A Study Guide 1400-1949 - Copyright (c) 2013-2016 The Cassie Times. (All rights reserved.)
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YYYY MM DDWestern Civilization and the Modern World
_Guide # (From class)Date StartsDate EndsName(s)Event(s)LocationSignificanceURL (to be added)
a09621806Holy Roman Empire, Ancien RegimeEngland, France, Holy Roman Empire (HRE)England (Stuart Dynasty - immediately after death of QEI - Hanoverian Dynasty)
Holy Roman Empire (HRE) -

Austria (Habsburg Dynasty) predominantly R.C. 962-1806
Prussia (Hohenrollern Dynasty)
Russia (Romanov Dynasty)
b0710901517IndulgencesCatholic ChurchesWays for the Catholic Church to raise money, by telling the people they can buy their way out of Purgatory. Practice ends with Luther's essays.
a12151215King JohnThe Magna Carta (Grand Charter)Britain24 copies of the Magna Carta, dispersed throughout Britain, codified the rules of law for British subjects
a12161216King JohnAttempted recall of The Magna CartaBritainFailed (King John misses four copies, dies before he can destroy them all)
b4412601788ParlementFranceFrench equivalent, Abolished by Louis XV, reestablished by Louis XVI during French Revolution
a12651265ParliamentBritainTwo houses - House of Lords, House of Commons (latter refers to cities, not to all areas) Europe's first modern representative government
b0313001460Humanist Scholars (Humanities & Liberal Studies)Begun in 1360s, the Renaissance foundation of Modern Secularism - Studies of Greek and Latin to understand human morality working in
b0114001600Age of the RENAISSANCEFlorence, Italy (and elsewhere)Starts in Italy, spreads to the rest of Western Europe.
b021430s1737MedicisPapal StatesFlorence, Milan, Venice, Kingdom of NaplesInvolved in Papal politics and also in monarchy (two queens)
b0114401445GutenbergThe Printing PressMade reading possible for all, not just those educated by the church (Theocrats)
b0414521498Savonarola, Dominican monk Aided in expelling the MedicisFlorence, ItalyDenounced corruption in the Catholic church, pinned the blame on the Medicis
c0414611768Ancien RegimeThe term is French for "Former Regime", but rendered in English as "Old (or Ancient) Regime", "Old Order", or "Old Rule". The term dates from the Age of Enlightenment (first appearing in print in English in 1794) and was originally pejorative in nature: S
b0714651519Tetzel, Johann IndulgencesGermanyIn 1517, it was believed that all of the money that Tetzel was trying to raise was for the ongoing reconstruction of St. Peter's Basilica, though half the money went towards helping the Archbishop of Mainz, Albert of Brandenburg, under whose authority Tet
b0514691527Machiavelli, Niccola The Prince. (1532) (posthumously)Raison d'Etat = "For the Good of the State. Translates in the US to "For reasons of National Security."

Wrote the book in 1513, which was published after his death. His family published the book posthumously. Hugely important. Essays regarding power politics

Was banished from birthplace for his actions and activities.
b2214731543Copernicus, Nicholas Polish/GermanTraveled to N. Italy, observes and determines a hypothesis that everything revolves around the sun, not the Earth.
b08/0914831546Martin LutherProtestant Reformation vs Council of Trent & Catholic Counter ReformationWittenberg, SaxonyTranslated the bible into German, wrote music. Excommunicated by Pope Leo X (1521)
a15001800Slave Trade - Triangle Trade. English are top.Britain, Africa & Colonies
b08/0915091564Calvin, John Catholic Counter ReformationBorn, France (later, Geneva, Switzerland)Calvinists (believe in Predestination), Reformer, founder of the Presbyterians
b0615131655Popes of the RenaissanceRebuilding of St. Peter's BasilicaRomeCorruption, Nepotism. Ancien Régime
b0915141572Knox, John Calvinist movement in ScotlandScotlandPresbyterians (Scottish Calvinists)
b081517 10 311517 10 31Martin Luther95 ThesesWittenberg, SaxonyPosted on the churches in Germany. Religious Liberty (from Catholic dogma, removal of saints). Wrote the 95 Theses against the Catholic church and the Treasury of Merit; Protestant (German) Reformation, against the Holy Roman Empire. Founds Protestant mov
b101520s1540sWars of ReligionProtestant Reformation (begins with Martin Luther's Excommunication)
b1215331592Montaigne, Michel The Philosophical EssayShort writing pieces. If Jesus is the Prince of Peace, why are Christians killing each other over the version. Birth of Philosophical Skepticism - in 1600s (want proof before being persuaded to make a decision.) Foundation of newspapers which publish thes
a15341534Henry VIIIThe Revolution of 1559BritainAnglican (Church of England) retains much of Catholicism but adjustments based on Calvinism and Lutheranism.
b2215441603Gilbert, William Earth's iron coreAstronomer - Magnetism & electricity.
b2215481600Bruno, Giordano The Inquisition (Rome)ItalyBurned at the stake for postulating that there are other planets that could support life, like the Earth.
b091560s1560sPuritansBritainEnglish Calvinists
b2215611626Bacon, Sir Francis Empiricism; the Scientific MethodBritainContemporary of Shakespeare, Hypothesis, testing to see if it works.
b2215641642GalileoHeliocentric (Solar) SystemItalyMathemetician, interested in motion and thermodynamics, energy. First to see surface of the moon. Determined that the Greeks were wrong about perfection (a round circle), but Galileo discovers craters on the moon. Messes with the Roman Catholic church, an
b2215711630Kepler, Johannes Elliptical orbits. (Not perfect circles)AustrianMathematician who proves the theory of solar system. The fight between the established church that thinks the Earth is the center of the universe.
b2215781657Harvey, William Discovered the Circulation of blood and the relationship of the heart to the body.
a15881588Spanish Armada sails against EnglandSpain/BritainSpanish Armada sails, fails against QEI. Armada destroyed in returning to Spain
a15881650sThe Inquisition (Rome)
b1315961650Descartes, Renee Rationalism Mind-Body DualismFrancePhilosopher/Mathmetician. As long as you think, you are a real living being. (I think, therefore I am.) Starts the Mathematics craze. World is rational, can be understood. (A Priori Thought. Everything we need to know, we're born with. If we just focus in
b1615991678Cromwell, Oliver Puritan, Only English dictator

English political developments & attaining Constitutional Monarchy
BritainAttempts civil war because he wanted a Commonwealth.
Cavalry general pushing for trial/execution of Charles I.
Title: Lord Protector
English Mercantilism rises: An alliance between rulers and financial interests and smash-and-grab capitalism, to get mo
a16011625James IFather of Charles IBritainJames VI and I was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the English and Scottish crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death. Wrote The True Law of Free Monarchies; or, The Reciprocal and
b1016181648Thirty Years WarEverywhere in Europe *except* Italy and England. Treaty signed in two cities.Costs 1/3 of the German population. Causes pull back and fortification. Wealthy people fortify themselves. The elite form up the Ancien Regime (1600s – 1700s). Traditionalists who deserve to be separate from the people. French Revolution knocks out the
b1616251649Charles IExecutedBritainLoved art and horse racing & dogs; caused religious tensions. Lousy administrator, managed Thirty Years War. Declared traitor in Parilament with Puritan help, backed by Oliver Cromwell. (Executed by Oliver Cromwell.)
a16321677Baruch SpinozaAmsterdamDutch Jew who raises questions about the Bible. Thrown out of the Jewish faith for his challenges to the structure of the religion (Panentheism).
b1916381715Louis XIVThe Sun KingFranceConstruction of Versailles. Royal Absolutionism "I am the State" - monarchial form of government in which the monarch exercises ultimate governing authority as head of state and head of government; his or her powers are not limited by a constitution or b
b1116421848Palmer, Robert Roswell Palmer ThesisAmericanThe Age of the Democratic Revolution: A Political History of Europe and America, 1760-1800 (1959 and 1964), examined an age of democratic revolution that swept the Atlantic civilization between 1760 and 1800. 1648-1848 – when liberal impulse was strangl
b1116421848Popper, Karl Popper ThesisAustrianRussian Dynasty (Romanov) The Open Society and Its Enemies (those against The Open Society)
(Popper was an Austrian who fled Nazis.)
b1516421727Newton, Sir Isaac Free thinkers/Libertines (Physics, Gravity, Calculus)BritainPrussia (Hohenrollern Dynasty)
b1616421649Thirty Years War / English Civil WarBritainSet up execution of Charles I
Holy Roman Empire (HRE) - Hapsburg Dynasty - predominantly R.C. 962-1806 Foundation for the Germans. Capital in Vienna. Austria, Austral-Hungarian Empire, Bourbon)
b1716451645Islamic forces from Turkey fail to take Europe, but leave behind coffee.Venetian merchants introduced coffee-drinking to the wealthy in Venice, charging them heavily for the beverage. In this way, coffee was introduced to Europe. Coffee became more widely accepted after the controversy over whether it was acceptable for Catho
b1516461716Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm von Free thinkers/LibertinesHanover, GermanyLeibniz developed the infinitesimal calculus independently of Isaac Newton, and Leibniz's mathematical notation has been widely used ever since it was published. Claimed he invented theory of calculus before Sir Isaac Newton
b2416471706Bayle, Pierre Self-pronounced Protestant, and as a fideist he advocated a separation between the spheres of faith and reason, on the grounds of God being incomprehensible to man. As a forerunner of the Encyclopedists and an advocate of the principle of the toleration o
b1916481815Golden Age of France beginsFranceTurning Point for the French. France becomes a Hegemon.
b1616491658Cromwell, Oliver English dictator in powerBritainDies in office. Followed by his son (briefly).
a16501722Churchill, John Supported the rise of James II to power after the fall of Cromwell. Ancestor of Winston Churchill.
b2716501750Age of Reason (The Enlightenment)Science over bible.
b1416511651Hobbes, Thomas The LeviathanBelieves in Divine Right, power from God through the monarchal dynasties. Writes about the Social Contract between the people, the rulers and god. Foundation for the French Revolution and JJ Rousseau.
a16581660Cromwell, Richard third son of Oliver Cromwell. He was the second ruling Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland, serving for just under nine months, from 3 September 1658 until 25 May 1659. After his fall from power, he was given the unflattering soubriquet of Tum
a16601685Charles IIBritainSon of Charles I
The Merry Monarch
Dies of natural causes
English take New Amsterdam from the Dutch
English Restoration - the Stuart Dynasty
Charles II brings Christmas back, reopens theatres, brings everything back that Puritains take away.
b1916611715Building of VersaillesFranceBiggest palace in the world, to date. Started as a hunting chateau for Louis XIV. 10 miles outside Paris. Contains museum of arts, sculptures, etc. 1,400 rooms. Creates the French Court to control aristocracy. Floats loans to keep control of the court.
b2316721725Czar Peter the GreatRussiaLaunches Romanov dynasty
a16761745Walpole, Robert First Prime Minister of England (1721-1742)The sinking fund was first used in Great Britain in the 18th century to reduce national debt. While used by Robert Walpole in 1716 and effectively in the 1720s and early 1730s, it originated in the commercial tax syndicates of the Italian peninsula of the
b2016781697Hegemony vs. Balance of Power principleFrance, HRE, Dutch, spills over to Britain and the Colonies (French & Indian War)3 1/2 wars of Louis XIV:
1. Franco-Dutch War (1678) (Truce of Ratisbon)
2. War of the Reunions (1683-1684)
3. War of the League of Augsburg (War of Grand Alliance) - Nine Year's War (1688-1697)
b1716801690Locke, John EssaysBritainbirth of Whigs & Torries (wrote for newspapers). Started out as a Puritan. Starts writing political essays including religious tolerance. How do we know what we know? Writes AGAINST the Social Contract of Hobbes.
b1816851689James IIDuke of York deposed by the Glorious RevolutionBritainCharles II’s younger brother, is a Roman Catholic.
Puts Roman Catholic friends in power.
(New York is named after him)

Religious tensions esp 1685 Revocation Edict of Nante
Fr. Calvinist Huguenots Militarism/Hegemony – Balance of Power
3 wars

b2116871687Emergence of powerful Philosophical SkepticismBirth of MODERN SCIENCE
b1816891702William (Orange) & MaryBritainHe is Dutch Protestant. Anti-French
Wife, Mary, is English, also a cousin.
Found William & Mary in Williamsburg, VA (1692)
b2516891755Montesquieu, Baron The Persian Letters and The Spirit of the Laws (1748)FrenchCompares English & French political systems, favors the British. Foundations for French Parlement
b261690s1690sPhilosophes - Philsophical Skepticism. Causes people to rethink what they are told in the Bible.The Cosmopolitan Party of Humanity; Rise of Coffee Houses: places to meet, talk and exchange ideas. By late 1600s, newspapers are dropped at the Coffee Houses.

Wrote Life of Louis XIV
French"Crush the Infamy!", novel Candide; French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and separation of church and sta
b2216991711Leibniz-NewtonPhilosophesEnglish/GermanRoyal Societies (conflict regarding the invention of Calculus)
a1700s1700sFrench becomes the language of choice, replacing Latin. Newspapers written in French are delivered to the middle class, who are becoming increasingly literate and interested in discussing ideas.
a17021714Queen AnneBritainMary's sister
19 pregnancies
Nice wood furniture
b2417091751La Mettrie, Julien PhilosopheFirst acknowledged athiest; "Man, the Machine" concept.
c05/b3117121778Rousseau, Jean Jacques (J.J.)Philosophe

The Social Contract
Born, Geneva, Switzerland
Lived: France
Born in French-speaking Switzerland. Key to The Enlightenment. The General Will (1762); Rousseau's Social Contract from which the term Liberty, Equality, Fraternity derives. His political philosophy influenced the French Revolution as well as the overall
b2817131784Diderot, Denis Philosophe

The Encyclopedia
FranceEarly economist (Physiocrat) French philosopher, art critic, and writer. He was a prominent person during the Enlightenment and is best known for serving as co-founder and chief editor of and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alem
a17141901Hanoverian SuccessionGeorge I, George II, George III
Victoria, George IV, George V, Elizabeth II

Whigs (put the Protestant Hanovers on the throne, led by Robert Walpole) and threw James II's Roman Catholic Tories (God, King & Country) out of government.
a17151774Louis XVDismisses Parlement of ParisFranceSome scholars believe Louis XV's decisions damaged the power of France, weakened the treasury, discredited the absolute monarchy, and may have contributed to the French Revolution, which broke out 15 years after his death.[1][2] Other scholars argue that
a17151789Mirabeau, Honoré Gabriel Riqueti, comte deFrench revolutionary, as well as a writer, diplomat, journalist and French politician.FranceHe was a popular orator and statesman. During the French Revolution, he was a moderate, favoring a constitutional monarchy built on the model of Great Britain. He unsuccessfully conducted secret negotiations with the French monarchy in an effort to reconc
c1417161815Bonaparte, NapoleonFranceBorn in Corsica (Italian), exiled to Elba and then St. Helena; buried in France after petitioning Britain for his remains in the military hospital in downtown Paris.
b28/b3017271781Turgot, Anne-Robert-Jacques, Baron de LaunePhilosophe
FranceEarly economist (Physiocrat) Coins the term The Enlightenment (Sorbonne address)
b3317291796Catherine II (Catherine the Great)Benevolent DespotsRussiaHabsburgs vs Hohenzollern dynasties
b4617291797Burke, Edmund Publishes Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790)FranceNobody in France or anywhere else can change a society overnight. Societies and cultures are slow, organic growths, that take time to develop. Predicts the bloody revolution.
b3017321804Necker, JacquesPhsyiocrats - Early economistsFranceDirector-General of Finance, Louis XVI; More important to have land. "Secretary of the Treasury" - provides an interpretation of the money spent by the government. King fires and then is forced to rehire him. French have overextended because of the war be
b3317401743Maria Theresa (Habsburg) vs Frederick the GreatRomania, Prussia (HRE)Habsburgs vs Hohenzollern dynasties
c0317401786Frederick the Great, Maria TheresaBenevolent DespotsPrussia, RussiaAustral-Hungarian Empire (HRE)
c0517431793Marat, Jean-PaulJournalist, Sans Cullotes
c05/b3217431794Condorcet, Marquis de Last Philosophe

French Royal Society of Science
Franceoptimistic "faith in progress" essay written 1793-1794 Last to die in Robespierre's Reign of Terror (stuffs his tongue down his throat so he is unconscious at the guillotine
c1417431803L'Ourverture, ToussaintHatian Revolution / Hatian Independence (1791-1804)Haiti (French colony)leader of the Haitian Revolution (1791). Slave revolt on colonial Saint-Domingue leads to the creation of independent state of Haiti in 1804; Napoleon tries to stop the revolution, which fails because his troops get Yellow Fever.
b3417441748Maria Theresa (Habsburg) vs Frederick the GreatPragmatic SanctionRomania, Prussia (HRE)Silesian Wars; War of the Austrian Succession
c0117501750The Enlightenment EndsThe Enlightenment moves into the Age of Science
c0417501789Ancien Regime vs The ENLIGHTENMENTConflict between aristocracy and educated scientists/thinkers.
b4617531823Carnot, LazareFrench RevolutionFranceAt the outbreak of the French Revolution in 1789, Carnot entered political life. He became a delegate to the Legislature in 1791. While a member of the Legislative Assembly, Carnot was elected to the Committee for Public Instruction. He believed that all
c2717541834TallyrandCongress of Vienna
b3517551755Diplomatic RevolutionParis & Vienna allied against PrussiaIncludes Hanover (George), Germans (HRE)
c02/b3617561763Habsburgs vs. HohenzollernSEVEN YEARS WAR (also French & Indian War)Europe (England/Germany, France/US)Resulted in split of US into Spanish (Louisiana Purchase) and English portions, with French territory seded to the English. Costs the French so much, it sets up the fall of the Monarchy and the rise of Napoleon.
c1117591794Danton, Georges JacquesFrench RevolutionFranceModerate, leading figure in the early stages of the French Revolution and the first President of the Committee of Public Safety. Many historians describe him as "the chief force in the overthrow of the monarchy and the establishment of the First French Re
c15/b4217591806Pitt the Younger, William Great Britainprime ministerial tenure, which came during the reign of George III, was dominated by major events in Europe, including the French Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars. Pitt, although often referred to as a Tory, or "new Tory", called himself an "independen
b3717601820George IIIGreat BritainEffect of British Monarchy on rest of Europe, Colonies
c0117601840sIndustrial Revolution
c2417621840Fichte, Johann GottliebAddress to the German NationGermanyOne of the founders of the University of Berlin. Gave an address to the German People = Nationalism (self worship?)
b3617631763Treaty of ParisFrance & BritainEnd of the Seven Years War
d17681834Schleriermacher, Friedrich Philosophical Systemizer; On Religion: Addresses to its Cultured DespisersGermanFounder University of Berlin; theologian, philosopher, and biblical scholar known for his attempt to reconcile the criticisms of the Enlightenment with traditional Protestant orthodoxy. He also became influential in the evolution of Higher Criticism, and his work forms part of the foundation of the modern field of hermeneutics. Because of his profound impact on subsequent Christian thought, he is often called the "Father of Modern Liberal Theology" and is considered an early leader in liberal Christianity. The Neo-Orthodoxy movement of the twentieth century, typically (though not without challenge) seen to be spearheaded by Karl Barth, was in many ways an attempt to challenge his influence.
Study Guide 1400-1949
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