5.20151002_Environment of a decision-Taxonomy
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GroupingCharacteristicDescriptionReferencesID
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OrganizationDomain1. a distinct scope, within which common characteristics are exhibited, common rules observed, and over which a distribution transparency is preserved.
2. a problem space.
3. A functional area covered by a family of systems.
1. ISO/IEC 19500-2:2003, Information technology - Open Distributed Processing
2. IEEE Std 1517-1999 (R2004) IEEE Standard for Information Technology — Software Life Cycle Processes - Reuse Processes.3.6
3. SE glossary
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OrganizationDistribution1.Global : Development of a software artifact across more than one location
2.Local (Based on global definition): Development of a software artifact in one location
1.Šmite, Darja, et al. "An empirically based terminology and taxonomy for global software engineering." Empirical Software Engineering 19.1 (2014): 105-153.
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OrganizationStabilityOrganizational stability is defined based on the amount and frequency of resources shifting from projects due to changes in organizational priorities, the level of stability that exists in the organization environment, the effect of corporate politics on projects, organization restructuring having effect during projects as well as the rate of organizational change (growth or decline).Adapted from: Clarke, Paul, and Rory V. O’Connor. "The situational factors that affect the software development process: Towards a comprehensive reference framework." Information and Software Technology 54.5 (2012): 433-447.EC3
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OrganizationRules/Regulations/StandardsA standard is a “document established by consensus and approved by a recognized body that provides, for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines or characteristics for activities or their results, aimed at the achievement of the optimum degree of order in a given context.”
A regulation is a government-imposed requirement, which specifies product, process or service characteristics, including the applicable administrative provisions, with which compliance is mandatory. Building codes are an example of regulations.
PMBOKEC4
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OrganizationSizeOrganizational size is defined as the number of employees at any given geographical location.
Beer, Michael. "Organizational size and job satisfaction." Academy of Management Journal 7.1 (1964): 34-44.
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OrganizationTeam sizeNumber of persons within teams typically formed in the organizations. Their size and structure may affect how they are involved in the decision (and hence accountable for the decision).EC6
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OrganizationMaturityMaturity "can be characterized through the activities performed by an organization to establish or
improve its software process, by activities performed on each project, and by the resulting
process capability across projects.". It can be: 1. Initial; 2. Repeatable; 3. Defined; 4. Managed; 5. Optimizing.
Paulk, M.C.; Curtis, B.; Chrissis, M.B.; Weber, C.V., "Capability maturity model, version 1.1," Software, IEEE , vol.10, no.4, pp.18,27, July 1993 doi: 10.1109/52.219617
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OrganizationCapacityCapacity of an organization is the availability of critical resources for projects. This may include physical working arrangements and facilities to house the project.EC8
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OrganizationThroughputThroughput is number of projects/year that can be computed as the inverse of the average meantime between project deliveries.EC9
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OrganizationVelocity of organizationThe ability of an organization to change domain is defined as the velocity.EC10
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OrganizationTeam resourcesThe decision-relevant resources available for the team. These could include critical personnel,
budget for external consultants and so forth.
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OrganizationReadinessOrganizational readiness to change is the rate of growth or decline an organization has. It relates to stability in the organizational environment.EC12
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OrganizationLevel of appropriate certificationsThe level that the organization has or requires specific certifications (e.g, ISO, CMMI).EC13
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OrganizationLevel of support to customersThe level that an organization offers support to customers.EC14
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OrganizationDecision team size
Number of persons within teams typically formed in the organizations. Their size and structure affects the way decisions are made.
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OrganizationGeographical localtion(s)Number of geographical location(s) the organization exists.EC16
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OrganizationDegree of distributionThe degree of distribution for an organization is based on either collocation or distribution (nationally or internationally).EC17
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OrganizationPoliciesA set of policies are principles, rules, and guidelines formulated or adopted by an organization to reach its long-term goals and typically published in a booklet or other form that is widely accessible.http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/policies-and-procedures.htmlEC18
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OrganizationStructureStructure of an organization is the model of organization. The organization model describes how the company is organized, such as matrix-organization or hierarchical organization. Furthermore, it could be discussed whether the organization is flexible or strict.Adapted from: Petersen, Kai, and Claes Wohlin. "Context in industrial software engineering research." Proceedings of the 2009 3rd International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement. IEEE Computer Society, 2009.EC19
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OrganizationOpenessOpeness in the ecosystem of the owner as this is defined by the type of relations it maintains with customers, partners, suppliers and competitors.EC20
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OrganizationSize of resourcesThe size of (available) resources an organization has to use (as a constraint).EC21
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OrganizationAvailability of expertsThe amount of available resources, technical and experts, an organization has.EC22
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OrganizationManagement commitmentThe senior management's commitment to projects and the maturity and stability of this level of commitment.Adapted from: Clarke, Paul, and Rory V. O’Connor. "The situational factors that affect the software development process: Towards a comprehensive reference framework." Information and Software Technology 54.5 (2012): 433-447.EC23
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OrganizationExpertise of the developersBasis of credibility of a developer who is perceived to be knowledgeable in software development due to his or her study, training, or experience in the subject matter.
Adapted from: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/expertise.html#ixzz3aIpTCm14
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ProductApplication area1. a general term for a grouping of applications that handle a specific business area.
2. a category of projects that have common components significant in such projects, but are not needed or present in all projects. Application areas are usually defined in terms of either the product (i.e., by similar technologies or production methods) or the type of customer (i.e., internal versus external, government
versus commercial) or industry sector (i.e., utilities, automotive, aerospace, information technologies, etc.) Application areas can overlap.
[1] ISO/IEC 20926:2003, Software engineering — IFPUG 4.1 Unadjusted functional size measurement method — Counting practices manual
[2] A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) — Fourth Edition
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ProductMaturity of the product (lifecycle phase)Maturity of a product relates to how long it is on the market, how many releases were there, etc. It may also relate to certifications obtained.Adapted from: Petersen, Kai, and Claes Wohlin. "Context in industrial software engineering research." Proceedings of the 2009 3rd International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement. IEEE Computer Society, 2009.EC26
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ProductTime to market pressureIn commerce, time to market (TTM) is the length of time it takes from a product being conceived until its being available for sale. TTM is important in industries where products are outmoded quickly. A common assumption is that TTM matters most for first-of-a-kind products, but actually the leader often has the luxury of time, while the clock is clearly running for the followers. There are no standards for measuring TTM, and measured values can vary greatly. First, there is great variation in how different organizations define the start of the period. For example, in the automotive industry the development period starts when the product concept is approved.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_to_marketEC27
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ProductTechnical debt (consideration)Technical debt (also known as design debt or code debt) is a metaphor referring to the eventual consequences of any system design, software architecture or software development within a codebase.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technical_debtEC28
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ProductSystem type (embedded, real time)The system type, can be of different types, such as information system, embedded system, or distributed system.
Petersen, Kai, and Claes Wohlin. "Context in industrial software engineering research." Proceedings of the 2009 3rd International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement. IEEE Computer Society, 2009.
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ProductTechnical complexityOften refered to as the size and quality of technical requirements of a product. It is the technical complexity of the existing system (eg., software only for the safety/security of the system, app vs. car .vs security system). This is similar to technical debt as it refers to the existing product.EC30
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ProductSizeSizing is an activity that is used to estimate the size of a product or software application or component in order to be able to implement other project management activities (such as estimating or tracking).
F4; http://www.hawaiilibrary.net/article/whebn0008529644/software%20sizing
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ProductLevel of reuseThe degree to which an assest can be reused in more than one software system, or in building other assets
Systems and software engineering -- Vocabulary," ISO/IEC/IEEE 24765:2010(E) , vol., no., pp.1,418, Dec. 15 2010
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ProductTransparencyThe level of transparency of a product, ranging from blackbox-to-white-box.EC33
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ProductLevel of dependencyThe dependability of a system is its ability to deliver specified services to the end users so that they can justifiably rely on and trust the services provided by the system. Dependability has several attributes, including reliability, availability, maintainability, confidentiality, integrity, and safety.ISO/IEC CD 25010.2EC34
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ProductQuality attributes of the productNon-functional requirements (NFRs), sometimes termed quality, or quality of service, attributes or requirements, have been a topic of interest within systems engineering, software engineering, and requirements engineering for a considerable period of time
Faisal Aburub, Mohammed Odeh, Ian Beeson, Modelling non-functional requirements of business processes, Information and Software Technology, Volume 49, Issues 11–12, November 2007, Pages 1162-1171, ISSN 0950-5849,
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ProductCertificationThe degree to which the identity of a asset can be proved to be the one claimed.[based on ISO/IEC 13335-1:2004]EC36
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ProductLevel of support The level of support necessary to service or maintain an assest throughout its lifecycle.
Adapted from - Systems and software engineering -- Vocabulary," ISO/IEC/IEEE 24765:2010(E) , vol., no., pp.1,418, Dec. 15 2010
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ProductLevel of controlEC38
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ProductLevel of documentationUniquely identified unit of information for human use, such as a report, specification, manual or book, in printed or electronic form.
Systems and software engineering -- Vocabulary," ISO/IEC/IEEE 24765:2010(E) , vol., no., pp.1,418, Dec. 15 2010
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ProductSustainabilityEC40
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ProductUser experience (usability offered from the asset)The capability of the software product to be understood, learned, used and attractive to the user, when used under specified conditions.ISO/IEC 9126-1:2001, Software engineering — Product quality — Quality ModelEC41
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ProductEase of integrationThe ease of which a asset can be integrated to a system and used by specified users to achieve specified goals with effectiveness, efficiency and satisfaction in a specified context of use reduces the cost of integration of the asset.
NFE9; ISO/IEC25062:2006, Software engineering — Software product Quality Requirements and Evaluation (SQuaRE) — Common Industry Format (CIF) for usability test reports. 4.10.
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ProductMaintainabilityThe ease with which a an asset can be modified to change or add capabilities, correct faults or defects, improve performance or other attributes, or adapt to a changed environment
Systems and software engineering -- Vocabulary," ISO/IEC/IEEE 24765:2010(E) , vol., no., pp.1,418, Dec. 15 2010
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ProductPerformanceThe degree to which an asset accomplishes its designated functions within given constraints, such as speed, accuracy, or memory usageISO/IEC/IEEE 24765EC44
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ProductRobustnessSoftware robustness refers to the ability of software to tolerate erroneous inputs.SWEBOK
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ProductFunctionalityThe capability of the software product to provide functions which meet stated and implied needs when the software is used under specified conditions.ISO/IEC 9126-1:2001, Software engineering — Product quality — Quality ModelEC46
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ProductLevel of noveltyThe level of novelty and emergence a product has.EC47
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ProductLongevityThe length or duration of life a product is expected to have. Related to sustainability.EC48
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ProductLevel of openessThe degree or level that a product is open or can be open.EC49
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ProductAvailability[Not exact definition]Availability is the capability of the software product to be in a state to perform a required function at a
given point in time, under stated conditions of use.
ISO/IEC 9126-1:2001, Software engineering — Product quality — Quality ModelEC50
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ProductArchitectural dependenciesThe number or degree of architectural dependencies.EC51
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ProductModifiabilityThe degree to which the product is either general or modifiable/customizable and can be tailored to different market segments.EC52
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ProductScalabilityThe degree to which the asset can be adapted for different specified environments without applying actions or means other than those provided for this purpose for the software considered.

NOTE Adaptability includes the scalability of internal capacity (e.g. screen fields, tables, transaction volumes, report formats, etc.)
ISO/IEC JTC1/SC7 N4098, CD 25010.2, Software engineering-Software product Quality Requirements and Evaluation (SQuaRE)Quality model, WG23, 25010, N3803, N4008, N4097, 2008
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ProductProgramming languageThe programming language in which the system is developed. A programming language is a computer language engineered to create a standard form of commands. These commands can be interpreted into a code understood by a machine. Programs are created through programming languages to control the behavior and output of a machine through accurate algorithms, similar to the human communication process.http://www.techopedia.com/definition/24815/programming-languageEC54
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ProductLegacy implicationsImplications related to legacy are typically relating to software or hardware that has been superseded but is difficult to replace because of its wide use.EC55
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ProductSecurityThe requirement of a product related to security is defined as the need to protection of information and data so that unauthorized persons or systems cannot read or modify them and
authorized persons or systems are not denied access to them.
Adapted from: International Standard ISO/IEC 12207:2008(E)EC56
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ProductSource code complexity1. the degree to which a system's design or code is difficult to understand because of numerous components or relationships among components
2. pertaining to any of a set of structure-based metrics that measure the attribute in (1).
3. the degree to which a system or component has a design or implementation that is difficult to understand and verify
Systems and software engineering -- Vocabulary," ISO/IEC/IEEE 24765:2010(E) , vol., no., pp.1,418, Dec. 15 2010
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ProductControl of product evolutionHaving control over the course of the product development and evolution.EC58
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ProductIPRIntellectual property rights refers to the general term for the assignment of property rights through patents, copyrights and trademarks. These property rights allow the holder to exercise a monopoly on the use of the item for a specified period.https://stats.oecd.org/glossary/detail.asp?ID=3236EC59
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ProductRules/Regulations/StandardsA standard is a “document established by consensus and approved by a recognized body that provides, for common and repeated use, rules, guidelines or characteristics for activities or their results, aimed at the achievement of the optimum degree of order in a given context.”
A regulation is a government-imposed requirement, which specifies product, process or service characteristics, including the applicable administrative provisions, with which compliance is mandatory. Building codes are an example of regulations.
A product can be related to them.
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StakeholderLevel of experienceThe extent to which the non-decision maker stakeholders have experience in taking decisions. It relates to the role stakeholders have.EC61
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StakeholderKnowledge of stakeholdersFacts, information and skills acquired by the non-decision maker stakeholders through education or experience.EC62
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StakeholderStakeholder skillSkills acquired by the non-decision maker stakeholders through education or experience.EC63
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StakeholderIndividual skill increaseLevel of skill increase for the non-decision maker stakeholders through education or experience.EC64
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StakeholderYears of experienceExperience is the number of years of previous experience is acquired by the non-decision maker stakeholders through practical experience.EC65
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Development technologyDevelopment processThe development process describes the workflow of development. "The development process contains the activities and tasks of the developer. [..] the process
contains the activities for requirements analysis, design, coding, integration, testing, and
installation and acceptance related to software products developed with assets."
IEEE Std 1517-1999 (R2004) IEEE Standard for Information Technology — Software Life Cycle Processes - Reuse Processes.3.6
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Development technologyDevelopment typeRefers to the typical development type followed in the organization e.g., reuse and in-house, open source, outsource and COTS.EC67
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Development technologyCASE toolsSoftware tools used for computer-aided software engineering (CASE). Software engineering typically uses a set of CASE tools in any rapid software life-cycle designed to give faster development and better results and to take maximum advantage of recent advances in development software.Systems and software engineering -- Vocabulary," ISO/IEC/IEEE 24765:2010(E) , vol., no., pp.1,418, Dec. 15 2010EC68
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Development technologyTechnique or PracticeA development technique or practice used like prototyping, object-oriented design etc.
Adapted from: Systems and software engineering -- Vocabulary," ISO/IEC/IEEE 24765:2010(E) , vol., no., pp.1,418, Dec. 15 2010
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Development technologyDeployment methodDeployment methods like lean, agile, plan-driven.EC70
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Development technologyProgramming languageThe programming language with which the development organization is proficient with. A programming language is a computer language engineered to create a standard form of commands. These commands can be interpreted into a code understood by a machine. Programs are created through programming languages to control the behavior and output of a machine through accurate algorithms, similar to the human communication process.http://www.techopedia.com/definition/24815/programming-languageEC71
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Development technologyAvailability of development environmentThe level the development environment (e.g., SDK) is available to the developers.EC72
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Market & BusinessOrganization general plan/goals
The general plan or goal of an organization describes the vision statement. The vision statement provides strategic direction and describes what the owner or founder wants the company to achieve in the future.Adapted from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vision_statementEC73
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Market & BusinessReturn on investmentReturn on investment (ROI) is a profitability ratio, defined as earining divided by investment or net benefits divided by the cost. ROI is a measure of the profitability of a company or business unit.
Phillips, P. P., & Phillips, J. J. (2006). Return on investment (ROI) basics. American Society for Training and Development.
SWEBOK
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Market & BusinessReturn on capital employedReturn on capital employed (ROCE) is a profitability ratio which examines how efficiently a company uses available capital. It is defined by the equation dividing Earnings before interest and tax (EBIT) by Capital Employed. Capital employed is, in the simplest terms, the total amount of assets and revenue minus current liabilities; it's essentially synonymous with available capital from net profits. The higher the value derived using the above formula, the more efficiently the company is utilizing its capital. It is critical that ROCE at least exceed the cost of capital (financing costs), or the company is in very poor financial condition. ROCE can be very useful for comparing use of capital by different companies engaged in the same business, particularly in regard to capital-intensive industries such as energy companies, auto companies, and telecommunications firms.
http://www.investopedia.com/ask/answers/011215/what-difference-between-roce-and-roi.asp#ixzz3yXC6djdB
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Market & BusinessBusiness case
The business case is the consolidated information summarizing and explaining a business proposal from different perspectives for a decision maker (cost, benefit, risk, and so on).SWEBOKEC76
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Market & BusinessFriction-free economyEconomic friction is everything that keeps markets from having perfect competition. It involves distance, cost of delivery, restrictive regulations, and/or imperfect information.SWEBOKEC77
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Market & BusinessEcosystemsAn ecosystem is an environment consisting of all the mutually dependent stakeholders, business units, and companies working in a particular area.SWEBOKEC78
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Market & BusinessOffshoring and outsourcing benefitsBenefits can be related directly to the business (because of the project or technology), market, or financial by taking for example an offshoring or outsourcing option. EC79
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Market & BusinessMarket trend (evolution)Market trends, evolution of the domain, marketing activities and time-to-market. A market trend is a tendency of financial markets to move in a particular direction over time. These trends are classified as secular for long time frames, primary for medium time frames, and secondary for short time frames.https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Market_trendEC80
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Market & BusinessCommitment of the supplierCommitment of the supplier is an external dependency, the relations of the organization with its partner networks, the level of access to stakeholders, the background of the stakeholders and the level of trust between them can affect the decision.EC81
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Market & BusinessLevel of trust (supplier stability, ethical aspects)The degree to which the acquirer has confidence that the supplier is stable and ethical
Adapted from ISO/IEC 9126-1:2001, Software engineering — Product quality — Quality Model
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Market & BusinessClear product valueThe degree to which a product for the organization's position in the business landscape offers benefits for, i.e. a clear value.EC83
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Market & BusinessPolitical considerationsPolitical consirerations include factors arising in relation to the interplay among individuals and organised groups which results in the exercise of will. Legal considerations are treated as the means of expression of political will.EC84
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Market & BusinessNumber of external systemsExternal dependency, includes the number of other systems affecting the product.Adapted from: Clarke, Paul, and Rory V. O’Connor. "The situational factors that affect the software development process: Towards a comprehensive reference framework." Information and Software Technology 54.5 (2012): 433-447.EC85
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Market & BusinessNumber of external stakeholdersExternal dependency, includes the number of other component suppliers, multiple implementers/integrators/developers/testers that might affect the process or product.Adapted from: Clarke, Paul, and Rory V. O’Connor. "The situational factors that affect the software development process: Towards a comprehensive reference framework." Information and Software Technology 54.5 (2012): 433-447.EC86
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Market & BusinessPayment arrangementsAny arrangements with regards to payments, time, materials, non-conventional arrangements, fixed-price, shared costs, etc.Adapted from: Clarke, Paul, and Rory V. O’Connor. "The situational factors that affect the software development process: Towards a comprehensive reference framework." Information and Software Technology 54.5 (2012): 433-447.EC87
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Environment specifics
Environment aspect