Environmental Impacts of Batteries
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http://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acs.est.6b00830
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Lithium Ion Batteries CO2 release
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140kg CO2/kWh
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11kg CO2/kg
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https://www.tesla.com/en_AU/powerwall
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Tesla Powerwall
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6.4kWh
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896
kg CO2 released cradle-to-gate
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http://reneweconomy.com.au/2015/how-tesla-battery-storage-compares-with-rivals-on-prices-88102
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5000cycles
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5.8kWh/cycle
efficiency and degredation of battery included in the calculation
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29000kWh
in lifetime (expected)
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Emissions from Manufacturing
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0.03089655172kg CO2/kWhexpected
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http://www.environment.gov.au/system/files/resources/b24f8db4-e55a-4deb-a0b3-32cf763a5dab/files/national-greenhouse-accounts-factors-2014.pdf
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0.86kg CO2/kWh
fossil fuel in NSW
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https://www.energymadeeasy.gov.au/benchmark
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14.6kWh/day
for a 4 person home in Wollongong - average over year
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Without Battery Storage
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73000kWh
over 5000 days (cycles)
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62780kg CO25000 days
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With Battery Storage
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8.8kWh/day
extra electricity that needs to be drawn from grid
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7.568kg CO2/day
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37840kg CO2
5000 days (not including manufactured CO2)
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38736kg CO2
5000 days (including manufactured CO2)
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Total Saving/Loss
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24044kg CO2
over 5000 days/cycles
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24.044tonnes CO2
over 5000 days/cycles
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Assumptions
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Battery is fully charged and discharged each day
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Household energy consumption remains constant over the period - unlikely due to an increase in electrical devices in homes
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Powerwall lasts 5000 cycles - 13.7 years if we assume one cycle per day > 10 year warranted life
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Proportion of energy sources in the grid remains constant over time
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Excess of energy from solar pannels isn't exported into the grid
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Additional solar isn't consumed during the day
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Energy Calculator
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https://www.epa.gov/energy/greenhouse-gas-equivalencies-calculator
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