PIE Lexicon
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PIEGlossCognatesNotesGram. FormRelated FormsSemantic DomainSource
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*-kʷeandOIr na-ch ‘not’
Lat -que ‘and’
Goth -h
Mycenaean Grk -qe
Grk te ‘and’
Arm -k‘ ‘and’
Hit -ki ‘and’
Skt ca ‘and’
ConjunctionsJPM
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*-wēorOIr nō
Lat -ve
Grk ē-(w)é
Skt vā
Toch B wat
ConjunctionsJPM
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*-yoandMyc jo- ‘and’
Hit -ya- ‘and’
Toch A -yo ‘with’
ConjunctionsJPM
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*(d)ḱm̩tóm100 (one-)hundredOIr cēt
Lat centum
NEhundred
Lith šim~tas
OCS sŭto
Grk hekatón
Av satəm
Skt śatám
Toch B kante
{1} A derivative of *deḱm 'ten'.a hunderd cows': Skt. śata-gv-ín- [adj] 'consisting of a hundred cows' (RV) — OP θata-gu- [m] 'Sattagydia' — Gr. ἑκατόμβη [f] 'great sacrifice' (< *-gwu-eh₂-)
'lord over a hundred, centurio': Skt. śatá-pati- [m] (TB) — Elam.-OP *θata-pati- [m]
NumbersJPM
Beekes
IIAL
6
*(d)ui-dʰh₁-put in two{1} [AL] The augment is always scanned long in the RV, which points to the IIr. reconstruction *Ha-Hui-dhH-a-, cf. Lubotsky 1994a. The aorist ávidhat originally supplied the aorist for the root dāś, cf. Garcia Ramón XXX.
{2} The root is due to the univerbation of the preverb ví and dhā (cf. Hoffmann 1969 = Hoffmann 1975: 241). The aorist stem is primary.
Present VI<VII: vindháte [3sg.med.] (RV) (secondary present stem based on the aorist stem vidh-á-)
Aorist A: ávidhat [3sg.act.] (RV, YV) {1}
IIAL
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*(dʰ)ǵʰyesyesterdayOIr indē
Lat herī
NE yester-
Alb dje
Grk khthés
Av zyō
Skt hyá-
TimeJPM
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*(h₁)seuio-left, left hand{1} [AL] The laryngeal is based on the asssumption that the word is derived from the adverb *h₁su 'well', being an old taboo replacement. For the different words for 'left' in Indo-European see Beekes 1994.IIAL
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*(h₁)su-goodOIr so- ‘good’
OCS sŭ-dravŭ ‘healthy’
Grk hu-giḗs ‘healthy’, eu- ‘good’
Av hu- ‘good’
Skt su- ‘good’
Toch B saswe ‘lord’ [< *h₁su-suhₓó- ‘well-born’]
{1} Most probably, a derivative of *h₁es- 'to be'.well-made': Skt. sú-kr̥ta- [adj] (RV+) — OAv. hū.kǝrǝta-, YAv. hu-kǝrǝta- [adj]
'with good mental power': Skt. su-krátu- [adj] (RV+) — Av. hu-xratu- [adj]
'of good dominion': Skt. su-kṣatrá- [adj] (RV+) — Av. hu-xšaθra- [adj] — Elam.-OP (Med.) *hu-xšaθra- PN
'generous': Skt. su-dā́nu- [adj] (RV+) — Av. hu-dānu- [adj]
'well-treated': Skt. sú-bhr̥ta- [adj] (RV+) — YAv. hu-bǝrǝta- [adj], OP ubrt- /u-br̥ta-/ [adj]
'of good mind': Skt. su-mánas- [adj] (RV+) — YAv. hu-manah- [adj] 'with fighting spirit' — Gr. (Myc.) /Eumenēs/ PN, εὐ-μενής [adj] 'well-disposed, favourable'
'famous': Skt. su-śrávas- [adj] (RV+) — Elam.-OP *u-çau̯ah- PN, (Med.) *hu-srau̯ah- PN, MP hu-sraw [adj] 'famous' — Gr. εὐ-κλεής [adj] (< *h₁su-ḱleues-)
'well-spoken': Skt. sūktá- [adj] (RV+) — Av. hūxta- [adj]
'of good work': Skt. sv-ápas- [adj] (RV+) — Av. huuāpah-, YAv. huuapah- [adj], Sogd. (Man.) xwp [adj] 'good', MP xub [adj] 'id.'
'having good horses': Skt. sv-áśva- [adj] (RV) — YAv. huu-aspa- [adj] — OP uv-aspa- [adj]
ValuesJPM
IIAL
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*(h₁)uper(i)over, aboveIIAL
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*(h₁)upounderIIAL
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*(h₁)yēro/ehₐ-year, new seasonLat hōrnus ‘of this year’
NE year
OCS jara ‘spring’
Grk hȏros ‘time, year’
Luv āra/i- ‘time’
Av yārə ‘year’
{1} Based on *pari-yāram 'a year long'.TimeJPM
IIAL
13
*(h₂)wer-± attachLith vérti ‘thread a needle’
Rus verátĭ ‘prick’
Alb vjerr ‘hang up’
?Grk aeírō ‘attach’
BindingJPM
14
*(h₂/₃)wobʰséhₐ-waspMWels gw(y)chi ‘drones’
talic Lat vespa
OPrus wobse
OCS osa
MPers vaβz-
From the verbal root *h₂/3webh- ‘weave’BugJPM
Celt.
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*(h₂u-)bʰoh₁both[du.m.] ubhā́, ubháu (RV+)
[du.f.] ubhé (RV+)
IIAL
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*(h₃)bʰitowardsBeekes
17
*(hₐ)maurosdarkRus (s)muryj ‘dark grey’
Grk amaurós ‘dim, faint’
West CentralLight & DarkJPM
18
*(hₐ)merhₓgʷ-darkON myrkr ‘darkness’ [which was borrowed as NE murk]
Lith márgas ‘variegated’
Alb murg ‘black’
Grk amorbós ‘dark’
West CentralLight & DarkJPM
19
*(hₐ)wiselo-weaselNIr fial ‘ferret’
NE weasel
Grk aiélouros ??
North-WesternFaunaJPM
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*(hₓ)ieu-bearded wheat, perhapsBeekes
21
*(hₓ)io-who, which{1} [AL] The initial laryngeal is not quite certain. It is based on the Greek aspiration (if it reflects *Hi-) and on the possible derivation of this pronoun from the pronoun *h₁e / h₁i- (see s.v. ay- [2], a- [2]).yáḥ [nom.sg.m.] (RV+)
yā́ [nom.sg.f.] (RV+)
yát [nom.sg.n.] (RV+)
yám [acc.sg.m.] (RV+)
yásmai [dat.sg.m.n.] (RV+)
etc.
whoever, whichever': Skt. yá- ca (RV+) — Av. ya- cā̆
'whoever, whichever': Skt. yáḥ káś cit (RV+) — OAv. yahmāi … kahmāicīt_
'whenever': Skt. yác cid (RV+) — YAv. yat_-cit_, OP yciy /ya-ciy/
IIAL
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*(hₓ)mei-s-close the eyes{1} extension of IE root *(H)mei-.
{2}[AL] MoHG miseln 'to rain lightly' is hardly cognate. Janda 1998: 18ff. argues that the original meaning of the uncompounded root miṣ- is 'to close the eyes, to blink', which is a distinctive possibility. He further suggests an assimilation *ni-muṣ- ('to close', see s.v. muṣṭí-) > ni-miṣ-. I would rather assume contamination of two roots, viz. *h₃meigh- 'close the eyes, blink' (Lith. miegóti 'sleep', SCr. mȉgati 'blink, twinkle, move', etc.) and meus- 'close the mouth'.
Present VI: miṣáti [3sg.act.] (RV)
Aorist RED: amīmiṣat (Up.)
IIAL
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*(hₓ)ndʰero-lowerIIAL
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*(hₓ)ndʰesbelowIIAL
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*(hₓ)ndʰmhₓo-lowestIIAL
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*(hₓ)neid-insultGoth ga-naitjan ‘treat shamefully’
Lith níedėti ‘despise’
Grk oneidízō ‘revile’
Arm anēc ‘curse’
Av naēd- ‘insult’
Skt níndati ‘insults’
Love & HateJPM
27
*(hₓ)rōs-dew, moistureLat rṓs ‘dew’
Lith rasà ‘dew’
Rus rosá‘dew’
Alb resh ‘it is precipitating’
Skt rása- ‘sap, juice
underlies a number of river names in Indo-Iranian, including the mythical world river of the ancient Indians (Rasā)

{1} Originally, a root noun. The Greek name of Volga 'Ρᾶ presumably comes from Iranian.
WaterJPM
IIAL
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*(k)(s)weḱs6 sixAv xšvaš
*kseḱs >>
Lith šešì
OCS šestĭ
dialectal Grk kséstriks krithḗ‘six-rowed barley’
Skt ṣáṣ
*(s)weḱs >>
OIr sē
NWels chwech
Grk héks (dialectal Grk wéks)
Arm vec
*seḱs >>
Lat sex
NE six
Alb gjashtë
?Toch B ṣkas
*weḱs >>
Grk héks
Arm vec‘
The complex, and otherwise unexampled, initial consonant cluster *ksw- has suggested to several investigators that we may be looking at a word that was originally borrowed from some non-Indo-European source. Foreign parallels to the Proto-Indo-European forms have been noted since the time of Franz Bopp who compared the Proto-Indo-European form with Proto-Kartvelian (a language group of the Caucasus composed of Georgian and closely related languages) *ekšw- ‘six’
other comparisons are Hurrian (an extinct language of eastern Anatolia) šeeže, Akkadian ši/eššum (the form used to modify deWnite feminine nouns) ‘six’. These are variously explained as borrowing into or from (in the Kartvelian case) Proto-Indo-European. However, with the exception of the Kartvelian forms, the proposed models for the Proto-Indo-European word are only vaguely similar phonetically and there is no good reason why a foreign š- or the like should generate a Proto-Indo-European*ksw-.
One might also note that the attestedAkkadian formis far too late to have been themodel for Proto-Indo-European borrowing, no matter where the Proto-Indo-Europeans may have been located, and the earlier Proto-Semitic form of ‘six’, *šidt~(at), looks even less promising as a model for *ksweḱs.

{1} [AL] Pā. cha, chaḷ ̊ 'six' and the o-colouring in ṣóḍaśa and ṣoḍhā́ can only be explained if we assume that *u̯ was long preserved in Indo-Aryan (cf. Lubotsky 2000a).
ṣáṭ [nom.sg.] (RV+)
ṣaḍbhíḥ [instr.pl.] (RV+)
ṣaṇṇā́m [gen.pl.] (AVP+)
ṣaṭṣú [loc.pl.] (KS+)
Dāsa/Dahāka with six eyes': Skt. dā́sa-… ṣaḷakṣá- (RV 10.099.06) — YAv. dahākǝm … xšuuaš.ašīm ( Y 9.8)
'six months old, taking six months': Skt. ṣáṇ-māsya- (ŚB+) — YAv. xšuuaš.māhiia-
NumbersJPM
IIAL
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*(k)(s)weḱs-ḱomt(hₐ)60 sixtyOIr sesca
Lat sexāgintā
Grk eksḗkonta
Arm vat‘sun
Toch B ṣkaska
NumbersJPM
30
*(k)sweid-milkLith svíestas ‘butter’
Av xšvīd- ‘milk’
?MealsJPM
31
*(nh₃)-wewe botholder nom. vā́m (RV 06.055.01), acc. āvā́m (Br.+) (sometimes also nom.), instr. āvābhyām (AitB), abl. āvát (TSp), gen. āváyoṣ (TS+)IIAL
32
*(ni-)mno-downwardsIIAL
33
*(p)ḱórmos± grief, shameNE harm
Rus sórom ‘shame’
Av fšarəma- ‘shame’
The questionable ascription of *(p)ḱórmos to Proto-Indo-European rests on a Germanic-Slavic-Iranian isogloss?Health&SicknessJPM
34
*(s-)h₄upér(i)overOIr for- ‘over’
Lat super ‘over’
NE over
Grk hupér ‘over
beyond’
Av upairi ‘over’
Skt upári ‘over
PositionJPM
Beekes
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*(s)bʰond-nehₐstrap
sling
Lat funda ‘sling’
Grk sphendónē ‘sling’
West Central
from
*bhendh- ‘bind’
TextilesJPM
36
*(s)grebʰ-scratch, cutNE carve
ON skrapa > NE scrape
OPrus gīrbin ‘number’
OCS žrěbŭ ‘lot’
Grk gráphō ‘scratch’
West CentralReductive ActivitiesJPM
37
*(s)grehₐb(ʰ)-hornbeamUmb Grabovius ‘oak god’
OPrus wosi-grabis ‘spindle-tree’
Lith skrõblas ‘hornbeam’
Rus grab ‘hornbeam’
Modern Grk grabúna ‘hornbeam’
Lat carpīnus ‘hornbeam’
TreesJPM
38
*(s)kamb-curveOIr camm ‘curve’
Grk skambós ‘curve’
West CentralShapeJPM
39
*(s)kand-moonAlb hënë ‘moon’
Skt cándra- ‘moon’
from the verb *(s)kand- ‘shine’AirJPM
40
*(s)kand-shine, glitterNWels cann ‘white, bright’
Lat candeō ‘glitter, shine’
Skt cándati ‘shines, is bright’
Alb hënë
Skt candrá- ‘shining; moon’
Grk kándaros ‘coal’ [< presumably from *‘glowing’]
Lat candidātus ‘candidate for office’ because of the white toga which was worn
Light & DarkJPM
41
*(s)ked-scatterNE scatter
Lith kedė´ti ‘burst’
Grk skídnēmi ‘scatter, strew, sprinkle’
Toch AB kätnā- ‘scatter, strew, sow’
ThrowJPM
42
*(s)ḱegossheep/goatNE sheep
OE hēcen ‘kid’
Oss sæɣ ‘she-goat’
Skt chā́ga- ‘he-goat’
?FaunaJPM
43
*(s)ḱeh₁w(e)r-north windNE shower
Lat caurus ‘north wind’
Lith šiáure ‘north wind’
šiū́ras ‘cold, northern’
OCS sĕverŭ ‘north’
Arm c‘urt ‘cold
shower’
AirJPM
44
*(s)kel-crookedOE scēolh ‘crooked’
OPrus culczi ‘thigh’
Bulg kúlka ‘thigh’
Alb c¸alë ‘lame’
Grk skélos ‘thigh’
West CentralShapeJPM
45
*(s)kel-split (apart), cutGrk skállō ‘hoe, stir up’
Arm skalim ‘split, be splintered’
Hit iskalla- ‘slit, slash, tear’
MIr scoiltid ‘chips’
Lith skeliù ‘chip’
ON skil ‘distinction’
Reductive ActivitiesJPM
46
*(s)keng-crookedOIr scingim ‘spring’
ON skakkr ‘skewed, distorted’
OHG hinken ‘go lame’
Grk skázō ‘limp, go lame’
Skt kháñjati ‘limps’
ShapeJPM
47
*(s)keng-limpOHG hinkan ‘limp’
Grk skázō ‘limp’
Skt kañj- ‘limp’
Health&SicknessJPM
48
*(s)ker-cut apart, cut offHit karsmi ‘cut off, castrate’
OIr scaraid ‘separates, divides’
NE shear
Lith skiriù ‘separate, divide’
Rus krojú ‘cut’
Alb shqerr ‘tear apart’
Grk keírō ‘cut’
Arm k‘erem ‘scrape off, scratch off’
Skt kr̩ṇā́ ti ‘wounds, kills’
Reductive ActivitiesJPM
49
*(s)ker-men-flayed skin{1} Attested is OP čarmā 'on leather, on parchment'.IIAL
50
*(s)kerb-
(s)kerbʰ-
shrink, shrivel; waste-awayON skorpna ‘shrivel’
Lith skur͂bti ‘suffer a decline, wither; mourn’
Rus skórblyj ‘shrivelled’
Grk kárphō ‘let shrivel, dry out’
Health&Sickness
Reductive Activities
JPM
51
*(s)kerbʰ-shrink, shrivelWest CentralReductive ActivitiesJPM
52
*(s)kert-cutLith kertù ‘hew’
Arm k‘ert‘em ‘skin’
Hit kartai- ‘cut off’
Av kərəntaiti ‘cuts’
Skt kr̩ntá ti ‘cuts’
ON skor ‘notch’ i.e. ‘what has been cut’
Extended from *(s)ker-Present VI<VII: kr̥ntáti [3sg.act.] (RV+)
Aorist A: ákr̥tas [2sg.act.] (RV)
kartīṣ [2sg.inj.act.] (Br., Sū.)
Perfect: cakarta [3sg.act.] (RV+)
Fut: kartsy ̊ (AV)
Abs: vikŕ̥tya (RV)
TA-Ptc.: kr̥ttá- (RV+)
JPM
IIAL
53
*(s)keu(hₓ)-cover, wrapLat ob-scūrus ‘dark, obscure’, i.e. ‘covered’
Skt skunā́ti ‘covers’
NE hide (derived from this root with a t-extension)
Grk skúlos ‘pelt, skin’
Grk skȗtos ‘leather’
MotionJPM
54
*(s)keubʰmake beautiful{1} [AL] Since the root structure T…Dh is impossible in PIE, we must assume a root with s-mobile. It is therefore attractive to connect our root with PIE *(s)keu(h₁)- (Gr. κοέω [verb] 'to notice', OHG scouwōn [verb] 'to look at', Go. skauns [adj] 'beautiful', see s.v. kavi). For the phonetic and semantic sides of this etymology see Lubotsky 2001a: 51.Present I: śóbhate [3sg.med.] (RV+)
Present VII: śúmbhāna- [ptc.med.] 'purifying (his own body / himself)' (RV 08.044.12)
Present VI<VII: śumbháti [3sg.act.] 'to beautify, to make beautiful' (RV)
Present I<VII: śúmbhate [3sg.med.] 'to adorn oneself' (RV+), śúmbhati [3sg.act.] 'to purify' (AV+)
Present AYA: śubháyå 'to be beautiful, splendid' (RV)
Caus: śobhay ̊ (AV+)
IIAL
55
*(s)keud-throw, shootNE shoot
Rus kidátĭ ‘throw’
Alb hedh ‘throw’
Skt códati ‘incites’
Toch B kaume ‘shoot of a plant’
ThrowJPM
56
*(s)keudʰpurify{1} [LK] Built on the quasi-root śundh extracted from the nasal infixed present
see Jamison 1983: 158, Kulikov 2001: 470f.
{2} [AL] Since the root structure T…Dh is impossible in PIE, we must assume a root with s-mobile. It is therefore attractive to connect our root with PIE *(s)keu(h₁)- (Gr. κοέω [verb] 'to notice', OHG scouwōn [verb] 'to look at', Go. skauns [adj] 'beautiful', see s.v. kavi). For the phonetic and semantic sides of this etymology see Lubotsky 2001a: 51.
Present I<VII: śundhati [3sg.act.] 'cleanses' (RV 10.085.35), śundhata [2pl.impv.act.] (RV 10.017.14), YVm+
Present IV: śudhyatu [3sg.impv.act.] 'let it become clean' (VS+), śudhyate [3sg.med.] 'becomes clean' (ṢB+)
Caus {1}: śundhayantu [3pl.impv.act.] (RV 10.017.10)
TA-Ptc.: śuddhá- 'purified, pure, clean' (RV+)
IIAL
57
*(s)keuh₁-perceive
see, seer
Lyd kaweś‘priest’
Av kavā ‘seer’
Skt kaví- ‘wise, seer’
Extended:
NE hear
Grk akoúō ‘hear’
Lat custōs ‘watchman’
NE show
Arm c‘uc‘anem ‘show’
Lat caveō ‘take heed’
OE hāwian ‘look at’
OCS čujǫ ‘note’
Grk koéō ‘note’
SightJPM
58
*(s)keukshine{1} [AL] For the phonetic and semantic sides of this etymology see Lubotsky 2001a: 51.Present I: śócanti [3pl.act.] (RV+)
Present IV: śúcyati [3sg.act.] (Br.)
Aorist A: aśucat [3sg.act.] (RV+)
Aorist S: śocīḥ [2sg.inj.act.] (VS)
Aorist mediopass: áśoci (RV)
Perfect: śuśóca [3sg.act.] (RV, ŚB), śuśucāná- [ptc.med.] (RV)
Intensive: śóśucan [3pl.inj.act.] (RV+), śóśucāna- [ptc.med.] (RV+)
Caus: śocáy ̊ (RV+)
Inf: śucádhyai (RV)
IIAL
59
*(s)keup-bundleNE sheaf
Rus čup ‘tuft
head of hair, crest’
North-WestMeasure & QuantityJPM
60
*(s)koitrósbright, clearOEhādor ‘clear’
Lith skaidrùs ‘bright, clear [of weather], limpid [of water]’
Av čiθra- ‘clear’
Skt citrá- ‘excellent, bright’
Indo-Iranian may all derive from an otherwise unattested noun *(s)kóit-.Light & DarkJPM
61
*(s)koli-young dogLith kãle ‘bitch’
Alb këlysh ‘young dog’
Grk skúlaks ‘young dog
young animal’
FaunaJPM
62
*(s)kolmo/ehₐ-boatOHG skalm
Toch B kolmo
Derived from *(s)kel- ‘cut’TransportJPM
63
*(s)kōlosstakeGrk skȏlos ‘pointed stake’from *(s)kel- ‘strike, hew’ConstructionJPM
64
*(s)kou-no-luminous{1} [AL] The cerebral nasal is unexpected and may point to borrowing, which makes the etymology doubtful. See further s.v. śobh.
{2} [AL] The possible cognates mentioned by Mayrhofer are most probably unrelated: ToA koṃ, ToB kauṃ 'day, sun' is a loanword from Turkic ( Lubotsky - Starostin 2003: 257f.)
MW cun 'noble, fine' must rather be connected with OIr. cúanna 'dear, fine' and derived from *kupnos ( Schrijver 1995: 348).
IIAL
65
*(s)ku(n)t-shake, joltNE shudder
Lith kuntù ‘recover, get better’ [i.e. ‘shake something off’]
OCS skytati sę ‘wander’
North-WestMotionJPM
66
*(s)kubʰ-ró-clean, beautiful{1} [AL] Since the root structure T…Dh is impossible in PIE, we must assume a root with s-mobile. For the phonetic and semantic sides of this etymology see Lubotsky 2001a: 51.
{2} [AL] Most probably, an Iranian LW.
IIAL
67
*(s)ḱup-shoulderMLG schuft ‘shoulder blade of cow or horse’
Alb sup ‘shoulder’
Av supti- ‘shoulder’
Skt śúpti- ‘shoulder’
Body (Upper)JPM
68
*(s)ḱup-ti-shoulder, withers{1} [AL] Since the s-mobile is only attested in Germanic, it is attractive to assume that it is due to the influence of the word for 'shoulder'.śúptau [loc.sg.]IIAL
69
*(s)kʷálossheatfish, welsNE whale
OPrus skalis ‘sheatfish’
Grk áspalos ‘fish’
Av kara- ‘a kind of fish’
DifficultFishJPM
70
*(s)kʷéhₓtisskin, hideNWels es-gid ‘shoe’ [< ‘foot-hide’]
NE hide
Lith kiáutis ‘skin’
Grk skȗtos ‘skin, leather, hide’
Toch A kāc ‘skin’
Body (Upper)JPM
71
*(s)kʷeit-consider, appear{1} [AL] Mayrhofer, following Gotō 1987: 137ff. distinguishes cet [1] 'to consider' and cet [2] 'to appear, to shine'. The semantic distinction is clearly artificial (cf. German scheinen), whereas the lack of labialization in the Germanic cognates is probably due to the loss of the labial feature in front of o in this branch.
{2} [LK] See Kümmel 2000: 174ff.
{3} Translations 'appearance' or 'splendour', given for the Rgvedic attestations by some scholars are less plausible, but not impossible.
{4} [AL] For this form cf. recently Jasanoff 1997.
Present I: cétati [3sg.act.] (RV+)
Present AYA: citáyante [3pl.med.] (RV+), citáyant- [ptc.act.] (RV+)
Aorist mediopass: áceti [3sg.], céti [3sg.inj.] 'has/is appeared, has/is shown (oneself)' (RV)
Aorist S (< Aorist R): acait [3sg.act.] 'has perceived' (RV 06.044.07)
Aorist R: cítāna- [ptc.med.] 'making oneself perceptible, drawing attention to oneself' (RV 09.101.11)
Perfect: cikéta [3sg.act.], cíketa [3sg.act.], cikitvā́ṃs- / cikitúṣ- [ptc.act.] 'to see, pay attention, respect' (RV+), cikité [3sg.med.] 'to appear, show (oneself)
be known' (RV-YVm) {2}
Desid: cikits ̊ 'to wish to perceive, watch' (RV+)
Caus: cetáy ̊, citáy ̊ 'to make perceived, reveal
to make perceive' (RV+)
TA-Ptc.: cittá-, also [n] 'thought, mind' (RV+)
to appear in (his/her/its/their) greatness': Skt. mahinā́ cikitré (RV 01.186.09) — OAv. mazibīš cikōitǝrǝš ( Y 32.11)IIAL
72
*(s)lagʷ-take, holdNE latch
Grk lázomai ‘take, hold’
West CentralGive & TakeJPM
73
*(s)lei-sticky, slimy, slipperyOIr as-lena ‘pollute’
Lat linō ‘anoint’
OCS slina ‘spit’
Grk alínō ‘anoint’
OIr slemon ‘slippery, slick, polished’
Lat līmus ‘mud’, līmax ‘slug’
NE slime
Rus slimák ‘slug’
Grk leímaks ‘slug, snail’
NHG bleiben ‘remain, stay’
Lith lìpti ‘stick, be sticky’
OCS pri-lĭpjǫ ‘stick on/to’
Skt limpáti ‘smears’
Toch A lip- ‘remain’
QualitiesJPM
74
*(s)lei-tenchLith lýnis
Rus linĭ
Grk lineús ‘blemy‘ ?
OE slīw ‘mullet’
Built on the root of the same shape meaning ‘slimy’FishJPM
75
*(s)leidʰ-slideNE slide
Lith sly´stu ‘slide, slip’
OCS slědŭ ‘track [in the grass]’
Grk olisthaínō ‘slip’
Skt srédhati ‘fails, errs’ < *‘slides off?’
Crawl, Slide, FallJPM
76
*(s)m(e)ug(ʰ)-smokeNE smoke
Grk smū́khō ‘burn in a smouldering fire’
Arm mux ‘smoke’
FireJPM
77
*(s)me(-thₐ)middle, amongOE mid ‘with’
Alb me ‘with’
Grk metá‘with, among’
Av mat ‘(together) with’
Skt smat ‘with’
PositionJPM
78
*(s)mel-deceiveLith mẽlas ‘lie’
Arm meł ‘sin’
Av mairya- ‘deceitful’
Toch A smale ‘lie’
ValuesJPM
79
*(s)mel-give off light smoke, smoulderMiddle Irish smā l
NE smoulder, smell
Lith smilė́kti ‘give off light dust or smoke’
Sorbian smaliś‘singe’
FireJPM
80
*(s)meld-meltNE melt
Grk méldomai ‘melt’
FireJPM
81
*(s)mer-remember, be concernedNE mourn
Lith merė´ti ‘worry about’
Grk mérimna ‘thought, care, anxiety’, mártus ‘witness’ [>NE martyr]
Av maraiti ‘observes’
Skt smárati ‘remembers, longs for’
reduplicated in
Lat memoria ‘remembrance’
OE mimorian ‘remember’
Arm mormok‘ ‘care’
Present I: smárāthas [2du.subj.act.] (RV 10.106.09), smarethām [2du.impv.med.] (RV 07.104.07), smáranti [3pl.act.] (RV-Kh., AV+)
Perfect: sasmara [1sg.act.] (AVP 5.11.7)
Passive: smaryáte [3sg.] (TĀm, DhSū.+)
TA-Ptc.: smr̥ta- (Sū.+)
á-smr̥ta-dhrut- 'with whom no deception can be remembered' (RV 10.061.04)
Knowledge & ThoughtJPM
82
*(s)meukbrush, take off (of bridles, bindings, clothes and snot){1} [LK] With the secondary suffix accentuation (see Kulikov 1998).
{2} Secondary present, probably based on the desiderative stem ( Gotō 1987: 246, fn. 547).
Present VI<VII: muñcā́mi [1sg.act.] (RV+)
Present IV: múcyate [3sg.med.] (RV+), mucyáte [3sg.med.] (AV, ŚB) {1}
Present I: mókṣamāṇa- [ptc.med.] (KSp-MSp) {2}
Aorist R: ámugdhvam [2pl.med.] (RV)
Aorist A: ámucat [3sg.act.] (RV+)
Aorist S: mukṣata [3pl.inj.med.] (RV+)
Perfect: mumucmáhe [1pl.med.] (RV+), mumucaḥ [2sg.inj.act.] (RV), múmocati [3sg.subj.act.] (RV 08.018.12), mumóca [3sg.act.] (TĀm, ŚB+)
Fut: mokṣyati [3sg.act.] (AVP+)
Desid: múmukṣamāṇa- [ptc.med.] (RV 10.111.09)
TA-Ptc.: áti-mukta- 'escaped, avoided' (ŚB)
IIAL
83
*(s)meuk/g-slick, slipperyOIr mocht ‘soft, tender’
Lat mungō ‘blow the nose’
ON mjūkr ‘soft, malleable’
Grk mússomai ‘blow the nose’
Lat mūcus ‘mucus’
Lith mùkti ‘slip away from’
Skt muñcáti ‘looses, frees’
Toch B mauk- ‘to let go’
West CentralQualitiesJPM
84
*(s)meuk/g-slipOE smūgan ‘slide, slip’
Lith munkù ‘slip away from’
Lat ē-mungō ‘blow, wipe one’s nose’
Grk apomússō ‘blow, wipe one’s nose’
Skt muñcáti indicates ‘lets loose, frees’
OCS mŭčati ‘chase’
Toch B mäk- ‘run’
Crawl, Slide, FallJPM
85
*(s)neh₁(i)-twist fibres into threadMIr snīid ‘twists, binds’
Lat neō ‘spin’
OHG nā(w)en ‘sew, stitch’
Latv snāju ‘twist loosely together, spin’
Grk néō ‘spin’
with the suffix *-tehₐ- :
NE snood
OIr snāth ‘thread’
Latv snāte ‘linen shawl, cape’
NE needle < *(s)nehₐ(i)-tlehₐ-
TextilesJPM
86
*(s)ner-fasten with thread or cordLith neriù ‘thread (a needle)’,
Toch B ñare ‘thread’
OE snēr ‘harpstring
bind close together’> NE narrow
TextilesJPM
87
*(s)nh₁(e)uwithoutBeekes
88
*(s)nh₁iwithoutBeekes
89
*(s)p(e)iko/ehₐ-bird, woodpeckerLat pīcus ‘woodpecker‘
Lat pīca ‘jay
magpie’
OHG speh ‘woodpecker’
Skt piká-
BirdJPM
90
*(s)peḱ-observe
see
Lat speciō ‘see’
OHG spehōn ‘spy’
Grk sképtomai ‘look at’
Av spasyeiti ‘spies’
Skt páśyati ‘sees’
Toch AB päk- ‘intend’
{1} Synchronically distinct from, but genetically related to the root variant spaś- (see Jamison 1983: 167, Kümmel 2000: 586f.).
{2} [LK] According to Kümmel 2000: 586, fn. 1261, the interpretation of this form as a sigmatic aorist is supported by its durative meaning.
{3} Gr. σκοπός replaces IE *speḱ-s.
Present IV: páśyati [3sg.act.] (RV+)
Aorist R/Aorist S {2}: áspaṣṭa [3sg.aor.med.] (RV 01.010.02)
Perfect: paspaśé [3sg.med.] 'to look at, to guard, to notice' (RV)
Caus: spāśáyasva [2sg.impv.med.] 'to make visible, spied out' (RV 01.176.03)
TA-Ptc.: ánu-spaṣṭa- 'guarded' (RV 10.160.04), spaṣṭá- '(clearly) perceived, clear, visible' (TSp+)
Sun, the spy': Skt. sū́ryam … spáśam (RV 04.013.03), spáḷ … sū́ryaḥ (RV 10.035.08) — Gr. (Hom.) 'Ηέλιον … σκοπόν {3}SightJPM
IIAL
91
*(s)pel-say aloud, reciteNE spell
Alb fjalë ‘tale’ (also ‘word, statement’)
Arm aṙa-spel ‘saying, riddle’
Latv pel͂t ‘revile, slander’
Grk apeiléō ‘hold out in promise or in threat’
Toch AB päl- ‘praise’
Formal Speech & SongJPM
92
*(s)pel-tear off, splitSkt phálati ‘bursts, splits in two’, phā́ la- ‘ploughshare’ (< *‘splitter’)Reductive ActivitiesJPM
93
*(s)pelt-splitOHG spalten
OCS ras-platiti
Skt spháṭati
Skt páṭati ‘splits apart, bursts’
NE split
Reductive ActivitiesJPM
94
*(s)pen-draw, spinNE spin
Lith pinù ‘weave’
OCS pĭnǫ ‘tighten, strain’
Alb pe ‘thread’
Grk pénomai ‘toil [at household tasks]’
Arm hanum ⁓ henum ‘weave’
Toch B pänn- ‘draw [out], stretch’
TextilesJPM
95
*(s)peud-push, repulseLat pudet ‘shames’, ‘casting off
divorce’
Lith spáudiu ‘press, squeeze’
Alb punë ‘work’
Grk speúdō ‘urge on, hasten’
Arm p‘oyt‘ ‘zeal’
NPers poy ‘haste, speed’
ConflictJPM
96
*(s)pingo-finchNE finch
Grk spíggos
Skt phingaka ‘shrike‘ ?
BirdJPM
97
*(s)plend-shineOIr lēs ‘light’
Lat splendeō ‘shine, glitter’
Lith spléndžiu ‘light’
Toch plāntā- ‘rejoice, be glad’ as cognate, i.e. ‘be shining’
?Light & DarkJPM
98
*(s)pondʰ(n)oswooden vesselON spann ‘pail’
Lith spandis ‘pail’
OCS spǫdŭ ‘measure [of grain]’
Arm p‘und ‘pot’
West CentralContainersJPM
99
*(s)pornómwing, featherNE fern
Lith spar͂nas ‘wing’
Av parəna- ‘feather’
Skt parṇá- ‘feather’
OCS pero ‘feather’
Toch B parwa [pl.] ‘feathers’
Body (Upper)JPM
100
*(s)pre(n)g-wrap up, constrictGreek spárgō ‘swaddle’
Lith springstù ‘choke, become choked or constricted’
MHG phrengen ‘oppress’
Toch AB präṅk- ‘restrain oneself, hold back’
MotionJPM
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