Harmony Module - Episode 02 - "Intro to Basic Harmony"
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INTERVALS (Major and Minor), a visual reference.
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Vertical Grid with "1" through "8" represents the Scale Degrees of the Major Scale. Interval colors for visual association.
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"MAJOR" INTERVALS8P
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"MINOR" INTERVALS8M
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So called "major" intervals exist naturally within the scale when ascending from "1."So called "minor" intervals exist naturally within the scale when descending from "8."
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* "Perfect" intervals do not change in the number of half steps in between them whether ascending or descending the scale the way "major" and "minor" intervals do.* "Perfect" intervals do not change in the number of half steps in between them whether ascending or descending the scale the way "major" and "minor" intervals do.
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PERFECT UNISON*1PERFECT UNISON*1
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NUMBER OF HALF STEPSINTERVAL NAME
(Names can refer to ascending or descending)
NATURALLY-OCCURRING˚ EXAMPLES

Low Note : High Note
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0PERFECT UNISON1:1, 2:2, 3:3, 4:4, 5:5, 6:6, 7:7, 8:8
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1MINOR SECOND3:4, 7:8
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2MAJOR SECOND1:2, 2:3, 4:5, 5:6, 6:7
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3MINOR THIRD2:4, 3:5, 6:8, 7:9**"9" is a "2," one octave higher (one whole step above the "8").
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4MAJOR THIRD1:3, 4:6, 5:7
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5PERFECT FOURTH1:4, 2:5, 3:6, 5:8, 6:9, 7:10**"10" is a "3," one octave higher (two whole steps above the "8").
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6AUGMENTED FOURTH/
DIMINISHED FIFTH (AKA "TRITONE")
4:7, 7:11**"11" is a "4," one octave higher (five half steps above the "8").
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7PERFECT FIFTH1:5, 2:6, 3:7, 4:8, 5:9, 6:10
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8MINOR SIXTH3:8, 6:11, 7:12**"12" is a "5," one octave higher (seven half steps above the "8").
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9MAJOR SIXTH1:6, 2:7, 4:9, 5:10
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10MINOR SEVENTH2:8, 3:9, 5:11, 6:12, 7:13**"13" is a "6," one octave higher (nine half steps above the "8").
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11MAJOR 7TH1:7, 4:10
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12PERFECT OCTAVE1:8, 2:9, 3:10, 4:11, 5:12, 6:13, 7:14*, 8:15**"14" and "15" are "7" and "8," one octave higher, respectively.
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Interval colors for visual association.˚Other examples exist but require sharps and flats. Thus, only these are "naturally occurring."