open?id=1nkoBXFRpzXC6GmnXm7allm0P2pX6zPV9
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Institutional
8Diffusion of InnovationsHow new ideas, products, and practices spread within a society or from one society to anotherRelative advantage
Compatibility
Complexity
Trialability
Observability
Relative advantage - Is the innovation better than what it will replace?

Compatibility - Does the innovation fit with the intended audience?

Complexity - Is the innovation easy to use?

Trialability - Can the innovation be tried before making a decision to adopt?

Observability - Are the results of the innovation observable and easily measurable?
Relative advantage - An innovation will only be adopted if it is seen as better than the idea, product, or program it supersedes. Advantages considered can be economic, social, utilitarian, and so on (Rogers, 2003). This is the sine qua non for adoption, and there is reasonably strong evidence for this (Greenhalgh and others, 2004). However, relative advantage alone does not guarantee widespread adoption (Denis and others, 2002; Fitzgerald, Ferlie, Wood, and Hawkins, 2002; Grimshaw and others, 2004).

Compatibility - Innovations that are compatible with the intended users’ values, norms, beliefs, and perceived needs are more readily adopted (for example, Aubert and Hamel, 2001). These may be considered on the individual or orga- nizational levels. The concept of reinvention, sometimes identified as a distinct feature of innovations (Greenhalgh, 2004), can also be thought of as an exten- sion of compatibility. If potential adopters can adapt, change, and modify an innovation to suit their own needs and context, it will be adopted more easily.

Complexity - Innovations perceived as easy to use are more likely to be adopted, whereas more complex innovations are less successfully adopted. In addition, innovations that can be broken down into parts and adopted incre- mentally are more likely to be adopted.

Trialability - Innovations with which intended users can experiment on a lim- ited basis are adopted and assimilated more easily.

Observability - If the benefits of an innovation are easily identified and visible to others, it will be adopted more easily.
Health Behavior and Health Education - https://drive.google.com/open?id=1nkoBXFRpzXC6GmnXm7allm0P2pX6zPV9https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Diffusion_of_innovationsTheory at a glance - https://drive.google.com/open?id=1cDM-GjqHsOZnsjo92DKadUQV-YJq2Hb2

Health Behavior and Health Education - https://drive.google.com/open?id=1nkoBXFRpzXC6GmnXm7allm0P2pX6zPV9
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Social
9Media Effects: Agenda Setting & FramingThe mass media can illuminate and focus attention on issues, helping to generate public awareness and momentum for change. A major focus of communications research has been on how the mass media influence public opinion, especially about politics and policymaking. Agenda setting involves setting the media agenda (what is covered), the public agenda (what people think about), and the policy agenda (regulatory or legislative actions on issues).Media agenda setting
Public agenda setting
Policy agenda setting
Problem identification and definition
Framing
Media agenda setting - Institutional factors and processes influencing how the media define, select, and emphasize issues

Public agenda setting - The link between issues covered in the media and the public’s priorities

Policy agenda setting - The link between issues covered in the media and the legislative priorities of policy makers

Problem identification and definition - Factors and process leading to the identification of an issue as a “problem” by social institutions

Framing - Selecting and emphasizing certain aspects of a story and excluding others
Media agenda setting - Work with media professionals to understand their work needs and routines in gathering and reporting news

Public agenda setting - Work with media professionals in advocacy or partnership context to build the public agenda for important health issues

Policy agenda setting - Work with community leaders and policymakers to build importance of health issues on the media’s and public’s agenda

Problem identification and definition - Community leaders, advocacy groups, organizations mobilized to define an issue and modes of solution or basis for action

Framing - Public health advocacy groups “packaging” an important health issue for the media and the public (for example, second- hand smoke framed as public’s involuntary exposure to toxic pollutant, contrasted with “smokers’ rights” emphasis of tobacco advocates)
Health Behavior and Health Education - https://drive.google.com/open?id=1nkoBXFRpzXC6GmnXm7allm0P2pX6zPV9https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agenda-setting_theoryTheory at a glance - https://drive.google.com/open?id=1cDM-GjqHsOZnsjo92DKadUQV-YJq2Hb2

Health Behavior and Health Education - https://drive.google.com/open?id=1nkoBXFRpzXC6GmnXm7allm0P2pX6zPV9
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10Media Effects: Knowledge Gap (Tichenor & Viswananth 1980 1996)The Knowledge Gap Hypothesis advanced the idea of media effects in at least two important ways. It contradicted conventional wisdom that media campaigns are a simple panacea for resolving social problems, and it suggested that media have dif- ferential impact on audiences that can be traced to differences in social class and social-structural conditions in communities. It was thus one of the first media studies hypotheses to draw attention to the role of the social environment in shaping media impact on individuals (Viswanath and Finnegan, 1996).

Therefore, the Knowledge Gap Hypothesis identified variables to account for to affect the knowledge gap.
Knowledge Gap
Knowledge
Information flow
Socioeconomic status
Social structure / pluralism
Social conflict
Mobilization
Motivation
Knowledge Gap - Difference in measured knowledge between groups of differing socioeconomic status (SES) over time.

Knowledge - Factual and interpretive information leading to understanding or usefulness for taking informed action.

Information flow - Degree of availability of information on an issue or topic in a social system such as a community.

Socioeconomic status - Population units or subunits characterized on the basis of differing education, income, wealth, or occupation.

Social structure / pluralism - Differentiation and inter- dependence among com- munity subsystems including social institutions, organiza- tions, interest groups and other centers of power and influence that maintain the social system; often influenced by size of the community (the larger the community, the greater the differentiation).

Social conflict - Opposition or disagreement over an issue or problem often representing a struggle for power and influence between social groups or leaders.

Mobilization - Organized activity seeking to focus community power and influence to address a problem or issue.

Motivation - Factors influencing individ- uals to attend to, and act upon information and knowledge (for example, personal interest, involve- ment, self-efficacy).
Knowledge Gap - Potential unintended conse- quence of public health inter- ventions to increase SES-based differences over time.

Knowledge - Communication of factual and interpretive information about causes and prevention of disease and skills for health improvement.

Information flow - Increasing community oppor- tunities (through multiple media and other channels) to encounter health information and knowledge.

Socioeconomic status - Emphasis on information of interest and use to differing SES groups; emphasis on channel strategies designed to reach especially low-SES groups.

Social structure / pluralism - Highly differentiated communities increase competition for public attention to health infor- mation. While level of communi- cation activity required is often more intensive than in a smaller, less differentiated community, public health resources permit dominating the information flow but seldom; emphasis on target- ing of media and other strate- gies to reach groups of interest.

Social conflict - Controversy attracts media attention especially in highly differentiated communities; tends to increase public interest and may lead to equalizing information on a topic across SES groups.

Mobilization - Media publicity about a public health issue is frequently driven by the actions of social groups and leaders; increases public attention and may lead to equalizing information across SES groups.

Motivation - Emphasis on strategies to increase motivational factors to acquire and act on information and knowledge.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Knowledge_gap_hypothesisHealth Behavior and Health Education - https://drive.google.com/open?id=1nkoBXFRpzXC6GmnXm7allm0P2pX6zPV9
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Action
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Individual11Gamification (game design)Game design is the art of applying design and aesthetics to create a game for entertainment or for educational, exercise, or experimental purposesChallenge
Theme
Reward
Progress
Challenge - providing challenging goal elements tied to rewards. The system needs to provide clear task goals (e.g., collecting items, shooting objects) that trigger a challenging activity for the player to engage in. The challenge may increase within system boundaries as the game progresses, to keep player interest.

Theme - Vicarious aesthetic representation and theme. The elements of the calibration system can be cloaked by putting them in a fantasy context (e.g., targets are spaceships, different parts of the game have descriptive names evoking some form of mental imagery), allowing the player to experience a vicarious setting. This applies to the player representation (e.g., the avatar) as well.

Reward - Rewards and behavior reinforcement. Challenge alone does not provide sufficient motivation to stay engaged in a task, so activities need to be rewarded periodically to provide feedback about player progress and to maintain motivation. Easily-implemented rewards include simple visual animations or pleasant sounds. To trigger curiosity, rewards at random locations can be used to keep the player cognitively engaged.

Progress - Progress units and markers. Feedback is a central aspect of game design. Providing progress units (e.g., levels, worlds, quests) and achievement markers (e.g., badges, score information) allows players to know how far they have progressed into the game and how well they are doing. Progress units can also serve as reinforcement (e.g., using time pressure to change the speed
of an action). In a social context, progress markers such as high scores also enable reputation scores, fostering competition and increasing replay value.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gamificationhttp://hci.usask.ca/uploads/214-calibration-games-39-cg.pdf

https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/30609294/MindTrek_Gamification_PrinterReady_110806_SDE_accepted_LEN_changes_1.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1525627278&Signature=kTJYju0t0ajfsm6%2BM07hPIBt3zI%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DFrom_game_design_elements_to_gamefulness.pdf
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Preparation
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12Fogg Behavioral Model (aka Tiny Habits)In this model (FBM), behavior is a product of three
factors: motivation, ability, and triggers, each of which has
subcomponents. The FBM asserts that for a person to perform a
target behavior, he or she must (1) be sufficiently motivated, (2)
have the ability to perform the behavior, and (3) be triggered to
perform the behavior. These three factors must occur at the same
moment, else the behavior will not happen. The FBM is useful in
analysis and design of persuasive technologies.
Elements of Motivation:
-Pleasure/Pain
-Hope/fear
-Social acceptance/rejection

Elements of ability:
-Time
-Money
-Physical effort
-Brain cycles
-Social deviance
-Non-routine

Elements of triggers:
-Spark
-Facilitator
-Trigger
https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/36817028/Behavior-Model-for-Persuasive-Design.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1525629617&Signature=GvyqV9mrXsDlJ%2FqH92PXt9soIS8%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DBehavior-Model-for-Persuasive-Design.pdfTiny habits is the application of the FBM. It is a self-help program that utilizes the framework to help people change their behaviors by creating tiny new habits. http://tinyhabits.com/join/https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/36817028/Behavior-Model-for-Persuasive-Design.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1525629617&Signature=GvyqV9mrXsDlJ%2FqH92PXt9soIS8%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DBehavior-Model-for-Persuasive-Design.pdf
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Individual13Nudge Theory (cognitiive biases and heuristics)The human brain uses heuristics (rules) and biases to make the process of judgement and decision-making easier. These rules and biases are predictable and typically occur within particular contexts. Nudge theory is the application of these biases and heuristics to either design for them, or around them, to motivate particular behaviors.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases#Common_theoretical_causes_of_some_cognitive_biaseshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biases#Common_theoretical_causes_of_some_cognitive_biaseshttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_cognitive_biaseshttps://drive.google.com/file/d/1ivWFE_z43fLQxQq_8Dp5Uhy-qWJtvyN5/view?usp=sharing

https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=SHvzzuCnuv8C&oi=fnd&pg=PP2&dq=thinking+fast+and+slow&ots=NSqiSB1mHG&sig=L-s-D6SdQrM9uuJTq1aIQgRr5f4#v=onepage&q=thinking%20fast%20and%20slow&f=false
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Physical14Architecture and StressStress occurs when there is an imbalance of environmental demands and human resources (Evans & Cohen, 1987). This article develops a preliminary taxonomy of design characteristics that have the potential to challenge human adaptive coping resources. Stimulation
Coherence
Affordances
Control
Restorative
Stimulation - Stimulation describes the amount of information in a setting or object that impinges upon the human user. Intensity, variety, complexity, mystery and novelty are specific design qualities pertinent to stimulation. Human beings function optimally with moderate levels of stimulation.

Coherence - Coherence refers to the clarity or comprehensibility
of building elements and form.

Affordances - We utilize interior spaces according to our understanding of the functions that they provide us. We also rely on information systems to provide feedback about building or equipment performance. When we are unable to readily discern the functional properties of a space or incorrectly gauge building or technological function, misaffordances occur (Heft, 1997).

Control - Control is defined herein as mastery or the ability to either alter the physical environment or regulate exposure to one’s surroundings. Physical constraints, flexibility, responsiveness, privacy, spatial syntax, defensible space, and certain symbolicelements are key design concepts salient to control. Physical constraints that reduce choice or behavioral options can produce or exacerbate stress (Glass & Singer, 1972; Evans & Cohen, 1987)

Restorative - Restorative qualities define the potential of design elements to function therapeutically, reducing cognitive fatigue and other sources of stress.
https://fenix.tecnico.ulisboa.pt/downloadFile/3779578270300/Evans%20&%20McCoy%20(1998).%20WHEN%20BUILDINGS%20DON_T%20WORK.pdfhttps://fenix.tecnico.ulisboa.pt/downloadFile/3779578270300/Evans%20&%20McCoy%20(1998).%20WHEN%20BUILDINGS%20DON_T%20WORK.pdf
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Physical15Environment and Well-BeingThe environment can facilitate or discourage interactions among people (and the subsequent benefits of social support). For example, an inviting space with comfortable chairs and privacy can encourage a family to stay and visit with a patient.

The environment can influence peoples' behavior and motivation to act. For example, a dingy corridor filled with extra hospital equipment will invite staff to leave another item in the hall, whereas a clean corridor and adequate storage will encourage staff to take the time to put the item away.

The environment can influence mood. For example, the results of several research studies reveal that rooms with bright light, both natural and artificial, can improve health outcomes such as depression, agitation, and sleep.
Connection with nature
Offer options and choices
Enhance social support
Reduce environmental stressors
Provide pleasant diversions
Connection with nature - Many studies produce strong evidence that even three to five minutes of contact with nature can significantly reduce stress and have a complex impact on emotions, reducing anger and fear and increasing pleasant feelings. This effect can be achieved by providing: views to the outside, interior gardens or aquariums, or art with a nature theme.

Offer options and choices - Offering choices increases the patient's sense of control, which can significantly lessen stress. Options include the ability to: adjust lighting and temperature, choose music, select places to sit, and control the timing of meals. In addition, better wayfinding (signs and information about where to go) reduces disorientation and helps patients feel in control, as does better hospital layouts that allow frail patients to be more independent in getting around.

Enhance social support - There is extensive evidence that social support from family and close friends has important benefits. For example, studies show that social support improves recovery in heart patients, and emotional wellbeing and quality of life in late-stage cancer patients. Social support can be enhanced by providing lounges with comfortable furniture and designing patient rooms to accommodate visitors and make it comfortable for them to stay overnight.

Reduce environmental stressors - Noise causes stress (as evidenced by increased heart rate and blood pressure and reduced oxygen levels in the blood in both adults and babies) and is related to adverse medical outcomes. Good design can reduce noise from paging systems, equipment, alarms, roommates, and staff by reducing the sources and by increasing sound absorption.

Provide pleasant diversions - In one example, heart surgery patients in intensive care who viewed nature (landscape scenes) reported less anxiety/stress and needed fewer pain medications than a control group with no pictures. Diversions may include: artwork of nature (not abstract art), fireplaces, videos of nature, and aquariums
See G21https://www.takingcharge.csh.umn.edu/explore-healing-practices/healing-environment/what-impact-does-environment-have-us
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Unaware
Precontemplation
Contemplation
Preparation
Action
Maintenance
Completion
Social
Individual
16COM-B Model of Behavior Change"Behaviors hapen when people have the capability, opportunity, and motivation to perform them" - Amy Bucher of Mad*Pow @ UXPA Conference 2018Capabilities:
Physical capability
Psycological capability

Opportunities:
Social opportunity
Physical opportunity

Motivations:
Reflective motivation
Automatic motivation

Amy Bucher of Mad*Pow @ UXPA Conference 2018
Capabilities:
Physical capability: skills
Psycological capability: knowledge, memory & attention, mental skills, self-regulation

Opportunities:
Social opportunity: social norms & support, intergroup conflict, modeling
Physical opportunity: environmental resources, barriers & facilitators, organizational climate/culture

Motivations:
Reflective motivation: goals & priorities, identity & professional role
Automatic motivation: rewards, punishments, and incentives; fear, stress, and mood
https://photos.app.goo.gl/5AnKBeAicmwUbFGM2https://photos.app.goo.gl/L5sYeXJJxFJ5xp0Z2
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TBDPhysical
Individual
17Human Factors and ErgonomicsComing soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...
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TBDPhysical18Physical Environment of Hospitals and HealthComing soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...https://www.healthdesign.org/sites/default/files/Role%20Physical%20Environ%20in%20the%2021st%20Century%20Hospital_0.pdf

https://www.healthdesign.org/
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TBDInstitutional19Organizational Change TheoriesComing soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...
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TBDInstitutional
Social
20Social MarketingComing soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...
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TBDIndividual21Transactional Model of Stress and CopingComing soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...
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TBDInstitutional
Social
Individuall
22Clinician-Patient CommunicationComing soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...
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TBDIndividual23Appraisal Tendency FrameworkComing soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...
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TBDSocial24Social Judgement TheoryComing soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...https://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/4985_Dainton_Chapter_5.pdf
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TBDIndividual25Elaboration Liklihood ModelComing soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...https://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/4985_Dainton_Chapter_5.pdf
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TBDIndividual26Narrative paradigmComing soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...https://www.sagepub.com/sites/default/files/upm-binaries/4985_Dainton_Chapter_5.pdf
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TBDSocial
Individual
27Media Effects: Definition, framing of social issues (Bryan and Miron 2004)Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...
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TBDIndividual
Social
28Media Effects: Cultivation Studies (Reese 2007)Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...
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TBDIndividual29Media Effects: Risk communication (Tuckichinsky, McComas 2006)Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...
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TBDIndividual30Information Processing Theories (Rothman 2006)Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...
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TBDIndividual31Expectacy Value Theories (Fishbein and Capella 2006)Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...
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TBDIndividual32Message Effect theories and persuasion (Zilman 2006) Media Effect theories - sensation seeking, framing (Bryand and ZIllman 1994)Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...
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TBDSocial
Individual
33Symbolic InteractionismComing soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Symbolic_interactionism
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TBDIndividual34Constructivism Learning TheoryComing soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Constructivism_(learning_theory)

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_theory_(education)
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TBDIndividual35Elaboration liklihood modelComing soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elaboration_likelihood_modelhttp://www.psy.ohio-state.edu/petty/documents/1986ADVANCESsPettyCacioppo.pdf
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TBDInstitutional
Social
36Differential AssociationComing soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differential_association
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TBDSocial37Moral Shock TheoryComing soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moral_shock
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TBDIndividual38Heuristic Systematic Model (Chaiken, Liberman, and Eagly, 1989)Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...
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TBDIndividual39Mind as narrative device - Paul BroksComing soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...Coming soon...https://www.wnycstudios.org/story/91497-where-is-that-part-that-is-me
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TBDIndividual40AIM - An Integrated Model of Goal PursuitMore to come...More to come...https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280022285_AIM_An_Integrative_Model_of_Goal_Pursuit
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More to come...More to come...More to come...More to come...More to come...More to come...More to come...More to come...More to come...More to come...https://www.researchgate.net/publication/280022285_AIM_An_Integrative_Model_of_Goal_PursuitMore to come...More to come...
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