Timeline of brain preservation
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{| class="sortable wikitable"
! Date !! Category !! Type !! Subtype !! Organisation or individual !! Event

|-
| 1773-04 || cryonics || futurism || || {{W|Benjamin Franklin}} || In a letter to Jacques Dubourg, {{W|Benjamin Franklin}} says: "I wish it were possible&nbsp;...to invent a method of embalming drowned persons, in such a manner that they might be recalled to life at any period, however distant; for having a very ardent desire to see and observe the state of America a hundred years hence, I should prefer to an ordinary death, being immersed with a few friends in a cask of Madeira, until that time, then to be recalled to life by the solar warmth of my dear country! But&nbsp;... in all probability, we live in a century too little advanced, and too near the infancy of science, to see such an art brought in our time to its perfection&nbsp;...".<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Page:Works_of_the_Late_Doctor_Benjamin_Franklin_(1793).djvu/233|title=Page:Works of the Late Doctor Benjamin Franklin (1793).djvu/233 - Wikisource, the free online library|website=en.wikisource.org|access-date=2019-01-21}}</ref>
|-
| 1883-04-15 || cryogenics || technological development || cold || {{W|Jagiellonian University}} || Nitrogen is liquefied by {{W|Zygmunt Wróblewski}} and {{W|Karol Olszewski}}.<ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=8SKrWdFLEd4C&pg=PA249|page=249|title=A Short History of the Progress of Scientific Chemistry in Our Own Times|author=Tilden, William Augustus |publisher=BiblioBazaar, LLC|year=2009|isbn=1-103-35842-1}}</ref>
|-
| 1897 || cryobiology || science || || [https://ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%B0%D1%85%D0%BC%D0%B5%D1%82%D1%8C%D0%B5%D0%B2,_%D0%9F%D0%BE%D1%80%D1%84%D0%B8%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%98%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87 Porfiry Ivanovich Bakhmetyev] || [https://ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%B0%D1%85%D0%BC%D0%B5%D1%82%D1%8C%D0%B5%D0%B2,_%D0%9F%D0%BE%D1%80%D1%84%D0%B8%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%98%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87 Porfiry Ivanovich Bakhmetyev] starts studying the phenomena of anabiosis during overcooling of animals.
|-
| 1901 || cryonics || futurism || || [https://ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%B0%D1%85%D0%BC%D0%B5%D1%82%D1%8C%D0%B5%D0%B2,_%D0%9F%D0%BE%D1%80%D1%84%D0%B8%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%98%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87 Porfiry Ivanovich Bakhmetyev] || In his essay “The Recipe for Survival to the 21st Century” (“Natural Science and Geography”, 1901), [https://ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%B0%D1%85%D0%BC%D0%B5%D1%82%D1%8C%D0%B5%D0%B2,_%D0%9F%D0%BE%D1%80%D1%84%D0%B8%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%98%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87 Porfiry Ivanovich Bakhmetyev] suggests using the phenomenon of anabiosis to prolong human life, to “travel to the future”.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.fandom.ru/about_fan/hal_59.htm|title=ЏредвидениЯ ЏорфириЯ Ѓахметьева - ”антаст|website=www.fandom.ru|access-date=2019-02-04}}</ref>
|-
| 1931-07 || cryonics || social || fiction || {{W|Robert Ettinger}} || {{W|Robert Ettinger}} reads Neil R. Jones' newly published story, "The Jameson Satellite",<ref name="regis87">{{cite book |title= Great Mambo Chicken and the Transhuman Condition: Science Slightly Over The Edge|last= Regis|first= Ed|authorlink=wikipedia:Ed Regis (author) |coauthors= |year= 1991|publisher= Westview Press|location= |isbn= 0-201-56751-2|page= |pages= 87–88|url= }}</ref>, in which a professor has his corpse sent into earth orbit where it would remain preserved indefinitely at near absolute zero (note: this is not scientifically accurate), until millions of years later, when, with humanity extinct, a race of mechanical beings discovers, revives, and repairs him by transferring his brain in a mechanical body.<ref name="RCWE">{{cite web | title = Robert Ettinger | publisher = Cryonics Institute | url = http://www.cryonics.org/bio.html#Robert_Ettinger | accessdate = May 24, 2009 | deadurl = yes | archiveurl = https://www.webcitation.org/6ASYHJ6M9?url=http://www.cryonics.org/bio.html#Robert_Ettinger | archivedate = September 5, 2012 | df = mdy-all }}</ref>
|-
| 1936 || reanimatology || organization || founding || Negovsky || Negovsky founds the first resuscitation research laboratory in the world. In 1986 his laboratory would be renamed Institute of Reanimatology of the USSR (since 1991 of the Russian) Academy of Medical Sciences. This marks the inception of both reanimatology (resuscitation medicine) and critical care medicine both of which would be crucial to the credibility of cryonics paradigm.<ref name="reanimatology">{{Cite journal|last=Safar|first=P.|date=June 2001|title=Vladimir A. Negovsky the father of 'reanimatology'|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11723996|journal=Resuscitation|volume=49|issue=3|pages=223–229|issn=0300-9572|pmid=11723996|doi=10.1016/s0300-9572(01)00356-2}}</ref>
|-
| 1938 || cryobiology || science || vitrification || Goetz, Goetz || Alexander Goetz and S. Scott Goetz publish a paper discussing vitrification and crystallization of organic cells at low temperatures.
|-
| 1940 || cryobiology || science || || Basil Luyet, Marie Pierre Gehino || Basil Luyet and Marie Pierre Gehino publish "[https://books.google.ca/books/about/Life_and_Death_at_Low_Temperatures.html?id=a3YMtAEACAAJ Life and Death at Low Temperatures]", the book which marks the beginning of cryobiology as a formal area of study. In this landmark work, they document the survival of a wide variety of cells and some tissues after ultra-rapid cooling to -194.5°C providing that ice formation in the tissue is inhibited by vitrification due to the ultra-rapid cooling.<ref>{{Cite book|url=http://worldcat.org/oclc/716713726|title=Life and death at low temperatures|last=J.|first=Luyet, B.|date=1940|publisher=Biodynamica|oclc=716713726}}</ref>
|-
| 1940s || cryogenics || technological development || cold || || {{W|Liquid nitrogen}} becomes commercially available.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Cooper|first=S M|last2=Dawber|first2=R P R|date=April 2001|title=The history of cryosurgery|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1281398/|journal=Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine|volume=94|issue=4|pages=196–201|issn=0141-0768|pmc=1281398|pmid=11317629}}</ref>
|-
| 1947 || cryogenics || social || || Polge, Smith, Parkes || {{W|Robert Ettinger}}, while in the hospital for his battle wounds, discovers {{W|Jean Rostand}} research in {{W|cryogenics}}.<ref name="CITimeline">{{Cite web|url=https://www.cryonics.org/ci-landing/history-timeline/|title=History/Timeline {{!}} Cryonics Institute|website=www.cryonics.org|access-date=2019-01-21}}</ref>
|-
| 1948 || cryobiology || technological development || vitrification || || Polge, Smith, and Parkes discover the cryoprotective effects of glycerol and publish a paper documenting the successful hatching of chicks from fowl sperm cryopreserved with glycerol.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=POLGE|first=C.|date=June 1951|title=Functional Survival of Fowl Spermatozoa after Freezing at −79° C.|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/167949b0|journal=Nature|volume=167|issue=4258|pages=949–950|doi=10.1038/167949b0|issn=0028-0836}}</ref>
|-
| 1948-03 || cryonics || social || fiction || {{W|Robert Ettinger}} || {{W|Robert Ettinger}} publishes the story [http://translatedby.com/you/the-penultimate-trump/original/ The Penultimate Trump], in which the explicit idea of cryopreservation of legally dead people for future repair is promulgated. This story was written in 1947.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.isfdb.org/cgi-bin/title.cgi?80014|title=Title: The Penultimate Trump|website=www.isfdb.org|access-date=2019-01-21}}</ref>
|-
| 1950-05 || cryobiology || technological development || vitrification || Luyet, Gonzales || Luyet and Gonzales achieve successful vitrification of chicken embryo hearts using ethylene glycol.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Gonzales|first=F.|last2=Luyet|first2=B.|date=May 1950|title=Resumption of heart-beat in chick embryo frozen in liquid nitrogen|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15426631|journal=Biodynamica|volume=7|issue=126-128|pages=1–5|issn=0006-3010|pmid=15426631}}</ref>
|-
| 1954-06 || suspended animation || science || nature || Smith et al. || Smith et al., demonstrate the ability of golden hamsters to recover and survive long term following the freezing of ~60% of the water in their brains and the survival a full recovery of hamsters cooled to -5°C.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Parkes|first=A. S.|last2=Lovelock|first2=J. E.|last3=Smith|first3=A. U.|date=June 1954|title=Resuscitation of Hamsters after Supercooling or Partial Crystallization at Body Temperatures Below 0° C.|url=https://www.nature.com/articles/1731136a0|journal=Nature|language=en|volume=173|issue=4415|pages=1136–1137|doi=10.1038/1731136a0|issn=1476-4687}}</ref>
|-
| 1959-05 || cryobiology || technological development || vitrification || Lovelock, Bishop || Lovelock and Bishop discover the cryoprotective properties of dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO). Me2SO would subsequently become a mainstay of most experimental vitrification solutions used in organ preservation.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=LOVELOCK|first=J. E.|last2=BISHOP|first2=M. W. H.|date=May 1959|title=Prevention of Freezing Damage to Living Cells by Dimethyl Sulphoxide|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/1831394a0|journal=Nature|volume=183|issue=4672|pages=1394–1395|doi=10.1038/1831394a0|issn=0028-0836}}</ref>
|-
| 1960 || cryonics || social || communication || {{W|Robert Ettinger}} || {{W|Robert Ettinger}} expected other scientists to advocate for cryonics. Given that this still hasn't happened, Ettinger finally makes the scientific case for cryonics. He sends this to approximately 200 people whom he selected from ''Who's Who in America'', but got little response.<ref name="regis87"/>
|-
| 1960s || cryonics || organization || founding || Cryo-Care Equipment Corporation || Cryo-Care Equipment Corporation<ref group=note>not the same as the California organization with similar name</ref> in [[wikipedia:Phoenix, Arizona|Phoenix, Arizona]] is founded by Ed Hope. These freezings would be advertised as being for cosmetic purposes rather than eventual reanimation, though the cryonics issue would naturally arise.<ref group=note>Cryo-Care would not use cryoprotectants or perfusion with its patients but would only do straight freezes to liquid nitrogen temperature.</ref><ref name="SuspensionFailures"/>
|-
| 1961 || cryobiology || technological development || cryoprotection || Lovelock, Bishop || By 1961 the work of Lovelock and Bishop is rapidly extended to other animal sperm, including human sperm, and glycerol is also shown to be an effective cryoprotectant for both red cells and many nucleated mammalian cells.<ref>{{Cite book|url=http://worldcat.org/oclc/1027485685|title=Biological effects of freezing and supercooling|last=Ursula|first=Smith, Audrey|oclc=1027485685}}</ref>
|-
| 1962 || reanimatology || science || || Vladimir A. Negovsky || Vladimir A. Negovsky publishes his landmark book, "Resuscitation and Artificial Hypothermia".<ref>{{Cite book|title=Resuscitation and Artificial Hypothermia (USSR)|last=Negovsky|first=Vladimir|publisher=Consultants Bureau|year=1962|isbn=|location=New York|pages=}}</ref><ref name="reanimatology"/>
|-
| 1962 || cryonics || social || book || Evan Cooper || Evan Cooper publishes "Immortality: Physically, Scientifically, Now" under the pseudonym Nathan Duhring.<ref name="cryonics9208">{{Cite journal|last=Perry|first=Michael|date=August 1992|title=Unity and Disunity in Cryonics|url=https://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics9208.txt|journal=Cryonics|volume=13|issue=145|pages=5|via=}}</ref> He coins the immortal "freeze, wait, reanimate" slogan.<ref name="cryonet23124">{{Cite web|url=http://www.cryonet.org/cgi-bin/dsp.cgi?msg=23124|title=Ev Cooper|website=www.cryonet.org|access-date=2019-01-21}}</ref><ref name="EvCooperClassic">{{Cite web|url=https://www.biostasis.com/ev-coopers-cryonics-classic-published-online/|title=Ev Cooper's cryonics classic published online – Biostasis|language=en-US|access-date=2019-01-21}}</ref>
|-
| 1962 || cryonics || futurism || || {{W|Robert Ettinger}} || Ettinger privately publishes a preliminary version of ''The Prospect of Immortality'', in which he makes the case for cryonics.<ref name="regis87"/>
|-
| 1962 || cryonics || social || meeting || || About 20 people attend the first informal cryonics meeting.<ref name="cryonics9208"/>
|-
| 1962 || cryonics || social || group || Evan Cooper || After the first cryonics meeting, Cooper and a few other individuals form the Immortality Communication Exchange (ICE), an informal, "special-interest group" for the "freeze and wait" idea that would later be known as cryonics.<ref name="cryonics9208"/>
|-
| 1964 || cryonics || organization || founding || {{W|Life Extension Society}} || During the conference, the {{W|Life Extension Society}}, the first cryonics organization, is founded by Evan Cooper. It would be situated in Washington, D.C.<ref name="EvCooperClassic"/>
|-
| 1963-12-29 || cryonics || social || conference || || The first cryonics conference happens.<ref name="cryonics9208"/><ref name="firstNewsletter">{{Cite web|url=http://www.evidencebasedcryonics.org/2011/01/19/the-first-cryonics-newsletter/|title=The First Cryonics Newsletter|last=Perry|first=Mike|date=2011-01-19|website=Evidence Based Cryonics|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161126064131/http://www.evidencebasedcryonics.org/2011/01/19/the-first-cryonics-newsletter/|archive-date=2016-11-26|dead-url=|access-date=}}</ref>
|-
| 1964 || cryonics || futurism || || {{W|Robert Ettinger}} || {{W|Robert Ettinger}}'s ''The Prospect of Immortality'' finally attracts the attention of a major publisher, Doubleday, which sends a copy to [[wikipedia:Isaac Asimov|Isaac Asimov]]; Asimov says that the science behind cryonics is sound, so the book is published. The book becomes a selection of the Book of the Month Club and is published in nine languages. Ettinger becomes a media celebrity, discussed in many periodicals, television shows, and radio programs.<ref name="regis87"/>
|-
| 1964-01 || cryonics || social || newsletter || Life Extension Society || The first issue of the {{W|Life Extension Society}} Newsletter is published.<ref name="cryonics9208"/><ref name="firstNewsletter"/>
|-
| 1965 || cryonics || social || || Karl Werner || Karl Werner coins the word "{{W|cryonics}}".<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory">{{Cite web|url=http://www.benbest.com/cryonics/history.html|title=A HISTORY OF CRYONICS|website=www.benbest.com|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 1965 || cryonics || organization || founding || Cryonics Society of New York || The Cryonics Society of New York (CSNY) is founded by {{W|Saul Kent}}, {{W|Curtis Henderson}} and Karl Werner. CSNY is a non-profit organization contracting with the for-profit organization Cryospan for cryonics freezing and storage.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/><ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.theguardian.com/science/2009/nov/07/cryonics-british-dads-army|title=The Dad's Army of British cryonics|last=Hattenstone|first=Simon|date=2009-11-07|work=The Guardian|access-date=2019-01-22|language=en-GB|issn=0261-3077}}</ref>
|-
| 1965-03 || cryobiology || technological development || cryoprotection || James Farrant || James Farrant shows that viable ice-free cryopreservation of a highly organized tissue is possible and that eliminating ice formation, even at -79 °C, eliminates virtually all of the extensive mechanical (histological) and ultrastructural disruption observed with conventional cryoprotection and freezing of complex tissues.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=FARRANT|first=J.|date=March 1965|title=Mechanism of Cell Damage During Freezing and Thawing and its Prevention|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/2051284a0|journal=Nature|volume=205|issue=4978|pages=1284–1287|doi=10.1038/2051284a0|issn=0028-0836}}</ref>
|-
| 1965-05-20 || cryonics || || || {{W|Life Extension Society}} || Wilma Jean McLaughlin of Springfield, Ohio dies from heart and circulatory problems. Ev Cooper would fill a report the following day "The woman who almost became the first person frozen for a possible reanimation in the future died yesterday." The attempt to freeze her is abandoned. While reports on this event would vary, many would mention the lack of preparation, cooperation from various people, and explicit consent as obstacles to the freezing.<ref name="BedfordSuspension">{{Cite web|url=https://alcor.org/Library/html/BedfordSuspension.html|title=The First Cryonic Suspension|website=alcor.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 1965-06 || cryonics || organization || milestone || {{W|Life Extension Society}} || The {{W|Life Extension Society}} offers to freeze the first person for free: "The {{W|Life Extension Society}} now has primitive facilities for emergency short term freezing and storing our friend the large homeotherm (man). LES offers to freeze free of charge the first person desirous and in need of cryogenic suspension." No one would take them on their offer.<ref name="BedfordSuspension"/>
|-
| 1966 || cryonics || organization || founding || Immortalist Soceity || The Cryonics Society of Michigan (later renamed the Cryonics Association, and then, in 1985, the {{W|Immortalist Society}}) is founded with Ettinger elected as its president.<ref name="CorpSummary">{{Cite web|url=https://cofs.lara.state.mi.us/CorpWeb/CorpSearch/CorpSummary.aspx?ID=800832595&SEARCH_TYPE=1|title=Search Summary State of Michigan Corporations Division|website=cofs.lara.state.mi.us|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 1966 || cryonics || organization || founding || Cryonics Society of California || The Cryonics Society of California (CSC) is founded by Robert Nelson. CSC is a non-profit organization contracting with the for-profit organization Cryonic Interment for cryonics freezing and storage. Cryonics Interment would later be renamed General Fluidics by Robert Nelson and Marshal Neel.<ref name="SuspensionFailures"/><ref name="CorpSummary"/>
|-
| 1966 || cryobiology || science || fracturing || Kroener and Luyet || Kroener and Luyet observe fracturing in vitrified glycerol solutions.<ref name="IntermediateTemperatureStorage">{{Cite web|url=https://alcor.org/Library/html/IntermediateTemperatureStorage.html|title=Systems for Intermediate Temperature Storage for Fracture Reduction and Avoidance|website=alcor.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Kroener|first=C.|last2=Luyet|first2=B.|date=1966|title=Formation of cracks during the vitrification of glycerol solutions and disappearance of the cracks during rewarming|url=|journal=Biodynamica|volume=10|pages=47-52|via=}}</ref>
|-
| 1966-04-22 || cryonics || || milestone || Cryo-Care Equipment Corporation || An elderly woman (probably from Los Angeles{{snd}}never identified) who has been embalmed for two months and maintained slightly above-freezing temperature is straight-frozen.<ref name="BedfordSuspension"/> There is some thought of the cryonics premise of eventual reanimation, but within a year she would be thawed and buried by relatives.<ref>{{Cite book|title=We Froze the First Man|last=F. Nelson|first=Robert|last2=Stanley|first2=Sandra|publisher=Dell|year=1968|isbn=|location=New York|pages=17-20}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Kraver|first=Ted|date=March 1989|title=Notes on the First Human Freezing|url=|journal=Cryonics|volume=|pages=11-21|via=}}</ref>
|-
| 1966-10-15 || cryonics || science || || Adachi, et al. || Recovery of brain electrical activity after freezing to −20 °C is demonstrated.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Adachi|first=C.|last2=Kito|first2=K.|last3=Suda|first3=I.|date=1966-10-15|title=Viability of Long Term Frozen Cat Brain In Vitro|url=https://www.nature.com/articles/212268a0|journal=Nature|language=en|volume=212|issue=5059|pages=268–270|doi=10.1038/212268a0|issn=1476-4687}}</ref>
|-
| 1967-01-12 || cryonics || technological adoption || cryonics || Cryonics Society of California || {{W|James Bedford}} is the first human to be cryopreserved.

The freezing is carried out by affiliates of the newly-formed Cryonics Society of California: {{W|Robert Prehoda}}, author and cryobiological researcher; Dante Brunol, physician and biophysicist; and Robert Nelson, President of the Society. Also assisting is Bedford's physician, Renault Able.

6 days later, relatives would move Bedford to the Cryo-Care facility in Phoenix. Later, his son would store him, and finally, on September 22, 1987, Bedford would be moved to Alcor.<ref name="BedfordSuspension"/><ref name="AlcorCase">{{Cite web|url=https://alcor.org/cases.html|title=Alcor Cases|website=alcor.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1997/01/12/magazine/still-frozen-after-all-these-years.html|title=Still Frozen After All These Years|date=1997-01-12|work=The New York Times|access-date=2019-02-15|language=en-US|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
|-
| 1968 || cryonics || organization || status || Cryo-Care Equipment Corporation || Ed Hope closes Cryo-Care Equipment Corporation after seeing it wouldn't turn a profit. The remaining patients are turned over to other organizations or to relatives.<ref name="SuspensionFailures">{{Cite web|url=https://www.alcor.org/Library/html/suspensionfailures.html|title=Suspension Failures - Lessons from the Early Days|website=www.alcor.org|access-date=2019-01-21}}</ref>
|-
| 1968 || cryobiology || technological development || cryoprotection || || Dog kidneys are cryopreserved using Farrant's technique resulting in no ice formation and with excellent structural preservation, and the ability to tolerate reperfusion with blood in the animal without immediate failure.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Kemp|first=E.|last2=Clark|first2=P. B.|last3=Anderson|first3=C. K.|last4=Laursen|first4=T.|last5=Parsons|first5=F. M.|date=1968|title=Low temperature preservation of mammalian kidneys|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4893380|journal=Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology|volume=2|issue=3|pages=183–190|issn=0036-5599|pmid=4893380}}</ref>
|-
| 1968-02 || reanimatology || science || || Ames, et al. || Ames, et al., discover the cerebral no-re-flow phenomenon which prevents adequate reperfusion of the brain after ~10 minutes of global cerebral ischemia and identifies this as the likely cause of failure to achieve brain resuscitation after 6-10 minutes of normothermic ischemia rather than the acute death of brain cells as the supposed cause.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Ames|first=A.|last2=Wright|first2=R. L.|last3=Kowada|first3=M.|last4=Thurston|first4=J. M.|last5=Majno|first5=G.|date=Feb 1968|title=Cerebral ischemia. II. The no-reflow phenomenon.|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2013326/|journal=The American Journal of Pathology|volume=52|issue=2|pages=437–453|issn=0002-9440|pmc=2013326|pmid=5635861}}</ref>
|-
| 1969 || cryonics || organization || founding || {{W|American Cryonics Society}} || The Bay Area Cryonics Society is founded by two physicians, the prominent allergist and editor of [[wikipedia:Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology|Annals of Allergy]], Dr. M. Coleman Harris, and Dr. Grace Talbot. It would be renamed to the {{W|American Cryonics Society}} in 1985.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://businesssearch.sos.ca.gov/CBS/SearchResults?SearchType=NUMBER&SearchCriteria=C0587199|title=Business Search - Business Entities - Business Programs {{!}} California Secretary of State|website=businesssearch.sos.ca.gov|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.americancryonics.org/|title=American Cryonics Society - Human Cryopreservation Services for the 21st Century|website=www.americancryonics.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 1969 || cryonics || social || || Evan Cooper || Cooper ends his involvement in cryonics. He feels overloaded and burned-out, and thinks cryonics is not going to be a viable option for himself for practical (political, social, economic) reasons and that he is not going to spend the time he had left trying to obtain the impossible. He is also concerned with the commercial and political aspects within cryonics.<ref name="cryonet23124"/>
|-
| 1969-04-11 || cryonics || futurism || || Jerome White || Jerome White, one of the founders of the Bay Area Cryonics Society, proposes the use of specially engineered viruses to effect repair of cells that are damaged by freezing and compromised by aging.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=White|first=J. B.|date=1969-04-11|title=Viral Induced Repair of Damaged Neurons with Preservation of Long-Term Information Content,|url=https://alcor.org/Library/pdfs/White1969.pdf|journal=Second Annual Cryonics Conference|volume=|pages=|via=|location=Ann Arbor, Michigan}}</ref>
|-
| 1970 || cryonics || science || || Hossmann, Sato || Hossmann and Sato demonstrate that, contrary to decades of biomedical dogma, it is possible to restore robust electrical activity and demonstrate evoked potentials in cat brains that had been subjected to 1 hour of normothermic ischemia. This marks the beginning of the debunking of 3-6 minute limit on brain viability under conditions of normothermic ischemia. It also shows that brain cells do not undergo autolysis after ~10 minutes of normothermic ischemia, a view that was commonly held by both many physicians and neurologists prior to this time.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Hossmann|first=K. -A.|last2=Sato|first2=K.|date=1970|title=The effect of ischemia on sensorimotor cortex of cat|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf00316134|journal=Zeitschrift für Neurologie|volume=198|issue=1|pages=33–45|doi=10.1007/bf00316134|issn=0340-5354}}</ref>
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| 1970 || cryonics || organization || founding || Cryonics Society of America || The Cryonics Society of America (CSA) is incorporated.

The purpose of the CSA is to establish “standards and practices” of operations for all of the cryonics societies, to mandate validation of human freezing by requiring the submission of photographic proof along with a death certificate, and a description of the procedure used and the location where the patient was being stored (essentially establishing a registry of cryonics patients). It is also created to allow for the creation of a Scientific Advisory Board which would, in fact, formed in March of 1968. CSA itself never got off the ground due to noncompliance with the "standards and practices" by the Cryonics Society of California.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://appext20.dos.ny.gov/corp_public/CORPSEARCH.ENTITY_INFORMATION?p_token=7361B53D067A654A76A77C3D820968CE25ADADB428A2F2B69B4B1B434D5CDC52D3EF5B4A61760545D791DA3D1A8E4D7F&p_nameid=4A504BB578548E78&p_corpid=A70384D2E44B2C90&p_captcha=11476&p_captcha_check=7361B53D067A654A76A77C3D820968CE25ADADB428A2F2B69B4B1B434D5CDC527922A9872C775310E6F079882FB316C3&p_entity_name=cryonics%20society&p_name_type=A&p_search_type=BEGINS&p_srch_results_page=0|title=Informational Message|website=appext20.dos.ny.gov|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
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| 1970-05-15 || cryonics || organization || status || Cryonics Society of California || Nelson moves the 4 patients from the Cryonics Society of California into an underground vault he recently had designed and built under the aegis of Cryonics Interment. The vault is located in Oakwood Cemetery in {{W|Chatsworth, Los Angeles}}.<ref name="SuspensionFailures"/>
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| 1970-05-22 || cryobiology || science || theory || Peter Mazur || Peter Mazur publishes his “two-factor theory” elucidating the basic mechanisms of freezing damage to living cells: solution effects injury and/or intracellular freezing. This insight facilitates a more rational design of freezing and thawing protocols allowing the development of freezing techniques for animal embryos.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Mazur|first=P.|date=1970-05-22|title=Cryobiology: the freezing of biological systems|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5462399|journal=Science (New York, N.Y.)|volume=168|issue=3934|pages=939–949|issn=0036-8075|pmid=5462399}}</ref>
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| 1971 || resuscitation || science || || Hossmann || Hossmann demonstrates the possible recovery of the cat brain after complete ischemia for 1 hour. The field of cerebral resuscitation is born.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Hossmann|first=K.-A.|last2=Lechtape-Grüter|first2=H.|date=1971|title=Blood Flow and Recovery of the Cat Brain after Complete Ischemia for 1 Hour|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000114515|journal=European Neurology|volume=6|issue=1-6|pages=318–322|doi=10.1159/000114515|issn=0014-3022}}</ref>

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| 1971 || cryonics || futurism || || Martin || Cryonics by neuropreservation is proposed.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Martin|first=George M.|date=1971|title=On Immortality: An Interim Solution|url=https://muse.jhu.edu/article/404700/summary|journal=Perspectives in Biology and Medicine|language=en|volume=14|issue=2|pages=339–340|doi=10.1353/pbm.1971.0015|issn=1529-8795}}</ref>
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| 1971-08 || cryonics || social || journal || Manrise Technical Review || Fred and Linda Chamberlain begin publishing a bi-monthly technical journal, Manrise Technical Review and in 1972 they publish the first comprehensive technical manual of human cryopreservation procedures. This marks the beginning of a biomedically informed and rigorously scientific approach to cryonics. In this manual, the Chamberlains suggest application of the Farrant technique to cryonics patients.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Chamberlain|first=FR|last2=Chamberlain|first2=LL|date=1972|title=Instructions for the Induction of Solid State Hypothermia|url=|journal=Manrise Corporation|location=La Canada, CA|volume=|pages=|via=}}</ref>
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| 1971 (end of) - 1979-04 || cryonics || organization || status || Cryonics Society of California || 9 patients are thawed by the Cryonics Society of California. This would become known as the Chatsworth Scandal because the patients were stored in an underground vault at a cemetery in Chatsworth.<ref name="SuspensionFailures"/>
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| 1972 || cryonics || technological adoption || || Trans Time || A collaborative working group led by Trans Time President Art Quaife and consisting of Gregory Fahy, Peter Gouras, M.D., Fred, and Linda Chamberlain and Mike Darwin begin working on a standardized protocol for the cryoprotection of cryonics patients. Quaife publishes the first results of this effort, a modification of Collins’ organ preservation solution for use as the carrier solution for Me2SO during cryoprotective perfusion. This marks the first attempt at creating a standardized, science-based human cryopreservation protocol.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Quaife|first=A.|date=1972|title=Recommended modification to Collins’ solution for use as the base perfusate for inducing SSH|url=|journal=Manrise Technical Review|volume=2|pages=3-9|via=}}</ref>
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| 1972 || cryonics || organization || founding || Trans Time || Trans Time, Inc., (TT) a cryonics service provider, is founded by Art Quaife, along with John Day, Paul Segall and other cryonicists. It is a for-profit organization. It's initially a perfusion service-provider for the Bay Area Cryonics Society. They buy the perfusion equipment from Manrise Corporation.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/> They would be the first to undertake the effort of clarifying legal issues around cryonics, and to actively market cryonics.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/> The name "Trans Time" is inspired by Trans World Airlines, a prominent airline.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://hpluspedia.org/wiki/History_of_cryonics#Chatsworth_Scandal|title=History of cryonics - H+Pedia|website=hpluspedia.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://businesssearch.sos.ca.gov/CBS/SearchResults?SearchType=NUMBER&SearchCriteria=C0647293|title=Business Search - Business Entities - Business Programs {{!}} California Secretary of State|website=businesssearch.sos.ca.gov|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
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| 1972 || cryonics || || || {{W|Mike Darwin}} || {{W|Mike Darwin}} is the first full-time cryonics researcher. He would work at Alcor for a year.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistoryImmortalist">{{Cite web|url=http://www.cryonics.org/immortalist/november08/History.pdf|title=A History of Cryonics|last=Best|first=Ben|date=2008-11-08|website=Cryonics Institute|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130628112826/http://www.cryonics.org/immortalist/november08/History.pdf|archive-date=2013-06-28|dead-url=|access-date=}}</ref>
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| 1972-01-12 || suspended animation || technological adoption || || Klebanoff || Klebanoff reports survival of the first human after blood washout and induction of profound hypothermia with full recovery of health and normal mentation, Air Force Seargent Tor Olsen who, as of 2018, would still be alive and well.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Klebanoff|first=G.|last2=Hollander|first2=D.|last3=Cosimi|first3=A. B.|last4=Stanford|first4=W.|last5=Kemmerer|first5=W. T.|date=January 1972|title=Asanguineous hypothermic total body perfusion (TBW) in the treatment of stage IV hepatic coma|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5058015|journal=The Journal of Surgical Research|volume=12|issue=1|pages=1–7|issn=0022-4804|pmid=5058015}}</ref>
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| 1972-02-23 || cryonics || organization || founding || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || The {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}}, a cryonics service provider, is founded by {{W|Fred and Linda Chamberlain}} in the State of California. The organization is named after a star in the Big Dipper used in ancient times as a test of visual acuity. It would serve as a response team for the Cryonics Society of California. Alcor is initially incorporated as the Alcor Society for Solid State Hypothermia, but would change its name to the "{{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}}" in 1977.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://businesssearch.sos.ca.gov/CBS/SearchResults?SearchType=NUMBER&SearchCriteria=C0645886|title=Business Search - Business Entities - Business Programs {{!}} California Secretary of State|website=businesssearch.sos.ca.gov|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
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| 1973-08 || cryobiology || technological development || cryoprotection, re-warming || Hamilton, Lehr || Hamilton and Lehr demonstrate successful preservation of canine small intestine allografts using Me2SO as the cryoprotectant, and cooling and warming using vascular perfusion with helium gas suggesting that even controlled cooling and emptying of the vasculature's fluid/ice are beneficial in organ freezing. The organ is successfully transplanted.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=LaRossa|first=D.|last2=Hamilton|first2=R.|last3=Ketterer|first3=F.|last4=Lehr|first4=H. B.|date=August 1973|title=Preservation of structure and function in canine small intestinal autografts after freezing|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4722678|journal=Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery|volume=52|issue=2|pages=174–177|issn=0032-1052|pmid=4722678}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.journalofsurgicalresearch.com/action/captchaChallenge?redirectUri=%2Farticle%2F0022-4804%2873%2990033-4%2Fpdf|title=Journal of Surgical Research|website=www.journalofsurgicalresearch.com|doi=10.1016/0022-4804(73)90033-4|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
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| 1973-03 || cryonics || science || || Cryonics Society of New York || Fahy and Darwin publish the first technical case report documenting the procedures, problems, and responses of a human patient (Clara Dostal) to cryoprotective perfusion and freezing. The report is severely critical of the way cryonics patients are being treated and suggests many reform and improvements.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Federowicz|first=MD|date=1973|title=Perfusion and freezing of a 60-year-old woman|url=http://www.lifepact.com/images/MTRV3N1.pdf|journal=Manrise Technical Review|volume=3(1)|pages=9-32|access-date=2010-08-31|via=}}</ref>
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| 1974 || cryonics || organization || status || Trans Time || Due to the closure of the storage facility in New York, the Bay Area Cryonics Society and the {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} change their plan to preserve their patients to the Trans Time facility instead of the New York one, and would do so until the 1980s.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/>
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| 1974 || cryonics || science || || Suda, et al. || Partial recovery of brain electrical activity after 7 years of frozen storage is demonstrated.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Suda|first=Isamu|last2=Kito|first2=Kyoko|last3=Adachi|first3=Chizuko|date=1974-04-26|title=Bioelectric discharges of isolated cat brain after revival from years of frozen storage|url=http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0006899374902637|journal=Brain Research|volume=70|issue=3|pages=527–531|doi=10.1016/0006-8993(74)90263-7|issn=0006-8993}}</ref>
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| 1974 || cryonics || organization || status || Cryonics Society of New York || {{W|Curtis Henderson}}, who has been maintaining three cryonics patients for the Cryonics Society of New York, is told by the New York Department of Public Health that he must close down his cryonics facility. The three cryonics patients are returned to their families, and would later be thawed.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/>
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| 1975-07 || suspended animation || technological development || || Gerald Klebanoff || Gerald Klebanoff demonstrates the recovery of dogs from total blood washout and profound hypothermia with no neurological deficit using a defined asanguineous solution. Klebanoff documents the critical importance of adequate amounts of colloid in the perfusate to prevent death from pulmonary edema.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Haff|first=R. C.|last2=Klebanoff|first2=G.|last3=Brown|first3=B. G.|last4=Koreski|first4=W. R.|date=July 1975|title=Asanguineous hypothermic perfusion as a means of total organism preservation|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1142760|journal=The Journal of Surgical Research|volume=19|issue=1|pages=13–19|issn=0022-4804|pmid=1142760}}</ref>
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| 1976 || cryonics || Technological development || || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || Manrise Corporation provides initial funding to Alcor for cryonics research.
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| 1976-04-28 || cryonics || organization || founding || {{W|Cryonics Institute}} || Cryonics Institute is founded, and starts offering cryonics services: preparation, cooling, and long term storage.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://cofs.lara.state.mi.us/CorpWeb/CorpSearch/CorpSummary.aspx?ID=800830993&SEARCH_TYPE=1|title=Search Summary State of Michigan Corporations Division|website=cofs.lara.state.mi.us|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
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| 1976-07-16 || cryonics || technological adoption || || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || Alcor carries out the first human cryopreservation where cardiopulmonary support is initiated immediately post pronouncement and is continued until the patient is cooled to 15°C (~400 minutes) and where a scientifically designed custom perfusion machine with heat exchanger was used to carry out cryoprotective perfusion (as opposed to an embalming pump) with control over flow, pressure and temperature and incorporating a bubble trap was used. This is also the first neurocryopreservation (head only) patient. The patient was the father of Fred Chamberlain, the co-founder of the organization.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Chamberlain|first=FRC|last2=Chamberlain|first2=LLC|date=July 16-17, 1976|title=Alcor patient A-1001 Case Notes|url=|journal=Alcor Foundation|volume=|pages=|via=}}</ref><ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistoryImmortalist"/>
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| 1977 || cryonics || organization || founding || Institute for Advanced Biological Studies || The Institute for Advanced Biological Studies (IABS) is incorporated by Steve Bridge. IABS is a nonprofit research startup.<ref name="IABS">{{Cite journal|last=|first=|date=1981-03-08|title=The Newsletter of The Institute For Advanced Biological Studies, Inc.|url=https://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics8103.txt|journal=Cryonics|volume=|pages=|via=}}</ref>
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| 1977 || cryonics || organization || founding || Soma, Inc. || Soma, Inc. is incorporated. Soma is intended as a for-profit organization to provide cryopreservation and human storage services. Its president is {{W|Mike Darwin}}.
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| 1977 || cryonics || organization || milestone || {{W|Cryonics Institute}} || The Cryonics Institute preserves its first patient, Rhea Ettinger. She would be preserved in dry ice for 10 years, and then switch to liquid nitrogen.
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| 1977(?) - 1986 || cryonics || social || festival || Life Extension Festival || The Life Extension Festival is run by {{W|Fred and Linda Chamberlain}}.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=|first=|date=July 1983|title=Report on the Lake Tahoe Life Extension Festival|url=https://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics8307.txt|journal=Cryonics|volume=|issue=36|pages=7-13|via=}}</ref>
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| 1977-07 || cryonics || futurism || || {{W|Mike Darwin}} || Darwin is the first to conceive of the idea of an autonomous, bioengineered cell repair and replacement device to reverse cryo-injury and aging, which he called the “anabolocyte”.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Darwin|first=MG|date=July 1977|title=The anabolocyte: a biological approach to repairing cryoinjury|url=http://www.nanomedicine.com/NMI/1.3.2.1.htm|journal=Life Extension Magazine: A Journal of the Life Extension Sciences|volume=1|pages=|via=}}</ref>
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| 1978 || cryonics || organization || founding || Cryovita Laboratories || Cryovita Laboratories is founded by {{W|Jerry Leaf}}<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://businesssearch.sos.ca.gov/CBS/SearchResults?SearchType=NUMBER&SearchCriteria=C0849138|title=Business Search - Business Entities - Business Programs {{!}} California Secretary of State|website=businesssearch.sos.ca.gov|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>, who had been teaching surgery at the {{W|University of California, Los Angeles}}. Cryovita is a for-profit organization which would provide cryopreservation services for Alcor and Trans Time in the 1980s.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/>
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| 1978-07 || cryonics || technological adoption || || Cryovita Laboratories || Jerry Leaf of Cryovita Laboratories introduces the principles and equipment of extracorporeal medicine into cryonics with the cryopreservation of Samuel Berkowitz. This included the use of the heart-lung machine, closed-circuit perfusion, 40µ arterial filtration, and sterile technique and Universal Precautions to protect the staff caring for the patient:<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Leaf|first=JD|date=March-April 1979|title=Cryonic Suspension of Sam Berkowitz,|url=|journal=Long Life Magazine|volume=|pages=30-35|via=}}</ref>
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| 1979 || cryonics || || || Institute for Advanced Biological Studies || Darwin et al., place the first long term storage marker animal into cryopreservation at the Institute for Advanced Biological Studies in Indianapolis, IN, using glycerol cryoprotection. This animal’s cephalon was subsequently transferred to Alcor where it remains in cryopreservation through the present. This was also the first cryopreservation of a companion animal, which was M. Darwin’s childhood dog “Mitzi”.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Darwin|first=M.|date=1979|title=Glycerol perfusion and extended storage of the canine central nervous system|url=|journal=Institute for Advanced Biological Studies, Inc|location=Indpls, IN|volume=|pages=|via=}}</ref>
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| 1979 || cryonics || || milestone || Institute for Advanced Biological Studies || The Institute for Advanced Biological Studies (IABS) puts Mitzi into cryopreservation, the first companion animal to receive the procedure. Alcor would later store the animal starting in 1982.
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| 1980 || cryonics || technological development || || Leaf, et al. || Leaf et al., carry out the first closed circuit perfusions with stepped increases in cryoprotectant concentration under well-controlled conditions with physiological and biochemical monitoring of the patients in real-time. This is also the first case where remote standby and stabilization using continuous heart-lung resuscitator support is carried out.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Leaf|first=JD|last2=Federowicz|first2=Hixon|last3=H.|first3=|date=1985|title=Case report: two consecutive suspensions, a comparative study in experimental human suspended animation|url=http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereport8511.html|journal=Cryonics|volume=6(11)|pages=13-38|via=}}</ref>
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| 1980 || cryonics || organization || founding || Life Extension Foundation || The Life Extension Foundation (LEF) is founded. It would later help fund various cryonics organizations, notably Alcor, {{W|21st Century Medicine}}, Critical Care Research, and {{W|Suspended Animation, Inc}}.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/>
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| 1980 || cryonics || organization || founding || Institute for Cryobiological Extension || The Institute for Cryobiological Extension is founded, and would soon publish its first volume of ICE Proceedings.
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| 1981 || cryonics || futurism || || {{W|K. Eric Drexler}} || The first paper suggesting that nanotechnology could reverse freezing injury is published.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Drexler|first=K. Eric|date=1981-09-01|title=Molecular engineering: An approach to the development of general capabilities for molecular manipulation|url=https://www.pnas.org/content/78/9/5275|journal=Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences|language=en|volume=78|issue=9|pages=5275–5278|doi=10.1073/pnas.78.9.5275|issn=0027-8424|pmid=16593078}}</ref>
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| 1981 || cryonics || organization || status || Cryovita Laboratories || Soma, Inc. merges with Cryovita Laboratories.
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| 1981-03 || cryonics || social || journal || Darwin, Bridge || Michael Darwin and Stephen Bridge begin publication of the monthly magazine Cryonics which, for the next 10 years, would be the principal vehicle for publication of technical and scientific papers in cryonics.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.alcor.org/CryonicsMagazine/archive.html|title=Cryonics Magazine|website=www.alcor.org|access-date=2019-02-01}}</ref>
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| 1982 || cryobiology || science || toxicity || [[wikipedia:Greg Fahy|Fahy]], et al. || Fahy, et al., publish papers which extensively documents the role of cryoprotectant toxicity as a barrier to tissue and organ cryopreservation suggest possible molecular mechanisms.<ref>{{Citation|last=Fahy|first=G. M.|title=Prospects for organ preservation by vitrification|date=1982|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-6267-8_60|work=Organ Preservation|pages=399–404|publisher=Springer Netherlands|isbn=9789401162692|access-date=2019-02-01|last2=Hirsch|first2=A.}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Fahy|first=Gregory M.|last2=Lilley|first2=Terence H.|last3=Linsdell|first3=Helen|last4=Douglas|first4=Mary St.John|last5=Meryman|first5=Harold T.|date=June 1990|title=Cryoprotectant toxicity and cryoprotectant toxicity reduction: In search of molecular mechanisms|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0011-2240(90)90025-y|journal=Cryobiology|volume=27|issue=3|pages=247–268|doi=10.1016/0011-2240(90)90025-y|issn=0011-2240}}</ref>
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| 1982 || cryonics || organization || milestone || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || Alcor begins storing its own patients. It was previously storing its patients with Trans Time, Inc.
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| 1982 || cryonics || organization || status || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || The Institute for Advanced Biological Studies merges with Alcor.
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| 1982-09-15 || cryonics || social || bylaws || {{W|Society for Cryobiology}} || The {{W|Society for Cryobiology}} adopts new bylaws denying membership to organizations or individuals supporting cryonics.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://blog.ciphergoth.org/blog/2010/02/12/society-for-cryobiology-statements-on-cryonic/|title=Paul Crowley's Blog - Society for Cryobiology statements on cryonics|website=blog.ciphergoth.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.alcor.org/Library/html/coldwar.html|title=Cold War: The Conflict Between Cryonicists and Cryobiologists|website=www.alcor.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
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| 1983-01 || cryonics || technological development || || [[wikipedia:Mike Darwin|Darwin]], et al. || Darwin, et al. carry out an extensive study to evaluate the efficacy of a human cryopreservation protocol on whole mammals (rabbits). This research discloses extensive ultrastructural disruption of the brain even when freezing in the presence of 3 M glycerol is employed. This work also documents the extremely adverse effects of prolonged cold ischemia on cryoprotective perfusion.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.cryonet.org/cgi-bin/dsp.cgi?msg=1389|title=Cryoprotective perfusion and freezing of the ischemic and nonischemic cat|last=Darwin|first=M|last2=Leaf|first2=JD|date=|website=|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.cryonet.org/cgi-bin/dsp.cgi?msg=1390|title=CRYONICS: Freezing Damage (Darwin) Part 2|website=www.cryonet.org|access-date=2019-02-01}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.cryonet.org/cgi-bin/dsp.cgi?msg=1391|title=CRYONICS: Freezing Damage (Darwin) Part 3|website=www.cryonet.org|access-date=2019-02-01}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.cryonet.org/cgi-bin/dsp.cgi?msg=1392|title=CRYONICS: Freezing Damage (Darwin) Part 4|website=www.cryonet.org|access-date=2019-02-01}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Federowicz|first=MG|last2=Leaf|first2=JD|date=January 1983|title=Tahoe Research Proposals|url=http://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics8301.txt|journal=Cryonics|volume=|issue=30|pages=14|via=}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://chronopause.com/index.php/2012/02/13/the-effects-of-cryopreservation-on-the-cat-part-1/|title=THE EFFECTS OF CRYOPRESERVATION ON THE CAT, Part 1|last=chronopause|website=CHRONOSPHERE|language=en-US|access-date=2019-02-01}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://chronopause.com/index.php/2012/02/14/the-effects-of-cryopreservation-on-the-cat-part-2/|title=THE EFFECTS OF CRYOPRESERVATION ON THE CAT, Part 2|last=chronopause|website=CHRONOSPHERE|language=en-US|access-date=2019-02-01}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://chronopause.com/index.php/2012/02/21/the-effects-of-cryopreservation-on-the-cat-part-3/|title=THE EFFECTS OF CRYOPRESERVATION ON THE CAT, Part 3|last=chronopause|website=CHRONOSPHERE|language=en-US|access-date=2019-02-01}}</ref>
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| 1983 || cryonics || organization || status || Institute for Cryobiological Extension || Leaf changes hats to President of the Institute for Cryobiological Extension (ICE) with the intention to devise a new project with the goal of having animal heads frozen, thawed, and reattached to a new body in such a way that would allow for neurocognitive evaluation. The project would later be deemed impractical. <ref>{{Cite journal|last=|first=|date=July 1983|title=Report on the Lake Tahoe Life Extension Festival|url=https://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics8307.txt|journal=Cryonics|volume=|issue=36|pages=7-13|via=}}</ref>
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| 1984 || cryonics || science || || [[wikipedia:Mike Darwin|Darwin]], et al. || Darwin et al. publish the first paper documenting the effects of cryopreservation protocols on human patients. This paper documents the presence of extensive macro-tissue fracturing in all three patients examined and shows relatively good histological preservation in the patient treated with 3 M glycerol.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Federowicz|first=M.|last2=Hixon|first2=H.|last3=Leaf|first3=J.|date=1984|title=Post-mortem examination of three cryonic suspension patients|url=http://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics8409.txt|journal=Cryonics|volume=5|issue=9|pages=16-28|access-date=2010-08-31|via=}}</ref>
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| 1984 || suspended animation || technological development || || Leaf, Darwin, Hixon || Leaf, Darwin and Hixon complete 3-years of research demonstrating successful 4-hour asanguineous perfusion of dogs at 5°C with full recovery of health, mentation, and long term memory. The paper documenting this work is rejected by the Society for Cryobiology because the work was conducted by cryonicists. The perfusate developed during this research, MHP-2 continues to be used for total body washout through the present.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/tbwcanine.html|title=A mannitol-based perfusate for reversible 5-hour asanguineous ultraprofound hypothermia in canines (Report on work performed from 1984-87)|last=Leaf|first=JD|last2=Darwin|first2=M.|date=|website=1986|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=2010-08-31|last3=Hixon|first3=H.}}</ref>
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| 1984 || cryobiology || science || cryoprotection || [[wikipedia:Greg Fahy|Fahy]], et al. || The first paper showing that large organs can be cryopreserved without structural damage from ice is published.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Fahy|first=G. M.|last2=MacFarlane|first2=D. R.|last3=Angell|first3=C. A.|last4=Meryman|first4=H. T.|date=1984-08-01|title=Vitrification as an approach to cryopreservation|url=http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224084900798|journal=Cryobiology|volume=21|issue=4|pages=407–426|doi=10.1016/0011-2240(84)90079-8|issn=0011-2240}}</ref>
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| 1984 || cryonics || science || fracturing || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || Alcor observes fractures in human cryopreservation patients. <ref name="IntermediateTemperatureStorage"/><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Federowicz|first=M.|last2=Hixon|first2=H.|last3=Leaf|first3=J.|date=1984|title=Postmortem Examination of Three Cryonic Suspension Patients|url=https://alcor.org/Library/html/postmortemexamination.html|journal=Cryonics|volume=|pages=16-28|via=}}</ref>
|-
| 1985 || cryonics || technological adoption || remote stabilization || Federowicz, et al. || For the first time, a cryonics patient is given remote standby with in-field total body washout. Cardiopulmonary support (CPS) is initiated within 2 minutes following monitored cardiac arrest. This is also the first case where anesthesia is used to inhibit consciousness during cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) and external cooling.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Federowicz|first=MG|last2=Leaf|first2=JD|last3=Hixon|first3=H.|date=1986|title=Case report: neuropreservation of Alcor patient A-1068 (1 of 2)|url=http://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics8602.txt|journal=Cryonics|volume=7|issue=2|pages=17-32|via=}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Federowicz|first=MG|last2=Leaf|first2=JD|last3=Hixon|first3=H.|date=1986|title=Case report: neuropreservation of Alcor patient A-1068 (2 of 2)|url=http://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics8603.txt|journal=Cryonics|volume=7|issue=3|pages=15-29|via=}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.cryocare.org/index.cgi?subdir=bpi&url=tech21.txt|title=Securing anesthesia in the human cryopreservation patient|last=Darwin|first=M.|date=18 January 1997|website=CryoNet|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=}}</ref>
|-
| 1985 || cryobiology || technological development || vitrification || [[wikipedia:Greg Fahy|Fahy]], Rall || Fahy and Rall successfully apply vitrification to embryo preservation introducing the technique to mainstream medicine and highlighting its potential utility in solid organ cryopreservation.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Rall|first=W. F.|last2=Fahy|first2=G. M.|date=14 Feb 1985|title=Ice-free cryopreservation of mouse embryos at -196 degrees C by vitrification|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3969158|journal=Nature|volume=313|issue=6003|pages=573–575|issn=0028-0836|pmid=3969158}}</ref>
|-
| 1980s (mid) || cryonics || legal || life insurance || Jackson National || Jackson National is the first life insurance company to definitively state that it acknowledges that cryonics arrangements constitute a legitimate insurable interest.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://groups.yahoo.com/|title=Yahoo! Groups|website=groups.yahoo.com|language=en-US|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 1980s (mid) || cryobiology || technological adoption || vitrification || {{W|Greg Fahy}} and William F. Rall || Researchers {{W|Greg Fahy}} and William F. Rall help introduce {{W|vitrification}} to reproductive cryopreservation.
|-
| 1986 || cryonics || social || textbook || {{W|Mike Darwin}} || M. Darwin publishes the first textbook on acute stabilization of human cryopreservation patients.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/1990manual.html|title=Transport Protocol for Cryonic suspension of Humans|last=Darwin|first=MG|date=1986|website=Alcor Life Extension Foundation|location=Fullerton, CA|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=}}</ref>
|-
| 1986 || cryobiology || science || vitrification || {{W|Greg Fahy}} || Greg Fahy proposes vitrification as a mean of achieving viable parenchymatous organ preservation.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Fahy|first=G. M.|date=1986|title=Vitrification: a new approach to organ cryopreservation|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3540994|journal=Progress in Clinical and Biological Research|volume=224|pages=305–335|issn=0361-7742|pmid=3540994}}</ref>
|-
| 1986 || cryonics || futurism || || {{W|K. Eric Drexler}} || {{W|K. Eric Drexler}} publishes ''Engines of Creation''<ref>{{Cite book|title=Engines of creation|last=K. Eric|first=Drexler|publisher=Anchor Press/Doubleday|year=1986|isbn=0385199724|location=Garden City, N.Y|pages=}}</ref> -- the first book on molecular nanotechnology --. The book has a chapter on cryonics. It creates a surge in growth in cryonics interest and membership.
|-
| 1986 || suspended animation || science || || Haneda, et al. || The first paper showing that large mammals can be recovered after three hours of total circulatory arrest (“clinical death”) at +3°C (37°F) is published. This supports the reversibility of the hypothermic phase of cryonics.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Haneda|first=Kiyoshi|last2=Thomas|first2=Robert|last3=Sands|first3=Murray P.|last4=Breazeale|first4=Donald G.|last5=Dillard|first5=David H.|date=1986-12-01|title=Whole body protection during three hours of total circulatory arrest: An experimental study|url=http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/001122408690057X|journal=Cryobiology|volume=23|issue=6|pages=483–494|doi=10.1016/0011-2240(86)90057-X|issn=0011-2240}}</ref>

|-
| 1986 || cryonics || organization || milestone || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || Alcor cryopreserves a member's companion animal for the first time.
|-
| 1986 || cryonics || futurism || || {{W|K. Eric Drexler}} || Aldehyde-stabilized cryopreservation is proposed under the name of "fixation and vitrification".<ref>{{Cite book|title=Engines of Creation: The Coming Era of Nanotechnology|last=Drexler|first=K. Eric|publisher=|year=1986|isbn=|location=|pages=|chapter=9|url=http://e-drexler.com/d/06/00/EOC/EOC_Chapter_9.html}}</ref>
|-
| 1987 || cryonics || organization || founding || Cryonics Society of Canada || Douglas Quinn launches the Cryonics Society of Canada and Canadian Cryonics News.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.cryocdn.org/cdnhist.html|title=Cryonics Society of Canada -- The Story of the Organization and Its People|website=www.cryocdn.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 1987 || cryonics || technological adoption || cold || {{W|Cryonics Institute}} || The Cryonics Institute starts using liquid nitrogen instead of dry ice.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/>
|-
| 1987-06 || cryonics || technological development || [[wikipedia:extracorporeal membrane oxygenation|extracorporeal membrane oxygenation]] || Leaf, Darwin, Hixon || Leaf, Darwin, and Hixon develop a mobile [[wikipedia:extracorporeal membrane oxygenation|extracorporeal membrane oxygenation]] (ECMO) cart which is capable of providing acute, in-field extracorporeal life support and cooling providing the first truly adequate method of maintaining viability and achieving rapid induction of hypothermia in cryonics patients.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Leaf|first=Jerry D|last2=Hixon|first2=Hugh|last3=Hugh|first3=Mike|date=1987|title=Development of a mobile advanced life support system for human biostasis operations|url=https://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics8703.txt|journal=Cryonics|volume=8|issue=3|pages=23-40|via=}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://alcor.org/Library/pdfs/AlcorCaseA1133.pdf|title=Cryonic suspension case report: A-1133|last=Darwin|first=Michael G.|last2=Leaf|first2=Jerry D.|date=|website=Alcor Life Extension Foundation|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=|last3=Hixon|first3=Hugh L.}}</ref>
|-
| 1987-06-08 || cryonics || technological adoption || [[wikipedia:extracorporeal membrane oxygenation|extracorporeal membrane oxygenation]] || {{W|Mike Darwin}} || The first use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support on a cryonics patient.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://alcor.org/Library/pdfs/AlcorCaseA1133.pdf|title=Cryonic suspension case report: A-1133|last=Darwin|first=M.|date=|website=|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=}}</ref>
|-
| 1987-12 || cryonics || legal || cryopreservation || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || {{W|Saul Kent}} brings his terminally ill mother ({{W|Dora Kent}}) into the Alcor facility where she deanimates. Her head would be cryopreserved.

The rest of the body would be given to a coroner. The coroner's office wouldn't understand that circulation would be artificially restarted after legal death, and that barbiturate would be given to slow down the brain metabolism. Seeing the distributed barbiturate throughout the body, they would change the cause of death from natural causes to homicide.

In January 1988, Alcor would be raided by coroner's deputies, a SWAT team, and UCLA police. The Alcor staff would be taken to the police station in handcuffs and the Alcor facility would be ransacked, with computers and records being seized. The coroner's office would want to seize {{W|Dora Kent}}'s head for autopsy, but the head would be removed from the Alcor facility and taken to a location that would never be disclosed. Alcor would later sue for false arrest and for illegal seizures, and would win both cases.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://alcor.org/Library/html/DoraKentCase.html|title=The Dora Kent Case|website=alcor.org|access-date=2019-02-15}}</ref>
|-
| 1988 || cryonics || social || email list || Cryonet || The [http://www.cryonet.org/ Cryonet] email list starts.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.cryonet.org/cgi-bin/dsp.cgi?msg=1|title=administrivia|website=www.cryonet.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 1988 || cryonics || legal || cryopreservation || Dick Clair || Alcor member Dick Clair{{snd}}who is dying of AIDS{{snd}}sues for, and ultimately wins for everyone, the right to be cryopreserved in the State of California.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.alcor.org/Library/html/CaliforniaAppellateCourtDecison.html|title=California Appellate Court Decision on Legality of Cryonics|website=www.alcor.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 1989 || cryonics || technological development || cooling rate || {{W|Mike Darwin}} || M. Darwin creates the portable ice bath (PIB) to substantially increase the efficacy of external cooling with Fred Chamberlain subsequently developing a surface convective cooling device to further improve heat exchange doubling the rate of cooling during external cooling for induction of hypothermia.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Pizer|first=David|date=1989|title=Alcor outstanding support award nominee|url=https://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics8907.txt|journal=Cryonics|volume=17|issue=7|pages=10|via=}}</ref>
|-
| 1989 || cryonics || technological adoption || || {{W|Mike Darwin}} || M. Darwin introduces high impulse [[wikipedia:cardiopulmonary resuscitation|cardiopulmonary resuscitation]] (CPR) improving cardiac output during cardiopulmonary support (CPS).<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Darwin|first=M.|date=1989|title=A major advance in suspension patient support|url=http://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics8908.txt|journal=Cryonics|volume=10|issue=8|pages=7-14|access-date=2010-09-29|via=}}</ref>
|-
| 1989-02 || cryonics || social || textbook || Wowk, [[wikipedia:Mike Darwin|Darwin]] || Wowk and Darwin author the first comprehensive textbook on cryonics, "Cryonics: Reaching for Tomorrow", designed for use in recruiting new members to Alcor. It would be published in 1991.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://cryoeuro.eu:8080/download/attachments/425990/AlcorReachingForTomorrow1989.pdf|title=Cryonics: Reaching for Tomorrow,|last=Wowk|first=B.|last2=Darwin|first2=M.|date=1990|website=Alcor Life Extension Foundation|location=Riverside, CA|isbn=1880209004|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=2010-10-09}}</ref>
|-
| 1990 || cryonics || technological development || pre-medication || {{W|Mike Darwin}} || M. Darwin publishes the first pre-medication protocol to minimize ischemia-reperfusion injury in cryonics patients.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Darwin|first=M.|date=1991|title=Reducing ischemic damage in cryonic suspension patients by premedication|url=http://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics9104.txt|journal=Cryonics|volume=12|pages=13-15|access-date=2010-09-29|via=}}</ref>
|-
| 1990 || cryonics || quality assessment || || {{W|Mike Darwin}} || M. Darwin introduces end-tidal CO2 monitoring to cryonics and sets out a comprehensive set of guidelines for determining the efficacy of in-field cardiopulmonary support.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Darwin|first=M.|date=1990|title=Cardiopulmonary support: Evaluation and intervention|url=http://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics9004.txt|journal=Cryonics|volume=11|issue=4|pages=26-31|access-date=2010-09-29|via=}}</ref>
|-
| 1990 || cryonics || legal || right-to-die || {{W|Thomas K. Donaldson}} || {{W|Thomas K. Donaldson}}, after being diagnosed with terminal brain cancer, petitions the California courts, seeking a declaration that he has a constitutional right to achieve cryonic suspension before his natural death. Donaldson and his doctors build their argument in light of the recent right-to-die legislation where patients could have life-sustaining medical treatment withdrawn. The trial court would dismiss the complaint for failure to state a cause of action, and Donaldson would then appeal. The court holds that he does not have a constitutional right to assisted death because the cryonic process would necessarily involve physician-assisted death, or the aiding, advising, or encouraging of another to commit suicide.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.alcor.org/Library/html/Donaldson-VanDeKampAbstract.html|title=Donaldson v. Van de Kamp (Abstract)|website=www.alcor.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 1990 || cryobiology || science || intermediate storage temperature || {{W|Greg Fahy}} || Fahy publishes a detailed study of fracturing in large volumes of {{W|vitrification}} solution.<ref name="IntermediateTemperatureStorage"/><ref name="Fahy1990">{{Cite journal|last=Fahy|first=Gregory M.|last2=Saur|first2=Joseph|last3=Williams|first3=Robert J.|date=October 1990|title=Physical problems with the vitrification of large biological systems|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0011-2240(90)90038-6|journal=Cryobiology|volume=27|issue=5|pages=492–510|doi=10.1016/0011-2240(90)90038-6|issn=0011-2240}}</ref>
|-
| 1990 || cryonics || organization || status || Trygve Bauge || Trygve Bauge, a member of the {{W|American Cryonics Society}}, brings his deceased grandfather from Norvegia to the United States.

He would store his body at Trans Time from 1990 to 1993.

Bauge would then transport his grandfather to [[wikipedia:Nederland, Colorado|Nederland, Colorado]] in dry ice with the intention of starting his own cryonics company.

After media turmoil, the town would outlaw cryonics, but would "grandfather the grandfather" who would remain there on dry ice.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/>
|-
| 1990-06 || cryonics || technological adoption || remote stabilization || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || Alcor patient A-1239 receives a field cryoprotection with glycerol in Australia before being transported on dry ice to Alcor.<ref name="fieldcryoprotection"/>
|-
| 1990-06-09 || cryonics || quality assessment || || Alcor || First evaluation of viability in a cryonics patient using Na+/K+ ratio in the renal cortex demonstrating good tissue viability following application of the Alcor Transport Protocol, including rapid post-arrest in-field washout and rapid air transport of the patient to the cryoprotective perfusion facility.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/fried.html|title=Cryopreservation case report: Arlene Francis Fried, A-1049|last=Darwin|first=MG|date=|website=|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=}}</ref>
|-
| 1990-10 || cryobiology || technological development || re-warming || Ruggera, Fahy || Ruggera and Fahy demonstrate uniform radio frequency re-warming of a vitrified solution in volumes comparable to those of the rabbit kidney without thermal runaway and at rates of re-warming sufficient to inhibit devitrification in their model system.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Ruggera|first=P. S.|last2=Fahy|first2=G. M.|date=October 1990|title=Rapid and uniform electromagnetic heating of aqueous cryoprotectant solutions from cryogenic temperatures|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2249450|journal=Cryobiology|volume=27|issue=5|pages=465–478|issn=0011-2240|pmid=2249450}}</ref>
|-
| 1990-10 || cryobiology || science || vitrification || [[wikipedia:Greg Fahy|Fahy]], et al. || Fahy, et al., publish the first paper documenting the behavior of large volumes of vitrification solution with respect to fracture temperature, thermal gradient, cooling rate, ice nucleation and crystal growth as a preliminary step to avoid fracturing in vitrified organs and tissues and to prevent devitrification during re-warming.<ref name="Fahy1990"/>
|-
| 1992 || cryonics || futurism || || R. C. Merkle || The application of nanotechnology to reverse human cryopreservation is discussed in a paper for the first time.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Merkle|first=R. C.|date=1992-09-01|title=The technical feasibility of cryonics|url=http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/030698779290133W|journal=Medical Hypotheses|volume=39|issue=1|pages=6–16|doi=10.1016/0306-9877(92)90133-W|issn=0306-9877}}</ref>
|-
| 1982 || cryonics || organization || milestone || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || Alcor starts providing its own cryopreservation as well as patient-storage services.
|-
| 1992-02 || cryonics || technological adoption || [[wikipedia:extracorporeal membrane oxygenation|extracorporeal membrane oxygenation]] || HK Henson || The first application of [[wikipedia:extracorporeal membrane oxygenation|extracorporeal membrane oxygenation]] ECMO in the patient’s home followed by ~8 hours of continuous ECMO support prior to perfusion.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereport9202.html|title=The Transport of Patient A-1312S|last=Henson|first=HK|date=|website=|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=}}</ref>
|-
| 1993 || cryonics || organization || founding || {{W|21st Century Medicine}} || {{W|21st Century Medicine}}, a cryogenics and cryonics research organization, is founded.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.21cm.com/|title=21st Century Medicine --Expanding the Boundaries of Preservation Science|website=www.21cm.com|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 1993 || cryonics || organization || founding || CryoCare || The CryoCare Foundation is founded. It would provide human cryopreservation with assistance from two separate businesses: BioPreservation, which would provide remote standby, stabilization, and transport, and CryoSpan, which would provide the long-term storage of patients in liquid-nitrogen. About 50 former Alcor members join in the founding of the organization.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistoryImmortalist"/><ref name="CryoCare>{{Cite web|url=http://www.cryocare.org/index.cgi|title=CryoCare Foundation - Cryonics Services|website=www.cryocare.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 1993-03 || cryonics || Technological development || intermediate storage temperature || CryoNet || Through the CryoNet email list, collaborative effort is put into designing a room to preserve up to 100 people at −130 ºC.<ref name="IntermediateTemperatureStorage"/>
|-
| 1994 || cryonics || Technological development || intermediate storage temperature || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || Alcor observes fractures in the brain of a patient following removal from cryopreservation. Alcor thinks of intermediate temperature storage systems, and the development of a new acoustic fracturing monitoring device, the "crackphone."<ref name="IntermediateTemperatureStorage"/><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Hixon|first=H.|date=1995|title=Exploring Cracking Phenomena|url=https://alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics1995-1.pdf|journal=Cryonics|volume=|pages=27-32|via=}}</ref>
|-
| 1994 || cryonics || Technological development || intermediate storage temperature || Timeship || Architect Stephen Valentine begins studying Cold Room intermediate temperature storage design concepts as part of a large cryonics facility design that would eventually be called Timeship.<ref name="IntermediateTemperatureStorage"/>
|-
| 1994-02 || cryonics || risk management || natural catastrophes, legal environment || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || Alcor moves to Scottsdale, Arizona, with all its patients.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://alcor.org/Library/html/researchhistory.html|title=A Brief History of Alcor Research|website=alcor.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 1995 || cryonics || technological adoption || cryoprotection || Alcor, Biopreservation || Both Alcor and Biopreservation begin using high morality glycerol (7.5 to 8. M) as their cryoprotective strategy.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Jones|first=Tanya L.|date=July 1995|title=Alcor Member Anatole Epstein Suspended|url=https://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics1995-3.pdf|journal=Cryonics Magazine|volume=16|issue=3|pages=8-11|via=}}</ref>
|-
| 1995 || cryonics || technological adoption || pre-medication || {{W|Mike Darwin}} || Darwin et al., document the first use of a premedication protocol to mitigate ischemia-reperfusion injury in a cryonics patient.<ref name="CryoCareFirst">{{Cite web|url=http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereportC2150.htm|title=Cryopreservation of James Gallagher, CryoCare patient #C-2150|last=Darwin|first=M.|date=|website=|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=}}</ref>
|-
| 1995-05-31 || cryobiology || science || cryoprotection || {{W|Mike Darwin}} || Darwin, et al., demonstrate much improved ultrastructural preservation in the dog brain and preservation of vascular integrity after perfusion with 7.5 M glycerol and freezing to -100 °C.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Darwin|first=M.|last2=Russell|first2=S.|last3=Wakfer|first3=P.|last4=Wood|first4=L.|last5=Wood|first5=C.|date=1995-05-31|title=Effect of Human Cryopreservation Protocol on the Ultrastucture of the Canine Brain|url=|journal=BioPreservation, Inc|volume=|pages=|via=}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Platt|first=C.|date=July 1995|title=New Brain Study Shows Reduced Tissue Damage|url=http://www.cryocare.org/index.cgi?subdir=&url=ccrpt4.html#BRAIN|journal=CryoCare Report|volume=|pages=|via=}}</ref>
|-
| 1997 || cryonics || technological adoption || intermediate storage temperature || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || Alcor brings the crackphone (an acoustic fracturing monitoring device) into clinical use.<ref name="IntermediateTemperatureStorage"/> The Alcor crackphone has never been tested or validated in any animal or human model, nor in bulk [[wikipedia:cryoprotectant|cryoprotective agents]] solutions cooled to deep subzero temperatures.
|-
| 1997 || cryonics || risk management || economic stability || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || After a substantial effort led by then-president Steve Bridge, Alcor forms the Patient Care Trust as an entirely separate entity to manage and protect the funding for cryonics patients.
|-
| 1998 || cryonics || technological development || cooling rate || [[wikipedia:Mike Darwin|Darwin]], Harris, Russell || Darwin, Harris, and Russell invent liquid assisted pulmonary cooling allowing for rapid, non-invasive cooling of dogs at a rate of 0.5 °C per minute.<ref>{{cite patent | country = | number = EP1117455A1 | status = | title = Mixed-mode liquid ventilation gas and heat exchange | pubdate = | gdate = | fdate = | pridate = 1998-10-01 | inventor = | invent1 = Michael Gregory Darwin | invent2 = Steven Bradley Harris | invent3 = Sandra Renee Russell | assign1 = Critical Care Research Inc | assign2 = | class = | url = }}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Harris|first=S. B.|last2=Darwin|first2=M. G.|last3=Russell|first3=S. R.|last4=O'Farrell|first4=J. M.|last5=Fletcher|first5=M.|last6=Wowk|first6=B.|date=August 2001|title=Rapid (0.5 degrees C/min) minimally invasive induction of hypothermia using cold perfluorochemical lung lavage in dogs|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11719148|journal=Resuscitation|volume=50|issue=2|pages=189–204|issn=0300-9572|pmid=11719148}}</ref>
|-
| 1999 || cryonics || organization || status || CryoCare || BioPreservation doesn't renew its contract with CryoCare, and stops offering cryonics services altogether.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/> CryoCare doesn't find a new provider.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/> They would transfer their 10 patients from the {{W|American Cryonics Society}} to the Cryonics Institute on 2004-04-06, and their 2 other patients to Alcor on 2001-01-24.<ref name="AlcorCase"/><ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistoryImmortalist"/><ref name="CryoCare/>
|-
| 2000-03 || cryobiology || science || vitrification || Song, et al. || The application of {{W|vitrification}} to a relatively large tissue of medical interest, vascular grafts, is successful for the first time.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Taylor|first=Michael J.|last2=Brockbank|first2=Kelvin G. M.|last3=Lightfoot|first3=Fred|last4=Khirabadi|first4=Bijan S.|last5=Song|first5=Ying C.|date=March 2000|title=Vitreous cryopreservation maintains the function of vascular grafts|url=https://www.nature.com/articles/nbt0300_296|journal=Nature Biotechnology|language=en|volume=18|issue=3|pages=296–299|doi=10.1038/73737|issn=1546-1696}}</ref>
|-
| 2000 || cryonics || technological adoption || intermediate storage temperature || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || Alcor acquires a −130 ºC Harris CryoStar laboratory freezer from GS Laboratory Equipment and begins testing its utility for possible storage of neuropatients.<ref name="IntermediateTemperatureStorage"/><ref>{{Cite journal|last=|first=|date=2000|title=BioTransport Purchases CryoStar Freezer|url=https://alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics2000-3.pdf|journal=Cryonics|volume=|pages=11|via=}}</ref>
|-
| 2000 || cryonics || organization || founding || Critical Care Research || Critical Care Research, a research organization on critical care medicine, is founded.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Steven_Harris12|title=Steven B. Harris {{!}} Canine respiratory and hypothermia physiology lab|website=ResearchGate|language=en|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 2000-07-15 || cryobiology || technological development || vitrification || Fahy, Kheirabadi || Fahy and Kheirabadi achieve permanent life support after perfusion of rabbit kidneys with 7.5 M a vitrification solution demonstrating for the first time that concentrations of cryoprotectant compatible with vitrification are tolerable without the loss of renal viability.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Kheirabadi|first=B. S.|last2=Fahy|first2=G. M.|date=2000-07-15|title=Permanent life support by kidneys perfused with a vitrifiable (7.5 molar) cryoprotectant solution|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10919575|journal=Transplantation|volume=70|issue=1|pages=51–57|issn=0041-1337|pmid=10919575}}</ref>
|-
| 2001 || cryonics || technological adoption || vitrification || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || Alcor switches from glycerol (which was reducing ice formation, but not vitrifying the brain) to a proprietary mixture of cryoprotectants called B2C developed by {{W|21st Century Medicine}} designed to eliminate ice formation completely, ideally achieving {{W|vitrification}} of the entire brain.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://alcor.org/sciencefaq.htm|title=Scientists’ Cryonics FAQ|website=alcor.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref><ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.alcor.org/Library/html/newtechnology.html|title=New Cryopreservation technology.|last=|first=|date=October 2005|website=Alcor News|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=}}</ref>
|-
| 2002 || cryonics || science || || || For the first time, a paper shows a rigorous demonstration of memory retention after cooling to +10°C (59°F): "Learning and memory is preserved after induced asanguineous hyperkalemic hypothermic arrest in a swine model of traumatic exsanguination".<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.surgjournal.com/action/captchaChallenge?redirectUri=%2Farticle%2FS0039-6060%2802%2900085-5%2Ffulltext|title=Surgery|website=www.surgjournal.com|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 2002 || cryonics || Technological development || intermediate storage temperature || Timeship Project || Physicist {{W|Brian Wowk}} and Brookhaven National Laboratory cryogenic engineer Mike Iarocci start collaborating with architect Stephen Valentine to design intermediate temperature storage systems suitable for cryonics in connection with the Timeship Project.<ref name="IntermediateTemperatureStorage"/>
|-
| 2002 || cryonics || organization || founding || {{W|Suspended Animation, Inc}} || {{W|Suspended Animation, Inc}}, a for-profit organization that provides cryonics standby, stabilization, and transport services, is founded.<ref name="Alcor2018-2">{{Cite web|url=https://businesssearch.sos.ca.gov/CBS/SearchResults?SearchType=NUMBER&SearchCriteria=C2276225|title=Business Search - Business Entities - Business Programs {{!}} California Secretary of State|website=businesssearch.sos.ca.gov|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 2002 || cryonics || legal || classification || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || Alcor cryopreserves baseball legend {{W|Ted Williams}}.

Following more media turmoil<ref group=note>Following this case, journalists at ''{{W|Sports Illustrated}}'' would write a sensationalistic exposé of Alcor based on information that would be supplied to them by Alcor employee Larry Johnson, who had surreptitiously recorded several conversations.</ref>, Arizona state representative Bob Stump would attempt to put Alcor under the control of the Funeral Board. The Arizona Funeral Board Director would tell the ''{{W|New York Times}}'' "These companies need to be regulated or deregulated out of business". After a hard fight by Alcor, the legislation would finally be withdrawn in 2004. Alcor would hire a full-time lobbyist to watch after their interests in the Arizona legislature.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/>
|-
| 2002 || cryonics || social || event || {{W|Frozen Dead Guy Days}} festival || After media turmoil from Trygve Bauge having brought his cryopreserved grandfather to the town of {{W|Nederland, Colorado}}, some people take this opportunity to create an annual {{W|Frozen Dead Guy Days}} festival which would feature coffin races, snow sculptures, and many other activities.

Many cryonicists insist that dry ice is not cold enough for long-term cryopreservation and that the Nederland festival is negative publicity for cryonics.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/>
|-
| 2002 summer || cryonics || technological adoption || intermediate storage temperature || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || An Alcor neuropatient receives an excellent uniform perfusion, allowing them to reach the lowest temperature without fracturing ever recorded to date, −128 °C. Cryobiologist consultants would evaluate that this may be the best cryopreservation to date. The patient is transferred to the CryoStar freezer for continued slow cooling and annealing for fracture avoidance. However, the patient would be moved to liquid nitrogen in July 2003 as the maneuver wouldn't be successful. In December, another patient, A-1034, would be also placed into the CryoStar to accommodate the family's preference for this type of storage, and later transferred in a newly validated neuropod in April 2006.<ref name="IntermediateTemperatureStorage"/>
|-
| 2002-12-13 || cryonics || social || newsletter || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || The first issue of Alcor News, an online newsletter, is distributed.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://alcor.org/Library/html/alcornewsarchive.html|title=Alcor News Archive|website=alcor.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>

|-
| 2003 || cryonics || || procedure || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || There is continued work to create a new patient care bay, operating room, and laboratory area. A truck is purchased for conversion as an ambulance that would be large enough to permit surgical procedures. Alcor makes radical changes to its medications to conform with results of resuscitation research.

The research upon which this change in the stabilization medication protocol is based was conducted by Darwin, et al., at {{W|21st Century Medicine}} from 1995 to 1998. This research was successful in recovering dogs from 16 minutes of normothermic ischemia with 75% of the animals showing no defects in mentation and memory. This research was never published, but a [https://www.youtube.com/user/m2darwin video presentation] was made.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://alcor.org/AboutAlcor/|title=Alcor: About Alcor|website=alcor.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 2003-06 || cryonics || technological adoption || intermediate storage temperature || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || {{W|Brian Wowk}}, Mike Iarocci, and Stephen Valentine present new designs for intermediate temperature storage systems to the Alcor board of directors. Alcor acquires an experimental single-patient "neuropod" intermediate temperature storage system developed by {{W|Brian Wowk}} at 21CM.<ref name="IntermediateTemperatureStorage"/>
|-
| 2003-08 || cryobiology || Technological development || intermediate storage temperature || {{W|Carnegie Mellon University}} || {{W|Carnegie Mellon University}} receives a $1.3 million grant from the U.S. government to study fracturing during {{W|vitrification}} of tissue for medical applications, which would considerably advance the field.<ref name="IntermediateTemperatureStorage"/>
|-
| 2003-10 || cryonics || Technological development || intermediate storage temperature || {{W|21st Century Medicine}} || {{W|21st Century Medicine}}, Inc., constructs a prototype dewar for storage at intermediate temperature in which most of the volume of the dewar is converted into a uniform-temperature storage space kept cold by liquid nitrogen.<ref name="IntermediateTemperatureStorage"/>
|-
| 2004 || cryobiology || science || vitrification || [[wikipedia:Greg Fahy|Fahy]], et al. || Fahy, et al., make a major advance in understanding the nature of vitrification cryoprotectant toxicity, and significant advances in moderating it. Fahy, et al., develop several highly stable vitrification solutions using synthetic ice blockers which also have extremely low toxicity. It is possible to perfuse kidneys with 9+ molar vitrification solution (~60%) without loss of viability.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Fahy|first=GM|last2=Wowk|first2=B|last3=Wu|first3=J|last4=Paynter|first4=S|date=2004|title=Improved vitrification solutions based on the predictability of vitrification solution toxicity|url=|journal=Cryobiology|volume=48|issue=1|pages=22-35|via=}}</ref>
|-
| 2004 || cryonics || legal || classification || {{W|Cryonics Institute}} || As a result of media coverage of {{W|Ted Williams}}'s cryopreservation, even though the Cryonics Institute was not involved in that case, the State of Michigan places the organization under a "{{W|Cease and Desist}}" order for six months, ultimately classifying and regulating the Cryonics Institute as a cemetery in 2004. In the spirit of de-regulation, the new Republican Michigan government would remove the cemetery designation for CI in 2012.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/>
|-
| 2004-08 || cryonics || technological adoption || vitrification || {{W|Cryonics Institute}} || The Cryonics Institute uses a cryoprotectant, CI-VM-1, for the first time. The dog of a CI member is the patient of the experimental perfusion. The mixture was developed by CI staff cryobiologist Yuri Pichugin.<ref name="CITimeline"/>
|-
| 2004-10-23 || cryonics || technological adoption || remote stabilization || {{W|Suspended Animation, Inc}} || {{W|Suspended Animation, Inc}} performs a field cryoprotection with glycerol for the {{W|American Cryonics Society}} before transporting the patient on dry ice to the Cryonics Institute for long-term care.<ref name="fieldcryoprotection">{{Cite web|url=https://alcor.org/Library/html/fieldcryoprotection.html|title=Field Cryoprotection|website=alcor.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 2005 || cryonics || science || theory || Whetstine, et al. || Cryonics is discussed in a major medical journal for the first time. It addresses the definition of death in the intensive care unit context.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Whetstine|first=Leslie|last2=Streat|first2=Stephen|last3=Darwin|first3=Mike|last4=Crippen|first4=David|date=2005-10-31|title=Pro/con ethics debate: When is dead really dead?|url=https://doi.org/10.1186/cc3894|journal=Critical Care|volume=9|issue=6|pages=538|doi=10.1186/cc3894|issn=1364-8535}}</ref>
|-
| 2005 || cryonics || organization || founding || Oregon Cryonics || Oregon Cryonics is established as a Non-Profit Mutual Benefit Corporation.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.oregoncryo.com/aboutOC.html|title=Oregon Cryonics - About OC|website=www.oregoncryo.com|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 2005-06 || cryonics || organization || founding || KrioRus || KrioRus is founded by 8 Russian cryonicists, and 4 of them serve as Directors{{snd}}{{W|Danila Medvedev}}, Valerija Pride, Igor Artyuhov, and Alexey Potapov.
|-
| 2005 (mid) || cryonics || organization || founding || Neural Archives Foundation || The Neural Archives Foundation is conceived. The organization offers brain preservation services, but only do straight freezes (ie. without perfusion). In 2008 it would be incorporated.<ref name="neuralarchivesfoundation">{{Cite web|url=http://neuralarchivesfoundation.org/|title=NAF|website=neuralarchivesfoundation.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 2005-08 || cryonics || technological adoption || vitrification || {{W|Cryonics Institute}} || CI's 69th patient is CI's first patient to be vitrified. It receives a {{W|vitrification}} solution named CI-VM-1.<ref name="CITimeline"/>
|-
| 2005-10 || cryonics || technological adoption || vitrification || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || Alcor starts using a {{W|vitrification}} solution called M22, a cryoprotectant licensed from {{W|21st Century Medicine}}.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://alcor.org/Library/html/newtechnology.html|title=New Cryopreservation Technology|website=alcor.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=|first=|date=|title=M22 Implementation|url=https://alcor.org/Library/html/alcornews044.html|journal=Alcor News Bulletin|volume=|issue=44|pages=|via=}}</ref>
|-
| 2006-04-01 || cryobiology || science || vitrification || Pichugin, et al. || Pichugin, et al., demonstrate the conservation of both viability and excellent histological and ultrastructural preservation in the rabbit brain hippocampal brain slice subjected to vitrification as well as proving the vast superiority of vitrification over freezing in preserving viability and tissue architecture in rabbit brain slices.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Pichugin|first=Yuri|last2=Fahy|first2=Gregory M.|last3=Morin|first3=Robert|date=2006-04-01|title=Cryopreservation of rat hippocampal slices by vitrification|url=http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0011224005001896|journal=Cryobiology|volume=52|issue=2|pages=228–240|doi=10.1016/j.cryobiol.2005.11.006|issn=0011-2240}}</ref>
|-
| 2006-01 || cryonics || technological adoption || intermediate storage temperature || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || An Alcor neuropatient cryopreserved with M22 {{W|vitrification}} solution sets a new record for lowest temperature reached without fracturing of −134 °C.<ref name="IntermediateTemperatureStorage"/>
|-
| 2008 || cryonics || social || paper || {{W|Ben Best}} || A review of scientific justifications of cryonics is published.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Best|first=Benjamin P.|date=2008-04-28|title=Scientific Justification of Cryonics Practice|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/rej.2008.0661|journal=Rejuvenation Research|volume=11|issue=2|pages=493–503|doi=10.1089/rej.2008.0661|issn=1549-1684|pmc=4733321|pmid=18321197}}</ref>
|-
| 2008 || cryonics || organization || founding || Advanced Neural Biosciences || Advanced Neural Biosciences, Inc., is founded by Aschwin de Wolf. The organization mainly aims to improve brain preservations. The laboratory would receive funding from the {{W|Immortalist Society}}, the Life Extension Foundation, the Cryonics Institute, the {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}}, as well as various individuals.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.advancedneuralbio.com/|title=Advanced Neural Biosciences|language=en-US|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://immortalistsociety.org/anb_research.htm|title=Human Cryopreservation Research at Advanced Neural Biosciences|last=de Wol|first=Aschwin|last2=Phaedra|first2=Chana|date=|website=Immortalist Society|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 2008 || cryonics || organization || milestone || Neural Archives Foundation || Neural Archives Foundation preserves its first human patient.<ref name="neuralarchivesfoundation"/>
|-
| 2008-12-12 || cryonics || social || blog || LessWrong || Robin Hanson, talking about Eliezer Yudkowsky and himself, writes [http://www.overcomingbias.com/2008/12/we-agree-get-froze.html We Agree: Get Froze]. Eliezer Yudkowsky would go on writing [https://wiki.lesswrong.com/wiki/Cryonics#Blog_posts various articles about cryonics], which would spawn a lot of interest in the topic by people in the LessWrong community{{snd}}in 2013, 13% of "experienced" respondents to a LessWrong survey (that were part of the community for over two years and had over 1000 karma) reported being signed up for cryonics.<ref>{{Cite web|last=Alexander|first=Scott|title=Rationalists Are Less Credulous But Better At Taking Ideas Seriously|url=https://www.lesswrong.com/posts/Gh2qQHrCg3teQen3c/rationalists-are-less-credulous-but-better-at-taking-ideas|website=www.lesswrong.com|access-date=2019-02-04}}</ref>
|-
| 2009 || cryonics || science || vitrification || [[wikipedia:Greg Fahy|Fahy]], et al. || A vital mammalian organ is successfully vitrified, transplanted, and reused for the first time.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Fahy|first=Gregory M.|last2=Wowk|first2=Brian|last3=Pagotan|first3=Roberto|last4=Chang|first4=Alice|last5=Phan|first5=John|last6=Thomson|first6=Bruce|last7=Phan|first7=Laura|date=July 2009|title=Physical and biological aspects of renal vitrification|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/org.5.3.9974|journal=Organogenesis|volume=5|issue=3|pages=167–175|doi=10.4161/org.5.3.9974|issn=1547-6278}}</ref>
|-
| 2009-05 || brain preservation || organization || founding || {{W|Brain Preservation Foundation}} || The {{W|Brain Preservation Foundation}} is founded by Kenneth Hayworth and John Smart with the goal of furthering research in whole brain preservation.<ref name="SmallMammalBrainPrize">{{Cite web|url=http://www.brainpreservation.org/small-mammal-announcement/|title=Small Mammal BPF Prize Winning Announcement – The Brain Preservation Foundation|language=en-US|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 2010 || cryonics || organization || standby || {{W|Cryonics Institute}} || The Cryonics Institute starts offering, through {{W|Suspended Animation, Inc}}, standby and transport options.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.cryonics.org/resources/suspended-animation-inc-standby-stabilization-and-transport-for-ci-members|title=Resources {{!}} Cryonics Institute|website=www.cryonics.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 2010 || cryonics || social || event || Annual Young Cryonicists Gathering || The first edition of the Annual Young Cryonicists Gathering, Teens & Twenties. This event is founded by the {{W|Life Extension Foundation}} in perpetuity.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.cryonics.org/news/2018-teens-and-twenties|title=News {{!}} Cryonics Institute|website=www.cryonics.org|access-date=2019-02-15}}</ref>
|-
| 2010-05 || cryobiology || technological development || cryoprotection || Wowk, et al. || Creation of first synthetic ice blockers and their application to organ and tissue preservation to radically increase the stability of vitrification solutions.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Wowk|first=B.|last2=Leitl|first2=E.|last3=Rasch|first3=C. M.|last4=Mesbah-Karimi|first4=N.|last5=Harris|first5=S. B.|last6=Fahy|first6=G. M.|date=May 2000|title=Vitrification enhancement by synthetic ice blocking agents|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10860622|journal=Cryobiology|volume=40|issue=3|pages=228–236|doi=10.1006/cryo.2000.2243|issn=0011-2240|pmid=10860622}}</ref>
|-
| 2010-05 || brain preservation || organization || milestone || {{W|Brain Preservation Foundation}} || Saar Wilf donates $100,000 to the {{W|Brain Preservation Foundation}}, which then launches its large and small mammal brain preservation prizes, which would be given to the first groups that could reliably preserve the synaptic structure of the brain.<ref name="SmallMammalBrainPrize"/>
|-
| 2010-07 || cryobiology || technological development || toxicity || [[wikipedia:Greg Fahy|Fahy]], et al. || Fahy, et al., make significant advances in neutralizing cryoprotectant toxicity.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Fahy|first=Gregory M.|date=July 2010|title=Cryoprotectant toxicity neutralization|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19501081|journal=Cryobiology|volume=60|issue=3 Suppl|pages=S45–53|doi=10.1016/j.cryobiol.2009.05.005|issn=1090-2392|pmid=19501081}}</ref>
|-
| 2011 || cryonics || technological development || intermediate storage temperature || Wowk || Brian Wowk develops a passive, non-mechanical, “fail-safe” system for intermediate temperature storage in order to reduce or eliminate fracturing in vitrified tissues, organs, and patients.<ref name="IntermediateTemperatureStorage"/>
|-
| 2011 || cryonics || quality assessment || scan || Alcor || Alcor initiates CT scanning of neuropatients after discovering that CT examination reveals regional differences in cryoprotectant concentration in the brain and other soft tissues of patients.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://alcor.org/Library/pdfs/casereportA1088DennisRoss.pdf|title=Alcor A-1088 Case Report|last=Sullivan|first=Mathew|date=August 2013|website=Alcor|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://alcor.org/Library/pdfs/casereportA1546.pdf|title=Alcor A-1546 Case Report|last=Drake|first=Aaron|date=January 2012|website=Alcor|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=}}</ref>
|-
| 2011 || cryonics || organization || milestone || {{W|Cryonics Institute}} || {{W|Robert Ettinger}} is cryopreserved at the age of 92.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.washingtonpost.com/local/obituaries/from-phyics-teacher-to-founder-of-the-cryonics-movement/2011/07/24/gIQAupuIXI_story.html|title=Robert Ettinger, founder of the cryonics movement, dies at 92|last=Brown|first=Emma|date=2011-06-24|website=|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 2011-01 || cryonics || technological adoption || remote stabilization || {{W|Cryonics Institute}} || The Cryonics Institute ships its {{W|vitrification}} solution (CI-VM-1) to the United Kingdom so that European cryonics patients could be vitrified before shipping in dry ice to the United States.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/>
|-
| 2012 || brain preservation || organization || milestone || {{W|Brain Preservation Foundation}} || Shawn Mikula at the Winfred Denk lab in Germany uses plastic embedding to preserve mouse brains, and submits his results for the Small Mammal Brain Preservation Prize. But the preservation quality is not complete.<ref name="SmallMammalBrainPrize"/>
|-
| 2012 || brain preservation || organization || milestone || {{W|Brain Preservation Foundation}} || {{W|Greg Fahy}} at {{W|21st Century Medicine}} (21CM) uses cryobiological techniques to preserve mouse brains, and submits his results for the Small Mammal Brain Preservation Prize. The Brain Preservation Foundation deems the submitted micrographs as inadequate to win the prize because the extensive dehydration produced by M22 perfusions makes an examination of brain ultrastructure and of the connectome at the ultrastructural level impossible using existing FIB-SEM techniques.<ref name="SmallMammalBrainPrize"/><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.brainpreservation.org/21cm-cryopreservation-eval-page/|title=21CM Cryopreservation Eval Page – The Brain Preservation Foundation|language=en-US|access-date=2019-02-03}}</ref>
|-
| 2012 || cryonics || technological development || remote stabilization || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || Advanced Neural Biosciences collaborates with Alcor to validate Alcor’s proposed field cryoprotection protocol in the rat model. No ice formation is found after up to 48 hours of storing the brains at dry ice temperature prior to further cooling.<ref name="fieldcryoprotection"/>
|-
| 2012-03-22 || cryonics || organization || milestone || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || Fred Chamberlain III, a co-founder of Alcor, becomes the first patient to be demonstrably preserved free of ice formation as would observe from CT scans in 2018.
|-
| 2013 || cryobiology || science || vitrification || [[wikipedia:Greg Fahy|Fahy]], et al. || Fahy, et al., demonstrate recovery of LTP memory electrophysiology for half millimeter thick hippocampal brain slices that had previously been vitrified and stored for weeks.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Fahy|first=Gregory M.|last2=Guan|first2=Na|last3=de Graaf|first3=Inge A. M.|last4=Tan|first4=Yuansheng|last5=Griffin|first5=Lenetta|last6=Groothuis|first6=Geny M. M.|date=2012-10-30|title=Cryopreservation of precision-cut tissue slices|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/00498254.2012.728300|journal=Xenobiotica|volume=43|issue=1|pages=113–132|doi=10.3109/00498254.2012.728300|issn=0049-8254}}</ref>
|-
| 2013-05 || cryonics || technological adoption || remote stabilization || {{W|Cryonics Institute}} || The wife of UK cryonicist Alan Sinclair receives a field cryoprotection before being shipped to the Cryonics Institute.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/>
|-
| 2014 || cryonics || social || open letter || Biostasis || 68 scientists from relevant disciplines sign an open letter to legitimize cryonics and support the right to be cryopreserved.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.biostasis.com/scientists-open-letter-on-cryonics/|title=Scientists’ Open Letter on Cryonics – Biostasis|language=en-US|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 2014 || brain preservation || science || vitrifixation || {{W|21st Century Medicine}} || Robert McIntyre from {{W|21st Century Medicine}} wins the Small Mammal Prize from the {{W|Brain Preservation Foundation}} with a technique called vitrifixation, an Aldehyde Stabilized Cryopreservation (ASC). He combines research done by {{W|Greg Fahy}} and Shawn Mikula.<ref name="SmallMammalBrainPrize"/>
|-
| 2014-05-06 || cryonics || organization || milestone || Oregon Cryonics || OregonCryo preserves its first patient, a dog named Cupcake.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.oregoncryo.com/caseReportsPets.html|title=Oregon Cryonics - Pet Case Reports|website=www.oregoncryo.com|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 2014-07 || cryonics || technological adoption || remote stabilization || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || Alcor starts implementing a plan to practice field cryoprotection for cases in Canada and Europe.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/><ref name="fieldcryoprotection"/>
|-
| 2015 || cryonics || science || || Vita-More, et al. || Memory retention in a cryopreserved and revived animal is demonstrated.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Vita-More|first=Natasha|last2=Barranco|first2=Daniel|date=October 2015|title=Persistence of Long-Term Memory in Vitrified and Revived Caenorhabditis elegans|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/rej.2014.1636|journal=Rejuvenation Research|volume=18|issue=5|pages=458–463|doi=10.1089/rej.2014.1636|issn=1549-1684|pmc=4620520|pmid=25867710}}</ref>
|-
| 2015-12 || brain preservation || technological development || vitrifixation || {{W|21st Century Medicine}} || Perfect histological and ultrastructural preservation of an entire porcine brain in a nonviable state using aldehyde fixation combined with vitrification.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=McIntyre|first=Robert L.|last2=Fahy|first2=Gregory M.|date=1 December 2015|title=Aldehyde-stabilized cryopreservation|url=http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S001122401500245X|journal=Cryobiology|volume=71|issue=3|pages=448–458|doi=10.1016/j.cryobiol.2015.09.003|issn=0011-2240}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=McIntyre|first=Robert L.|last2=Fahy|first2=Gregory M.|date=December 2015|title=Aldehyde-stabilized cryopreservation|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26408851|journal=Cryobiology|volume=71|issue=3|pages=448–458|doi=10.1016/j.cryobiol.2015.09.003|issn=1090-2392|pmid=26408851}}</ref>

In 2016, Robert McIntyre, {{W|Greg Fahy}}, and {{W|21st Century Medicine}} would win the Large Mammal Prize from the {{W|Brain Preservation Foundation}} with this vitrifixation technique.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.brainpreservation.org/large-mammal-announcement/|title=Large Mammal BPF Prize Winning Announcement – The Brain Preservation Foundation|language=en-US|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 2015-03-13 || brain preservation || technological adoption || fixation || Oregon Cryonics || For the first time, a brain is preserved using fixation technology, by having her brain immersed in a fixative solution. The patient was Deborah Cheek, and she was preserved by OregonCryo.<ref name="OregonCryoCaseReports">{{Cite web|url=http://www.oregoncryo.com/caseReports.html|title=Oregon Cryonics - Cases|website=www.oregoncryo.com|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>

Immersion fixation is well established to be ineffective in halting autolysis (decomposition).<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Kanawaku|first=Yoshimasa|last2=Someya|first2=Satoka|last3=Kobayashi|first3=Tomoya|last4=Hirakawa|first4=Keiko|last5=Shiotani|first5=Seiji|last6=Fukunaga|first6=Tatsushige|last7=Ohno|first7=Youkichi|last8=Kawakami|first8=Saki|last9=Kanetake|first9=Jun|date=July 2014|title=High-resolution 3D-MRI of postmortem brain specimens fixed by formalin and gadoteridol|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.legalmed.2014.03.003|journal=Legal Medicine|volume=16|issue=4|pages=218–221|doi=10.1016/j.legalmed.2014.03.003|issn=1344-6223}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Shatil|first=Anwar S.|last2=Uddin|first2=Md Nasir|last3=Matsuda|first3=Kant M.|last4=Figley|first4=Chase R.|date=20 February 2018|title=Quantitative Ex Vivo MRI Changes due to Progressive Formalin Fixation in Whole Human Brain Specimens: Longitudinal Characterization of Diffusion, Relaxometry, and Myelin Water Fraction Measurements at 3T|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5826187/|journal=Frontiers in Medicine|volume=5|doi=10.3389/fmed.2018.00031|issn=2296-858X|pmc=5826187|pmid=29515998}}</ref> This is documented in the peer-reviewed literature with the time to fixation of the immersed brain being on the order of 5-15 weeks.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Yong-Hing|first=Charlotte J.|last2=Obenaus|first2=Andre|last3=Stryker|first3=Rodrick|last4=Tong|first4=Karen|last5=Sarty|first5=Gordon E.|date=August 2005|title=Magnetic resonance imaging and mathematical modeling of progressive formalin fixation of the human brain|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16032673|journal=Magnetic Resonance in Medicine|volume=54|issue=2|pages=324–332|doi=10.1002/mrm.20578|issn=0740-3194|pmid=16032673}}</ref> However, this procedure is very inexpensive{{snd}}Oregon Cryonics charges 1000 USD{{snd}}so this option is sometimes chosen with the hope that very advance technology might be able to recover some part of the brain.
|-
| 2016 || cryonics || organization || founding || Osiris || Osiris Back to Life is founded by Dvir Derhy.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://osiriscryonics.com/|title=Cryogenics Human & Pet Freezing for Preservation and Revival|website=Osiris {{!}} Back to Life|language=en-US|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 2016 || brain preservation || organization || founding || Nectome || Nectome is started by Robert McIntyre after having won the {{W|Brain Preservation Foundation}}'s Large Mammal Prize. Nectome is a research organization developing biological preservation techniques to better preserve the physical traces of memory.<ref name="Nectome">{{Cite web|url=https://nectome.com/|title=Nectome|website=nectome.com|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 2016 || brain preservation || technological development || || Nectome || Nectome wins 413,765 USD in research grants from the National Institutes of Health “to enable whole-brain nanoscale preservation and imaging, a vital step towards a deep understanding of the mind and of the brain’s diseases.”<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://projectreporter.nih.gov/project_info_details.cfm?aid=9255571&icde=38525280|title=Project Information - NIH RePORTER - NIH Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tools Expenditures and Results|website=projectreporter.nih.gov|access-date=2019-02-15}}</ref>
|-
| 2016-03-24 || cryonics || social || blog || Wait But Why || Tim Urban publishes "[https://waitbutwhy.com/2016/03/cryonics.html Why Cryonics Makes Sense]" on his blog "[https://waitbutwhy.com Wait But Why]". At the moment the article was published, 331,824 people were subscribed to receive new posts by email.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20160325000246/https://waitbutwhy.com/2016/03/cryonics.html|title=Why Cryonics Makes Sense - Wait But Why|date=2016-03-25|website=web.archive.org|access-date=2019-02-04}}</ref> Cryonicists almost unanimously acclaimed this post as the best introduction to cryonics.
|-
| 2016-05-06 || cryonics || organization || milestone || Oregon Cryonics || OregonCryo starts training its medical team with body donors.<ref name="OregonCryoCaseReports"/>
|-
| 2016-06-06 || cryonics || risk management || economic stability || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || The Alcor Care Trust Supporting Organization (ACT) is created. The Patient Care Trust (PCT) continues in existence to receive initial funding from new cryopreservations and to pay for ongoing costs for maintaining patients' cryopreservation. The ACT will make long term investments, continue maintaining the PCT, and possibly eventually fund resuscitation research. Both trusts have a different board of directors that can check on each other.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://alcor.org/Library/html/alcorcaretrust.htm|title=Alcor Care Trust Supporting Organization|website=alcor.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 2016-11-12 || cryonics || social || event || CryoSuisse || CryoSuisse organizes the 1st International Cryonics Conference.
|-
| 2016-12-24 || brain preservation || technological adoption || fixation || Oregon Cryonics || For the first time, someone is preserved by being perfused with a fixation solution instead of simply being immersed in it.

Fixative perfusion and brain removal for this patient is carried out by the individual's sons in cooperation with a local mortuary and a mobile pathology service. Oregon Cryonics (OC) is storing the brain.<ref name="OregonCryoCaseReports"/>
|-
| 2017-01 to 2017-08 || cryonics || Technological development || || Oregon Cryonics || OregonCryo trains and does research and development with 38 {{W|body donations}}.<ref name="OregonCryoCaseReports"/>
|-
| 2017-03-01 || cryobiology || technological development || re-warming || Bischoff, et al. || Bischoff, et al., develop a novel technique of inductive heat re-warming using magnetic nanoparticles in the vasculature allowing for uniform re-warming of organs the size of rabbit kidneys at rates high enough to prevent devitrification of M-22 vitrification solution at a concentration compatible with kidney viability. The system is potentially applicable to larger organs, such as the human brain.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Manuchehrabadi|first=Navid|last2=Gao|first2=Zhe|last3=Zhang|first3=Jinjin|last4=Ring|first4=Hattie L.|last5=Shao|first5=Qi|last6=Liu|first6=Feng|last7=McDermott|first7=Michael|last8=Fok|first8=Alex|last9=Rabin|first9=Yoed|date=1 March 2017|title=Improved tissue cryopreservation using inductive heating of magnetic nanoparticles|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28251904|journal=Science Translational Medicine|volume=9|issue=379|doi=10.1126/scitranslmed.aah4586|issn=1946-6242|pmc=5470364|pmid=28251904}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.ibtimes.co.uk/organ-cryopreservation-becoming-reality-bringing-whole-bodies-back-still-100-years-away-1609149|title=Organ cryopreservation is becoming a reality – but bringing whole bodies back still 100 years away|date=2017-03-01|website=International Business Times UK|language=en|access-date=2019-02-04}}</ref>
|-
| 2018 || cryonics || quality assessment || scan || {{W|Mike Darwin}} || M. Darwin publishes “Preliminary Evaluation of Alcor Patient Cryogenic CT Scans” analyzing three of the four available Alcor neuropatient CT scans. Darwin concludes that it is highly likely that Alcor patient A-1002 was possibly the first human cryonics patient to achieve essentially ice-free brain cryopreservation.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://spaces.hightail.com/receive/qqSYgDnnI1|title=Preliminary Evaluation of Alcor Patient Cryogenic CT Scans|last=Darwin|first=Michael|date=|website=|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=}}</ref>
|-
| 2018 winter || brain preservation || organization || milestone || Nectome || Nectome participates in the startup accelerator {{W|Y Combinator}}.<ref name="Nectome"/><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://blog.ycombinator.com/10-companies-from-yc-winter-2018/|title=10 Companies From YC Winter 2018|last=Combinator|first=Y.|website=Y Combinator|language=en-US|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 2018-04-06 || cryonics || organization || founding || International Cryomedicine Experts || Alcor signs an agreement with the newly funded International Cryomedicine Experts, a for-profit organization providing international cryonics standby, stabilization, and transport services.
|-
| 2018-05-16 || cryonics || risk management || economic stability || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || Alcor announces the creation of a sibling organization called the Alcor Endowment Trust Supporting Organization. Its goal is to maintain funds that are invested, and which support Alcor's general operation and research through giving a fraction of the interests made.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.alcor.org/blog/the-alcor-endowment-trust-supporting-organization/|title=The Alcor Endowment Trust Supporting Organization|last=admin|date=2018-05-16|website=Alcor News|language=en-US|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 2018-06-17 || cryonics || organization || milestone || Yinfeng Life Science Research Institute || The Yinfeng Life Science Research Institute in Jinan, Shandong, China cryopreserves their first patient.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.chinadaily.com.cn/a/201806/26/WS5b319590a3103349141dec01.html|title=Chinese woman's body frozen in advanced procedure - Chinadaily.com.cn|last=李松|website=www.chinadaily.com.cn|access-date=2019-02-04}}</ref> A documentary documents the procedure: [https://vimeo.com/243966672 China Whole Body Cryopreservation].
|-
| 2018-10-30 || cryonics || legal || right-to-die || Norman Hardy || For the first time, a cryonics patient uses the Death With Dignity legislation. The patient's name is Norman Hardy.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://alcor.org/Library/html/casesummary1990.html|title=Alcor Case Summary: A-1990|website=alcor.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
|-
| 2018-11 || cryonics || social || bylaws || {{W|Society for Cryobiology}} || The {{W|Society for Cryobiology}} releases a position statement clarifying their stance in regards to cryonics, saying they respect people's freedom in choosing this option, but that the procedure is speculative, and that the scientific knowledge necessary to successfully cryopreserve someone doesn't currently exist.<ref group=note>"The Society recognizes and respects the freedom of individuals to hold and express their own opinions and to act, within lawful limits, according to their beliefs. Preferences regarding disposition of postmortem human bodies or brains are clearly a matter of personal choice and, therefore, inappropriate subjects of Society policy. The Society does, however, take the position that the knowledge necessary for the revival of live or dead whole mammals following cryopreservation does not currently exist and can come only from conscientious and patient research in cryobiology and medicine. In short, the act of preserving a body, head or brain after clinical death and storing it indefinitely on the chance that some future generation may restore it to life is an act of speculation or hope, not science, and as such is outside the purview of the Society for Cryobiology."</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.societyforcryobiology.org/assets/documents/Position_Statement_Cryonics_Nov_18.pdf|title=Society for Cryobiology Position Statement - Cryonics|last=|first=|date=November 2018|website=Society for Cryobiology|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=2019-01-23}}</ref>
|}
DateCategoryTypeSubtypeOrganisation or individualEventnotesformated referenceslocationomitted referencesomitted notes / comments
2
general11773-04-01

|-
| 1773-04 || cryonics || futurism || || {{W|Benjamin Franklin}} || In a letter to Jacques Dubourg, {{W|Benjamin Franklin}} says: "I wish it were possible&nbsp;...to invent a method of embalming drowned persons, in such a manner that they might be recalled to life at any period, however distant; for having a very ardent desire to see and observe the state of America a hundred years hence, I should prefer to an ordinary death, being immersed with a few friends in a cask of Madeira, until that time, then to be recalled to life by the solar warmth of my dear country! But&nbsp;... in all probability, we live in a century too little advanced, and too near the infancy of science, to see such an art brought in our time to its perfection&nbsp;...".<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Page:Works_of_the_Late_Doctor_Benjamin_Franklin_(1793).djvu/233|title=Page:Works of the Late Doctor Benjamin Franklin (1793).djvu/233 - Wikisource, the free online library|website=en.wikisource.org|access-date=2019-01-21}}</ref>
1773-04cryonicsfuturism{{W|Benjamin Franklin}}In a letter to Jacques Dubourg, {{W|Benjamin Franklin}} says: "I wish it were possible&nbsp;...to invent a method of embalming drowned persons, in such a manner that they might be recalled to life at any period, however distant; for having a very ardent desire to see and observe the state of America a hundred years hence, I should prefer to an ordinary death, being immersed with a few friends in a cask of Madeira, until that time, then to be recalled to life by the solar warmth of my dear country! But&nbsp;... in all probability, we live in a century too little advanced, and too near the infancy of science, to see such an art brought in our time to its perfection&nbsp;...".
<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Page:Works_of_the_Late_Doctor_Benjamin_Franklin_(1793).djvu/233|title=Page:Works of the Late Doctor Benjamin Franklin (1793).djvu/233 - Wikisource, the free online library|website=en.wikisource.org|access-date=2019-01-21}}</ref>
3
21883-04-15

|-
| 1883-04-15 || cryogenics || technological development || cold || {{W|Jagiellonian University}} || Nitrogen is liquefied by {{W|Zygmunt Wróblewski}} and {{W|Karol Olszewski}}.<ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=8SKrWdFLEd4C&pg=PA249|page=249|title=A Short History of the Progress of Scientific Chemistry in Our Own Times|author=Tilden, William Augustus |publisher=BiblioBazaar, LLC|year=2009|isbn=1-103-35842-1}}</ref>
1883-04-15cryogenicstechnological developmentcold{{W|Jagiellonian University}}Nitrogen is liquefied by {{W|Zygmunt Wróblewski}} and {{W|Karol Olszewski}}.
<ref>{{cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=8SKrWdFLEd4C&pg=PA249|page=249|title=A Short History of the Progress of Scientific Chemistry in Our Own Times|author=Tilden, William Augustus |publisher=BiblioBazaar, LLC|year=2009|isbn=1-103-35842-1}}</ref>
Kraków, Poland
4
1897-01-01

|-
| 1897 || cryobiology || science || || [https://ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%B0%D1%85%D0%BC%D0%B5%D1%82%D1%8C%D0%B5%D0%B2,_%D0%9F%D0%BE%D1%80%D1%84%D0%B8%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%98%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87 Porfiry Ivanovich Bakhmetyev] || [https://ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%B0%D1%85%D0%BC%D0%B5%D1%82%D1%8C%D0%B5%D0%B2,_%D0%9F%D0%BE%D1%80%D1%84%D0%B8%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%98%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87 Porfiry Ivanovich Bakhmetyev] starts studying the phenomena of anabiosis during overcooling of animals.
1897cryobiologyscience[https://ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%B0%D1%85%D0%BC%D0%B5%D1%82%D1%8C%D0%B5%D0%B2,_%D0%9F%D0%BE%D1%80%D1%84%D0%B8%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%98%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87 Porfiry Ivanovich Bakhmetyev][https://ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%B0%D1%85%D0%BC%D0%B5%D1%82%D1%8C%D0%B5%D0%B2,_%D0%9F%D0%BE%D1%80%D1%84%D0%B8%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%98%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87 Porfiry Ivanovich Bakhmetyev] starts studying the phenomena of anabiosis during overcooling of animals.
5
1901-01-01

|-
| 1901 || cryonics || futurism || || [https://ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%B0%D1%85%D0%BC%D0%B5%D1%82%D1%8C%D0%B5%D0%B2,_%D0%9F%D0%BE%D1%80%D1%84%D0%B8%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%98%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87 Porfiry Ivanovich Bakhmetyev] || In his essay “The Recipe for Survival to the 21st Century” (“Natural Science and Geography”, 1901), [https://ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%B0%D1%85%D0%BC%D0%B5%D1%82%D1%8C%D0%B5%D0%B2,_%D0%9F%D0%BE%D1%80%D1%84%D0%B8%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%98%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87 Porfiry Ivanovich Bakhmetyev] suggests using the phenomenon of anabiosis to prolong human life, to “travel to the future”.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.fandom.ru/about_fan/hal_59.htm|title=ЏредвидениЯ ЏорфириЯ Ѓахметьева - ”антаст|website=www.fandom.ru|access-date=2019-02-04}}</ref>
1901cryonicsfuturism[https://ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%B0%D1%85%D0%BC%D0%B5%D1%82%D1%8C%D0%B5%D0%B2,_%D0%9F%D0%BE%D1%80%D1%84%D0%B8%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%98%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87 Porfiry Ivanovich Bakhmetyev]In his essay “The Recipe for Survival to the 21st Century” (“Natural Science and Geography”, 1901), [https://ru.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/%D0%91%D0%B0%D1%85%D0%BC%D0%B5%D1%82%D1%8C%D0%B5%D0%B2,_%D0%9F%D0%BE%D1%80%D1%84%D0%B8%D1%80%D0%B8%D0%B9_%D0%98%D0%B2%D0%B0%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%B8%D1%87 Porfiry Ivanovich Bakhmetyev] suggests using the phenomenon of anabiosis to prolong human life, to “travel to the future”.
<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.fandom.ru/about_fan/hal_59.htm|title=ЏредвидениЯ ЏорфириЯ Ѓахметьева - ”антаст|website=www.fandom.ru|access-date=2019-02-04}}</ref>
Three years later, he would write a fiction: << In the "Testament of a Billionaire" ("Natural Science and Geography". 1904) Bakhmetyev gives a possible version of the device of the "Central International Institute", which is allegedly created for $ 400 million, bequeathed to the development of science by a certain billionaire. At the same time, the scientist assesses the current state and prospects for the development of many sciences, including mechanics, physics, chemistry, astronomy, mineralogy, botany, zoology, sets out the system of education for "scientific personnel, reflects on the moral problems of science. He predicted, in fact, the creation of modern Academgorodok: 17 research institutes, scientific laboratories, libraries, printing houses, residential buildings, hospitals, shops, etc. >> (http://www.fandom.ru/about_fan/hal_59.htm)
6
31931-07-01

|-
| 1931-07 || cryonics || social || fiction || {{W|Robert Ettinger}} || {{W|Robert Ettinger}} reads Neil R. Jones' newly published story, "The Jameson Satellite",<ref name="regis87">{{cite book |title= Great Mambo Chicken and the Transhuman Condition: Science Slightly Over The Edge|last= Regis|first= Ed|authorlink=wikipedia:Ed Regis (author) |coauthors= |year= 1991|publisher= Westview Press|location= |isbn= 0-201-56751-2|page= |pages= 87–88|url= }}</ref>, in which a professor has his corpse sent into earth orbit where it would remain preserved indefinitely at near absolute zero (note: this is not scientifically accurate), until millions of years later, when, with humanity extinct, a race of mechanical beings discovers, revives, and repairs him by transferring his brain in a mechanical body.<ref name="RCWE">{{cite web | title = Robert Ettinger | publisher = Cryonics Institute | url = http://www.cryonics.org/bio.html#Robert_Ettinger | accessdate = May 24, 2009 | deadurl = yes | archiveurl = https://www.webcitation.org/6ASYHJ6M9?url=http://www.cryonics.org/bio.html#Robert_Ettinger | archivedate = September 5, 2012 | df = mdy-all }}</ref>
1931-07cryonicssocialfiction{{W|Robert Ettinger}}{{W|Robert Ettinger}} reads Neil R. Jones' newly published story, "The Jameson Satellite",<ref name="regis87">{{cite book |title= Great Mambo Chicken and the Transhuman Condition: Science Slightly Over The Edge|last= Regis|first= Ed|authorlink=wikipedia:Ed Regis (author) |coauthors= |year= 1991|publisher= Westview Press|location= |isbn= 0-201-56751-2|page= |pages= 87–88|url= }}</ref>, in which a professor has his corpse sent into earth orbit where it would remain preserved indefinitely at near absolute zero (note: this is not scientifically accurate), until millions of years later, when, with humanity extinct, a race of mechanical beings discovers, revives, and repairs him by transferring his brain in a mechanical body.<ref name="RCWE">{{cite web | title = Robert Ettinger | publisher = Cryonics Institute | url = http://www.cryonics.org/bio.html#Robert_Ettinger | accessdate = May 24, 2009 | deadurl = yes | archiveurl = https://www.webcitation.org/6ASYHJ6M9?url=http://www.cryonics.org/bio.html#Robert_Ettinger | archivedate = September 5, 2012 | df = mdy-all }}</ref>
7
41936-01-01

|-
| 1936 || reanimatology || organization || founding || Negovsky || Negovsky founds the first resuscitation research laboratory in the world. In 1986 his laboratory would be renamed Institute of Reanimatology of the USSR (since 1991 of the Russian) Academy of Medical Sciences. This marks the inception of both reanimatology (resuscitation medicine) and critical care medicine both of which would be crucial to the credibility of cryonics paradigm.<ref name="reanimatology">{{Cite journal|last=Safar|first=P.|date=June 2001|title=Vladimir A. Negovsky the father of 'reanimatology'|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11723996|journal=Resuscitation|volume=49|issue=3|pages=223–229|issn=0300-9572|pmid=11723996|doi=10.1016/s0300-9572(01)00356-2}}</ref>
1936reanimatologyorganizationfoundingNegovskyNegovsky founds the first resuscitation research laboratory in the world. In 1986 his laboratory would be renamed Institute of Reanimatology of the USSR (since 1991 of the Russian) Academy of Medical Sciences. This marks the inception of both reanimatology (resuscitation medicine) and critical care medicine both of which would be crucial to the credibility of cryonics paradigm.
<ref name="reanimatology">{{Cite journal|last=Safar|first=P.|date=June 2001|title=Vladimir A. Negovsky the father of 'reanimatology'|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11723996|journal=Resuscitation|volume=49|issue=3|pages=223–229|issn=0300-9572|pmid=11723996|doi=10.1016/s0300-9572(01)00356-2}}</ref>
8
1938-01-01

|-
| 1938 || cryobiology || science || vitrification || Goetz, Goetz || Alexander Goetz and S. Scott Goetz publish a paper discussing vitrification and crystallization of organic cells at low temperatures.
1938cryobiologysciencevitrificationGoetz, GoetzAlexander Goetz and S. Scott Goetz publish a paper discussing vitrification and crystallization of organic cells at low temperatures.is that the first such paper?
9
51940-01-01

|-
| 1940 || cryobiology || science || || Basil Luyet, Marie Pierre Gehino || Basil Luyet and Marie Pierre Gehino publish "[https://books.google.ca/books/about/Life_and_Death_at_Low_Temperatures.html?id=a3YMtAEACAAJ Life and Death at Low Temperatures]", the book which marks the beginning of cryobiology as a formal area of study. In this landmark work, they document the survival of a wide variety of cells and some tissues after ultra-rapid cooling to -194.5°C providing that ice formation in the tissue is inhibited by vitrification due to the ultra-rapid cooling.<ref>{{Cite book|url=http://worldcat.org/oclc/716713726|title=Life and death at low temperatures|last=J.|first=Luyet, B.|date=1940|publisher=Biodynamica|oclc=716713726}}</ref>
1940cryobiologyscienceBasil Luyet, Marie Pierre Gehino Basil Luyet and Marie Pierre Gehino publish "[https://books.google.ca/books/about/Life_and_Death_at_Low_Temperatures.html?id=a3YMtAEACAAJ Life and Death at Low Temperatures]", the book which marks the beginning of cryobiology as a formal area of study. In this landmark work, they document the survival of a wide variety of cells and some tissues after ultra-rapid cooling to -194.5°C providing that ice formation in the tissue is inhibited by vitrification due to the ultra-rapid cooling.
<ref>{{Cite book|url=http://worldcat.org/oclc/716713726|title=Life and death at low temperatures|last=J.|first=Luyet, B.|date=1940|publisher=Biodynamica|oclc=716713726}}</ref>
10
61940-01-01

|-
| 1940s || cryogenics || technological development || cold || || {{W|Liquid nitrogen}} becomes commercially available.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Cooper|first=S M|last2=Dawber|first2=R P R|date=April 2001|title=The history of cryosurgery|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1281398/|journal=Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine|volume=94|issue=4|pages=196–201|issn=0141-0768|pmc=1281398|pmid=11317629}}</ref>
1940scryogenicstechnological developmentcold{{W|Liquid nitrogen}} becomes commercially available.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Cooper|first=S M|last2=Dawber|first2=R P R|date=April 2001|title=The history of cryosurgery|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1281398/|journal=Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine|volume=94|issue=4|pages=196–201|issn=0141-0768|pmc=1281398|pmid=11317629}}</ref>
11
71947-01-01

|-
| 1947 || cryogenics || social || || Polge, Smith, Parkes || {{W|Robert Ettinger}}, while in the hospital for his battle wounds, discovers {{W|Jean Rostand}} research in {{W|cryogenics}}.<ref name="CITimeline">{{Cite web|url=https://www.cryonics.org/ci-landing/history-timeline/|title=History/Timeline {{!}} Cryonics Institute|website=www.cryonics.org|access-date=2019-01-21}}</ref>
1947cryogenicssocialPolge, Smith, Parkes{{W|Robert Ettinger}}, while in the hospital for his battle wounds, discovers {{W|Jean Rostand}} research in {{W|cryogenics}}.
<ref name="CITimeline">{{Cite web|url=https://www.cryonics.org/ci-landing/history-timeline/|title=History/Timeline {{!}} Cryonics Institute|website=www.cryonics.org|access-date=2019-01-21}}</ref>
12
81948-01-01

|-
| 1948 || cryobiology || technological development || vitrification || || Polge, Smith, and Parkes discover the cryoprotective effects of glycerol and publish a paper documenting the successful hatching of chicks from fowl sperm cryopreserved with glycerol.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=POLGE|first=C.|date=June 1951|title=Functional Survival of Fowl Spermatozoa after Freezing at −79° C.|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/167949b0|journal=Nature|volume=167|issue=4258|pages=949–950|doi=10.1038/167949b0|issn=0028-0836}}</ref>
1948cryobiologytechnological developmentvitrificationPolge, Smith, and Parkes discover the cryoprotective effects of glycerol and publish a paper documenting the successful hatching of chicks from fowl sperm cryopreserved with glycerol.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=POLGE|first=C.|date=June 1951|title=Functional Survival of Fowl Spermatozoa after Freezing at −79° C.|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/167949b0|journal=Nature|volume=167|issue=4258|pages=949–950|doi=10.1038/167949b0|issn=0028-0836}}</ref>
13
general91948-03-01

|-
| 1948-03 || cryonics || social || fiction || {{W|Robert Ettinger}} || {{W|Robert Ettinger}} publishes the story [http://translatedby.com/you/the-penultimate-trump/original/ The Penultimate Trump], in which the explicit idea of cryopreservation of legally dead people for future repair is promulgated. This story was written in 1947.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.isfdb.org/cgi-bin/title.cgi?80014|title=Title: The Penultimate Trump|website=www.isfdb.org|access-date=2019-01-21}}</ref>
1948-03cryonicssocialfiction{{W|Robert Ettinger}}{{W|Robert Ettinger}} publishes the story [http://translatedby.com/you/the-penultimate-trump/original/ The Penultimate Trump], in which the explicit idea of cryopreservation of legally dead people for future repair is promulgated. This story was written in 1947.
<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.isfdb.org/cgi-bin/title.cgi?80014|title=Title: The Penultimate Trump|website=www.isfdb.org|access-date=2019-01-21}}</ref>
14
101950-05-01

|-
| 1950-05 || cryobiology || technological development || vitrification || Luyet, Gonzales || Luyet and Gonzales achieve successful vitrification of chicken embryo hearts using ethylene glycol.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Gonzales|first=F.|last2=Luyet|first2=B.|date=May 1950|title=Resumption of heart-beat in chick embryo frozen in liquid nitrogen|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15426631|journal=Biodynamica|volume=7|issue=126-128|pages=1–5|issn=0006-3010|pmid=15426631}}</ref>
1950-05cryobiologytechnological developmentvitrificationLuyet, GonzalesLuyet and Gonzales achieve successful vitrification of chicken embryo hearts using ethylene glycol.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Gonzales|first=F.|last2=Luyet|first2=B.|date=May 1950|title=Resumption of heart-beat in chick embryo frozen in liquid nitrogen|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15426631|journal=Biodynamica|volume=7|issue=126-128|pages=1–5|issn=0006-3010|pmid=15426631}}</ref>
15
111954-06-01

|-
| 1954-06 || suspended animation || science || nature || Smith et al. || Smith et al., demonstrate the ability of golden hamsters to recover and survive long term following the freezing of ~60% of the water in their brains and the survival a full recovery of hamsters cooled to -5°C.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Parkes|first=A. S.|last2=Lovelock|first2=J. E.|last3=Smith|first3=A. U.|date=June 1954|title=Resuscitation of Hamsters after Supercooling or Partial Crystallization at Body Temperatures Below 0° C.|url=https://www.nature.com/articles/1731136a0|journal=Nature|language=en|volume=173|issue=4415|pages=1136–1137|doi=10.1038/1731136a0|issn=1476-4687}}</ref>
1954-06suspended animationsciencenatureSmith et al.Smith et al., demonstrate the ability of golden hamsters to recover and survive long term following the freezing of ~60% of the water in their brains and the survival a full recovery of hamsters cooled to -5°C.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Parkes|first=A. S.|last2=Lovelock|first2=J. E.|last3=Smith|first3=A. U.|date=June 1954|title=Resuscitation of Hamsters after Supercooling or Partial Crystallization at Body Temperatures Below 0° C.|url=https://www.nature.com/articles/1731136a0|journal=Nature|language=en|volume=173|issue=4415|pages=1136–1137|doi=10.1038/1731136a0|issn=1476-4687}}</ref>
16
121959-05-01

|-
| 1959-05 || cryobiology || technological development || vitrification || Lovelock, Bishop || Lovelock and Bishop discover the cryoprotective properties of dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO). Me2SO would subsequently become a mainstay of most experimental vitrification solutions used in organ preservation.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=LOVELOCK|first=J. E.|last2=BISHOP|first2=M. W. H.|date=May 1959|title=Prevention of Freezing Damage to Living Cells by Dimethyl Sulphoxide|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/1831394a0|journal=Nature|volume=183|issue=4672|pages=1394–1395|doi=10.1038/1831394a0|issn=0028-0836}}</ref>
1959-05cryobiologytechnological developmentvitrificationLovelock, BishopLovelock and Bishop discover the cryoprotective properties of dimethyl sulfoxide (Me2SO). Me2SO would subsequently become a mainstay of most experimental vitrification solutions used in organ preservation.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=LOVELOCK|first=J. E.|last2=BISHOP|first2=M. W. H.|date=May 1959|title=Prevention of Freezing Damage to Living Cells by Dimethyl Sulphoxide|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/1831394a0|journal=Nature|volume=183|issue=4672|pages=1394–1395|doi=10.1038/1831394a0|issn=0028-0836}}</ref>
17
131960-01-01

|-
| 1960 || cryonics || social || communication || {{W|Robert Ettinger}} || {{W|Robert Ettinger}} expected other scientists to advocate for cryonics. Given that this still hasn't happened, Ettinger finally makes the scientific case for cryonics. He sends this to approximately 200 people whom he selected from ''Who's Who in America'', but got little response.<ref name="regis87"/>
1960cryonicssocialcommunication{{W|Robert Ettinger}}{{W|Robert Ettinger}} expected other scientists to advocate for cryonics. Given that this still hasn't happened, Ettinger finally makes the scientific case for cryonics. He sends this to approximately 200 people whom he selected from ''Who's Who in America'', but got little response.
<ref name="regis87"/>
18
141960-01-01

|-
| 1960s || cryonics || organization || founding || Cryo-Care Equipment Corporation || Cryo-Care Equipment Corporation<ref group=note>not the same as the California organization with similar name</ref> in [[wikipedia:Phoenix, Arizona|Phoenix, Arizona]] is founded by Ed Hope. These freezings would be advertised as being for cosmetic purposes rather than eventual reanimation, though the cryonics issue would naturally arise.<ref group=note>Cryo-Care would not use cryoprotectants or perfusion with its patients but would only do straight freezes to liquid nitrogen temperature.</ref><ref name="SuspensionFailures"/>
1960scryonicsorganizationfoundingCryo-Care Equipment CorporationCryo-Care Equipment Corporation<ref group=note>not the same as the California organization with similar name</ref> in [[wikipedia:Phoenix, Arizona|Phoenix, Arizona]] is founded by Ed Hope. These freezings would be advertised as being for cosmetic purposes rather than eventual reanimation, though the cryonics issue would naturally arise.<ref group=note>Cryo-Care would not use cryoprotectants or perfusion with its patients but would only do straight freezes to liquid nitrogen temperature.</ref>
<ref name="SuspensionFailures"/>
Chicago Daily News Jan. 29, 1968, 4, reprinted in Freeze-Wait-Reanimate, Feb. 1968, 3.
19
151961-01-01

|-
| 1961 || cryobiology || technological development || cryoprotection || Lovelock, Bishop || By 1961 the work of Lovelock and Bishop is rapidly extended to other animal sperm, including human sperm, and glycerol is also shown to be an effective cryoprotectant for both red cells and many nucleated mammalian cells.<ref>{{Cite book|url=http://worldcat.org/oclc/1027485685|title=Biological effects of freezing and supercooling|last=Ursula|first=Smith, Audrey|oclc=1027485685}}</ref>
1961cryobiologytechnological developmentcryoprotectionLovelock, BishopBy 1961 the work of Lovelock and Bishop is rapidly extended to other animal sperm, including human sperm, and glycerol is also shown to be an effective cryoprotectant for both red cells and many nucleated mammalian cells.
<ref>{{Cite book|url=http://worldcat.org/oclc/1027485685|title=Biological effects of freezing and supercooling|last=Ursula|first=Smith, Audrey|oclc=1027485685}}</ref>
20
181962-01-01

|-
| 1962 || reanimatology || science || || Vladimir A. Negovsky || Vladimir A. Negovsky publishes his landmark book, "Resuscitation and Artificial Hypothermia".<ref>{{Cite book|title=Resuscitation and Artificial Hypothermia (USSR)|last=Negovsky|first=Vladimir|publisher=Consultants Bureau|year=1962|isbn=|location=New York|pages=}}</ref><ref name="reanimatology"/>
1962reanimatologyscienceVladimir A. NegovskyVladimir A. Negovsky publishes his landmark book, "Resuscitation and Artificial Hypothermia".
<ref>{{Cite book|title=Resuscitation and Artificial Hypothermia (USSR)|last=Negovsky|first=Vladimir|publisher=Consultants Bureau|year=1962|isbn=|location=New York|pages=}}</ref><ref name="reanimatology"/>
21
general161962-01-01

|-
| 1962 || cryonics || social || book || Evan Cooper || Evan Cooper publishes "Immortality: Physically, Scientifically, Now" under the pseudonym Nathan Duhring.<ref name="cryonics9208">{{Cite journal|last=Perry|first=Michael|date=August 1992|title=Unity and Disunity in Cryonics|url=https://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics9208.txt|journal=Cryonics|volume=13|issue=145|pages=5|via=}}</ref> He coins the immortal "freeze, wait, reanimate" slogan.<ref name="cryonet23124">{{Cite web|url=http://www.cryonet.org/cgi-bin/dsp.cgi?msg=23124|title=Ev Cooper|website=www.cryonet.org|access-date=2019-01-21}}</ref><ref name="EvCooperClassic">{{Cite web|url=https://www.biostasis.com/ev-coopers-cryonics-classic-published-online/|title=Ev Cooper's cryonics classic published online – Biostasis|language=en-US|access-date=2019-01-21}}</ref>
1962cryonicssocialbookEvan CooperEvan Cooper publishes "Immortality: Physically, Scientifically, Now" under the pseudonym Nathan Duhring.<ref name="cryonics9208">{{Cite journal|last=Perry|first=Michael|date=August 1992|title=Unity and Disunity in Cryonics|url=https://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics9208.txt|journal=Cryonics|volume=13|issue=145|pages=5|via=}}</ref> He coins the immortal "freeze, wait, reanimate" slogan.
<ref name="cryonet23124">{{Cite web|url=http://www.cryonet.org/cgi-bin/dsp.cgi?msg=23124|title=Ev Cooper|website=www.cryonet.org|access-date=2019-01-21}}</ref><ref name="EvCooperClassic">{{Cite web|url=https://www.biostasis.com/ev-coopers-cryonics-classic-published-online/|title=Ev Cooper's cryonics classic published online – Biostasis|language=en-US|access-date=2019-01-21}}</ref>
more info on him: http://www.cryonet.org/cgi-bin/dsp.cgi?msg=23124
22
general171962-01-01

|-
| 1962 || cryonics || futurism || || {{W|Robert Ettinger}} || Ettinger privately publishes a preliminary version of ''The Prospect of Immortality'', in which he makes the case for cryonics.<ref name="regis87"/>
1962cryonicsfuturism{{W|Robert Ettinger}}Ettinger privately publishes a preliminary version of ''The Prospect of Immortality'', in which he makes the case for cryonics.
<ref name="regis87"/>
23
191962-01-01

|-
| 1962 || cryonics || social || meeting || || About 20 people attend the first informal cryonics meeting.<ref name="cryonics9208"/>
1962cryonicssocialmeetingAbout 20 people attend the first informal cryonics meeting.
<ref name="cryonics9208"/>
24
201962-01-01

|-
| 1962 || cryonics || social || group || Evan Cooper || After the first cryonics meeting, Cooper and a few other individuals form the Immortality Communication Exchange (ICE), an informal, "special-interest group" for the "freeze and wait" idea that would later be known as cryonics.<ref name="cryonics9208"/>
1962cryonicssocialgroupEvan CooperAfter the first cryonics meeting, Cooper and a few other individuals form the Immortality Communication Exchange (ICE), an informal, "special-interest group" for the "freeze and wait" idea that would later be known as cryonics.
<ref name="cryonics9208"/>
25
211963-01-01

|-
| 1964 || cryonics || organization || founding || {{W|Life Extension Society}} || During the conference, the {{W|Life Extension Society}}, the first cryonics organization, is founded by Evan Cooper. It would be situated in Washington, D.C.<ref name="EvCooperClassic"/>
1964cryonicsorganizationfounding{{W|Life Extension Society}}During the conference, the {{W|Life Extension Society}}, the first cryonics organization, is founded by Evan Cooper. It would be situated in Washington, D.C.
<ref name="EvCooperClassic"/>
26
221963-12-29

|-
| 1963-12-29 || cryonics || social || conference || || The first cryonics conference happens.<ref name="cryonics9208"/><ref name="firstNewsletter">{{Cite web|url=http://www.evidencebasedcryonics.org/2011/01/19/the-first-cryonics-newsletter/|title=The First Cryonics Newsletter|last=Perry|first=Mike|date=2011-01-19|website=Evidence Based Cryonics|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161126064131/http://www.evidencebasedcryonics.org/2011/01/19/the-first-cryonics-newsletter/|archive-date=2016-11-26|dead-url=|access-date=}}</ref>
1963-12-29cryonicssocialconferenceThe first cryonics conference happens.
<ref name="cryonics9208"/><ref name="firstNewsletter">{{Cite web|url=http://www.evidencebasedcryonics.org/2011/01/19/the-first-cryonics-newsletter/|title=The First Cryonics Newsletter|last=Perry|first=Mike|date=2011-01-19|website=Evidence Based Cryonics|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20161126064131/http://www.evidencebasedcryonics.org/2011/01/19/the-first-cryonics-newsletter/|archive-date=2016-11-26|dead-url=|access-date=}}</ref>
Dec. 28-29, 1963, in Washington, D.C
27
231964-01-01

|-
| 1964 || cryonics || futurism || || {{W|Robert Ettinger}} || {{W|Robert Ettinger}}'s ''The Prospect of Immortality'' finally attracts the attention of a major publisher, Doubleday, which sends a copy to [[wikipedia:Isaac Asimov|Isaac Asimov]]; Asimov says that the science behind cryonics is sound, so the book is published. The book becomes a selection of the Book of the Month Club and is published in nine languages. Ettinger becomes a media celebrity, discussed in many periodicals, television shows, and radio programs.<ref name="regis87"/>
1964cryonicsfuturism{{W|Robert Ettinger}}{{W|Robert Ettinger}}'s ''The Prospect of Immortality'' finally attracts the attention of a major publisher, Doubleday, which sends a copy to [[wikipedia:Isaac Asimov|Isaac Asimov]]; Asimov says that the science behind cryonics is sound, so the book is published. The book becomes a selection of the Book of the Month Club and is published in nine languages. Ettinger becomes a media celebrity, discussed in many periodicals, television shows, and radio programs.
<ref name="regis87"/>
28
241964-01-01

|-
| 1964-01 || cryonics || social || newsletter || Life Extension Society || The first issue of the {{W|Life Extension Society}} Newsletter is published.<ref name="cryonics9208"/><ref name="firstNewsletter"/>
1964-01cryonicssocialnewsletterLife Extension SocietyThe first issue of the {{W|Life Extension Society}} Newsletter is published.
<ref name="cryonics9208"/><ref name="firstNewsletter"/>
29
general251965-01-01

|-
| 1965 || cryonics || social || || Karl Werner || Karl Werner coins the word "{{W|cryonics}}".<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory">{{Cite web|url=http://www.benbest.com/cryonics/history.html|title=A HISTORY OF CRYONICS|website=www.benbest.com|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
1965cryonicssocialKarl WernerKarl Werner coins the word "{{W|cryonics}}".
<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory">{{Cite web|url=http://www.benbest.com/cryonics/history.html|title=A HISTORY OF CRYONICS|website=www.benbest.com|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
30
261965-01-01

|-
| 1965 || cryonics || organization || founding || Cryonics Society of New York || The Cryonics Society of New York (CSNY) is founded by {{W|Saul Kent}}, {{W|Curtis Henderson}} and Karl Werner. CSNY is a non-profit organization contracting with the for-profit organization Cryospan for cryonics freezing and storage.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/><ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.theguardian.com/science/2009/nov/07/cryonics-british-dads-army|title=The Dad's Army of British cryonics|last=Hattenstone|first=Simon|date=2009-11-07|work=The Guardian|access-date=2019-01-22|language=en-GB|issn=0261-3077}}</ref>
1965cryonicsorganizationfoundingCryonics Society of New YorkThe Cryonics Society of New York (CSNY) is founded by {{W|Saul Kent}}, {{W|Curtis Henderson}} and Karl Werner. CSNY is a non-profit organization contracting with the for-profit organization Cryospan for cryonics freezing and storage.
<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/><ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.theguardian.com/science/2009/nov/07/cryonics-british-dads-army|title=The Dad's Army of British cryonics|last=Hattenstone|first=Simon|date=2009-11-07|work=The Guardian|access-date=2019-01-22|language=en-GB|issn=0261-3077}}</ref>
31
271965-03-01

|-
| 1965-03 || cryobiology || technological development || cryoprotection || James Farrant || James Farrant shows that viable ice-free cryopreservation of a highly organized tissue is possible and that eliminating ice formation, even at -79 °C, eliminates virtually all of the extensive mechanical (histological) and ultrastructural disruption observed with conventional cryoprotection and freezing of complex tissues.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=FARRANT|first=J.|date=March 1965|title=Mechanism of Cell Damage During Freezing and Thawing and its Prevention|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/2051284a0|journal=Nature|volume=205|issue=4978|pages=1284–1287|doi=10.1038/2051284a0|issn=0028-0836}}</ref>
1965-03cryobiologytechnological developmentcryoprotectionJames FarrantJames Farrant shows that viable ice-free cryopreservation of a highly organized tissue is possible and that eliminating ice formation, even at -79 °C, eliminates virtually all of the extensive mechanical (histological) and ultrastructural disruption observed with conventional cryoprotection and freezing of complex tissues.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=FARRANT|first=J.|date=March 1965|title=Mechanism of Cell Damage During Freezing and Thawing and its Prevention|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/2051284a0|journal=Nature|volume=205|issue=4978|pages=1284–1287|doi=10.1038/2051284a0|issn=0028-0836}}</ref>
32
281965-05-20

|-
| 1965-05-20 || cryonics || || || {{W|Life Extension Society}} || Wilma Jean McLaughlin of Springfield, Ohio dies from heart and circulatory problems. Ev Cooper would fill a report the following day "The woman who almost became the first person frozen for a possible reanimation in the future died yesterday." The attempt to freeze her is abandoned. While reports on this event would vary, many would mention the lack of preparation, cooperation from various people, and explicit consent as obstacles to the freezing.<ref name="BedfordSuspension">{{Cite web|url=https://alcor.org/Library/html/BedfordSuspension.html|title=The First Cryonic Suspension|website=alcor.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
1965-05-20cryonics{{W|Life Extension Society}}Wilma Jean McLaughlin of Springfield, Ohio dies from heart and circulatory problems. Ev Cooper would fill a report the following day "The woman who almost became the first person frozen for a possible reanimation in the future died yesterday." The attempt to freeze her is abandoned. While reports on this event would vary, many would mention the lack of preparation, cooperation from various people, and explicit consent as obstacles to the freezing.
<ref name="BedfordSuspension">{{Cite web|url=https://alcor.org/Library/html/BedfordSuspension.html|title=The First Cryonic Suspension|website=alcor.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
33
291965-06-01

|-
| 1965-06 || cryonics || organization || milestone || {{W|Life Extension Society}} || The {{W|Life Extension Society}} offers to freeze the first person for free: "The {{W|Life Extension Society}} now has primitive facilities for emergency short term freezing and storing our friend the large homeotherm (man). LES offers to freeze free of charge the first person desirous and in need of cryogenic suspension." No one would take them on their offer.<ref name="BedfordSuspension"/>
1965-06cryonicsorganizationmilestone{{W|Life Extension Society}}The {{W|Life Extension Society}} offers to freeze the first person for free: "The {{W|Life Extension Society}} now has primitive facilities for emergency short term freezing and storing our friend the large homeotherm (man). LES offers to freeze free of charge the first person desirous and in need of cryogenic suspension." No one would take them on their offer.
<ref name="BedfordSuspension"/>
Freeze-Wait-Reanimate, Jun. 1965, p.1.
34
311966-01-01

|-
| 1966 || cryonics || organization || founding || Immortalist Soceity || The Cryonics Society of Michigan (later renamed the Cryonics Association, and then, in 1985, the {{W|Immortalist Society}}) is founded with Ettinger elected as its president.<ref name="CorpSummary">{{Cite web|url=https://cofs.lara.state.mi.us/CorpWeb/CorpSearch/CorpSummary.aspx?ID=800832595&SEARCH_TYPE=1|title=Search Summary State of Michigan Corporations Division|website=cofs.lara.state.mi.us|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
1966cryonicsorganizationfoundingImmortalist SoceityThe Cryonics Society of Michigan (later renamed the Cryonics Association, and then, in 1985, the {{W|Immortalist Society}}) is founded with Ettinger elected as its president.
<ref name="CorpSummary">{{Cite web|url=https://cofs.lara.state.mi.us/CorpWeb/CorpSearch/CorpSummary.aspx?ID=800832595&SEARCH_TYPE=1|title=Search Summary State of Michigan Corporations Division|website=cofs.lara.state.mi.us|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
35
321966-01-01

|-
| 1966 || cryonics || organization || founding || Cryonics Society of California || The Cryonics Society of California (CSC) is founded by Robert Nelson. CSC is a non-profit organization contracting with the for-profit organization Cryonic Interment for cryonics freezing and storage. Cryonics Interment would later be renamed General Fluidics by Robert Nelson and Marshal Neel.<ref name="SuspensionFailures"/><ref name="CorpSummary"/>
1966cryonicsorganizationfoundingCryonics Society of CaliforniaThe Cryonics Society of California (CSC) is founded by Robert Nelson. CSC is a non-profit organization contracting with the for-profit organization Cryonic Interment for cryonics freezing and storage. Cryonics Interment would later be renamed General Fluidics by Robert Nelson and Marshal Neel.
<ref name="SuspensionFailures"/><ref name="CorpSummary"/>
https://www.reddit.com/r/longevity/comments/ajanjs/timeline_of_cryonics/?sort=old
36
331966-01-01

|-
| 1966 || cryobiology || science || fracturing || Kroener and Luyet || Kroener and Luyet observe fracturing in vitrified glycerol solutions.<ref name="IntermediateTemperatureStorage">{{Cite web|url=https://alcor.org/Library/html/IntermediateTemperatureStorage.html|title=Systems for Intermediate Temperature Storage for Fracture Reduction and Avoidance|website=alcor.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Kroener|first=C.|last2=Luyet|first2=B.|date=1966|title=Formation of cracks during the vitrification of glycerol solutions and disappearance of the cracks during rewarming|url=|journal=Biodynamica|volume=10|pages=47-52|via=}}</ref>
1966cryobiologysciencefracturingKroener and LuyetKroener and Luyet observe fracturing in vitrified glycerol solutions.
<ref name="IntermediateTemperatureStorage">{{Cite web|url=https://alcor.org/Library/html/IntermediateTemperatureStorage.html|title=Systems for Intermediate Temperature Storage for Fracture Reduction and Avoidance|website=alcor.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Kroener|first=C.|last2=Luyet|first2=B.|date=1966|title=Formation of cracks during the vitrification of glycerol solutions and disappearance of the cracks during rewarming|url=|journal=Biodynamica|volume=10|pages=47-52|via=}}</ref>
37
341966-04-22

|-
| 1966-04-22 || cryonics || || milestone || Cryo-Care Equipment Corporation || An elderly woman (probably from Los Angeles{{snd}}never identified) who has been embalmed for two months and maintained slightly above-freezing temperature is straight-frozen.<ref name="BedfordSuspension"/> There is some thought of the cryonics premise of eventual reanimation, but within a year she would be thawed and buried by relatives.<ref>{{Cite book|title=We Froze the First Man|last=F. Nelson|first=Robert|last2=Stanley|first2=Sandra|publisher=Dell|year=1968|isbn=|location=New York|pages=17-20}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Kraver|first=Ted|date=March 1989|title=Notes on the First Human Freezing|url=|journal=Cryonics|volume=|pages=11-21|via=}}</ref>
1966-04-22cryonicsmilestoneCryo-Care Equipment CorporationAn elderly woman (probably from Los Angeles{{snd}}never identified) who has been embalmed for two months and maintained slightly above-freezing temperature is straight-frozen.<ref name="BedfordSuspension"/> There is some thought of the cryonics premise of eventual reanimation, but within a year she would be thawed and buried by relatives.
<ref>{{Cite book|title=We Froze the First Man|last=F. Nelson|first=Robert|last2=Stanley|first2=Sandra|publisher=Dell|year=1968|isbn=|location=New York|pages=17-20}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Kraver|first=Ted|date=March 1989|title=Notes on the First Human Freezing|url=|journal=Cryonics|volume=|pages=11-21|via=}}</ref>
Los Angeles
Freeze-Wait-Reanimate, May 1966, 1-2
Freeze-Wait-Reanimate, Feb. 1967, p.4.
38
351966-10-15

|-
| 1966-10-15 || cryonics || science || || Adachi, et al. || Recovery of brain electrical activity after freezing to −20 °C is demonstrated.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Adachi|first=C.|last2=Kito|first2=K.|last3=Suda|first3=I.|date=1966-10-15|title=Viability of Long Term Frozen Cat Brain In Vitro|url=https://www.nature.com/articles/212268a0|journal=Nature|language=en|volume=212|issue=5059|pages=268–270|doi=10.1038/212268a0|issn=1476-4687}}</ref>
1966-10-15cryonicsscienceAdachi, et al.Recovery of brain electrical activity after freezing to −20 °C is demonstrated.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Adachi|first=C.|last2=Kito|first2=K.|last3=Suda|first3=I.|date=1966-10-15|title=Viability of Long Term Frozen Cat Brain In Vitro|url=https://www.nature.com/articles/212268a0|journal=Nature|language=en|volume=212|issue=5059|pages=268–270|doi=10.1038/212268a0|issn=1476-4687}}</ref>
39
general361967-01-12

|-
| 1967-01-12 || cryonics || technological adoption || cryonics || Cryonics Society of California || {{W|James Bedford}} is the first human to be cryopreserved.

The freezing is carried out by affiliates of the newly-formed Cryonics Society of California: {{W|Robert Prehoda}}, author and cryobiological researcher; Dante Brunol, physician and biophysicist; and Robert Nelson, President of the Society. Also assisting is Bedford's physician, Renault Able.

6 days later, relatives would move Bedford to the Cryo-Care facility in Phoenix. Later, his son would store him, and finally, on September 22, 1987, Bedford would be moved to Alcor.<ref name="BedfordSuspension"/><ref name="AlcorCase">{{Cite web|url=https://alcor.org/cases.html|title=Alcor Cases|website=alcor.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1997/01/12/magazine/still-frozen-after-all-these-years.html|title=Still Frozen After All These Years|date=1997-01-12|work=The New York Times|access-date=2019-02-15|language=en-US|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
1967-01-12cryonicstechnological adoptioncryonicsCryonics Society of California{{W|James Bedford}} is the first human to be cryopreserved.

The freezing is carried out by affiliates of the newly-formed Cryonics Society of California: {{W|Robert Prehoda}}, author and cryobiological researcher; Dante Brunol, physician and biophysicist; and Robert Nelson, President of the Society. Also assisting is Bedford's physician, Renault Able.

6 days later, relatives would move Bedford to the Cryo-Care facility in Phoenix. Later, his son would store him, and finally, on September 22, 1987, Bedford would be moved to Alcor.
<ref name="BedfordSuspension"/><ref name="AlcorCase">{{Cite web|url=https://alcor.org/cases.html|title=Alcor Cases|website=alcor.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref><ref>{{Cite news|url=https://www.nytimes.com/1997/01/12/magazine/still-frozen-after-all-these-years.html|title=Still Frozen After All These Years|date=1997-01-12|work=The New York Times|access-date=2019-02-15|language=en-US|issn=0362-4331}}</ref>
Glendale, CA
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| 1968 || cryonics || organization || status || Cryo-Care Equipment Corporation || Ed Hope closes Cryo-Care Equipment Corporation after seeing it wouldn't turn a profit. The remaining patients are turned over to other organizations or to relatives.<ref name="SuspensionFailures">{{Cite web|url=https://www.alcor.org/Library/html/suspensionfailures.html|title=Suspension Failures - Lessons from the Early Days|website=www.alcor.org|access-date=2019-01-21}}</ref>
1968cryonicsorganizationstatusCryo-Care Equipment CorporationEd Hope closes Cryo-Care Equipment Corporation after seeing it wouldn't turn a profit. The remaining patients are turned over to other organizations or to relatives.
<ref name="SuspensionFailures">{{Cite web|url=https://www.alcor.org/Library/html/suspensionfailures.html|title=Suspension Failures - Lessons from the Early Days|website=www.alcor.org|access-date=2019-01-21}}</ref>
Cryonics Reports Sep. 1968, 166
CFDA Newsbulletin Nov.-Dec. 1969, 2
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| 1968 || cryobiology || technological development || cryoprotection || || Dog kidneys are cryopreserved using Farrant's technique resulting in no ice formation and with excellent structural preservation, and the ability to tolerate reperfusion with blood in the animal without immediate failure.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Kemp|first=E.|last2=Clark|first2=P. B.|last3=Anderson|first3=C. K.|last4=Laursen|first4=T.|last5=Parsons|first5=F. M.|date=1968|title=Low temperature preservation of mammalian kidneys|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4893380|journal=Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology|volume=2|issue=3|pages=183–190|issn=0036-5599|pmid=4893380}}</ref>
1968cryobiologytechnological developmentcryoprotectionDog kidneys are cryopreserved using Farrant's technique resulting in no ice formation and with excellent structural preservation, and the ability to tolerate reperfusion with blood in the animal without immediate failure.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Kemp|first=E.|last2=Clark|first2=P. B.|last3=Anderson|first3=C. K.|last4=Laursen|first4=T.|last5=Parsons|first5=F. M.|date=1968|title=Low temperature preservation of mammalian kidneys|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4893380|journal=Scandinavian Journal of Urology and Nephrology|volume=2|issue=3|pages=183–190|issn=0036-5599|pmid=4893380}}</ref>
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|-
| 1968-02 || reanimatology || science || || Ames, et al. || Ames, et al., discover the cerebral no-re-flow phenomenon which prevents adequate reperfusion of the brain after ~10 minutes of global cerebral ischemia and identifies this as the likely cause of failure to achieve brain resuscitation after 6-10 minutes of normothermic ischemia rather than the acute death of brain cells as the supposed cause.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Ames|first=A.|last2=Wright|first2=R. L.|last3=Kowada|first3=M.|last4=Thurston|first4=J. M.|last5=Majno|first5=G.|date=Feb 1968|title=Cerebral ischemia. II. The no-reflow phenomenon.|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2013326/|journal=The American Journal of Pathology|volume=52|issue=2|pages=437–453|issn=0002-9440|pmc=2013326|pmid=5635861}}</ref>
1968-02reanimatologyscienceAmes, et al.Ames, et al., discover the cerebral no-re-flow phenomenon which prevents adequate reperfusion of the brain after ~10 minutes of global cerebral ischemia and identifies this as the likely cause of failure to achieve brain resuscitation after 6-10 minutes of normothermic ischemia rather than the acute death of brain cells as the supposed cause.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Ames|first=A.|last2=Wright|first2=R. L.|last3=Kowada|first3=M.|last4=Thurston|first4=J. M.|last5=Majno|first5=G.|date=Feb 1968|title=Cerebral ischemia. II. The no-reflow phenomenon.|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2013326/|journal=The American Journal of Pathology|volume=52|issue=2|pages=437–453|issn=0002-9440|pmc=2013326|pmid=5635861}}</ref>
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| 1969 || cryonics || organization || founding || {{W|American Cryonics Society}} || The Bay Area Cryonics Society is founded by two physicians, the prominent allergist and editor of [[wikipedia:Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology|Annals of Allergy]], Dr. M. Coleman Harris, and Dr. Grace Talbot. It would be renamed to the {{W|American Cryonics Society}} in 1985.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://businesssearch.sos.ca.gov/CBS/SearchResults?SearchType=NUMBER&SearchCriteria=C0587199|title=Business Search - Business Entities - Business Programs {{!}} California Secretary of State|website=businesssearch.sos.ca.gov|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.americancryonics.org/|title=American Cryonics Society - Human Cryopreservation Services for the 21st Century|website=www.americancryonics.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
1969cryonicsorganizationfounding{{W|American Cryonics Society}}The Bay Area Cryonics Society is founded by two physicians, the prominent allergist and editor of [[wikipedia:Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology|Annals of Allergy]], Dr. M. Coleman Harris, and Dr. Grace Talbot. It would be renamed to the {{W|American Cryonics Society}} in 1985.
<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://businesssearch.sos.ca.gov/CBS/SearchResults?SearchType=NUMBER&SearchCriteria=C0587199|title=Business Search - Business Entities - Business Programs {{!}} California Secretary of State|website=businesssearch.sos.ca.gov|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.americancryonics.org/|title=American Cryonics Society - Human Cryopreservation Services for the 21st Century|website=www.americancryonics.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
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|-
| 1969 || cryonics || social || || Evan Cooper || Cooper ends his involvement in cryonics. He feels overloaded and burned-out, and thinks cryonics is not going to be a viable option for himself for practical (political, social, economic) reasons and that he is not going to spend the time he had left trying to obtain the impossible. He is also concerned with the commercial and political aspects within cryonics.<ref name="cryonet23124"/>
1969cryonicssocialEvan CooperCooper ends his involvement in cryonics. He feels overloaded and burned-out, and thinks cryonics is not going to be a viable option for himself for practical (political, social, economic) reasons and that he is not going to spend the time he had left trying to obtain the impossible. He is also concerned with the commercial and political aspects within cryonics.
<ref name="cryonet23124"/>
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431969-04-11

|-
| 1969-04-11 || cryonics || futurism || || Jerome White || Jerome White, one of the founders of the Bay Area Cryonics Society, proposes the use of specially engineered viruses to effect repair of cells that are damaged by freezing and compromised by aging.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=White|first=J. B.|date=1969-04-11|title=Viral Induced Repair of Damaged Neurons with Preservation of Long-Term Information Content,|url=https://alcor.org/Library/pdfs/White1969.pdf|journal=Second Annual Cryonics Conference|volume=|pages=|via=|location=Ann Arbor, Michigan}}</ref>
1969-04-11cryonicsfuturismJerome WhiteJerome White, one of the founders of the Bay Area Cryonics Society, proposes the use of specially engineered viruses to effect repair of cells that are damaged by freezing and compromised by aging.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=White|first=J. B.|date=1969-04-11|title=Viral Induced Repair of Damaged Neurons with Preservation of Long-Term Information Content,|url=https://alcor.org/Library/pdfs/White1969.pdf|journal=Second Annual Cryonics Conference|volume=|pages=|via=|location=Ann Arbor, Michigan}}</ref>
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441970-01-01

|-
| 1970 || cryonics || science || || Hossmann, Sato || Hossmann and Sato demonstrate that, contrary to decades of biomedical dogma, it is possible to restore robust electrical activity and demonstrate evoked potentials in cat brains that had been subjected to 1 hour of normothermic ischemia. This marks the beginning of the debunking of 3-6 minute limit on brain viability under conditions of normothermic ischemia. It also shows that brain cells do not undergo autolysis after ~10 minutes of normothermic ischemia, a view that was commonly held by both many physicians and neurologists prior to this time.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Hossmann|first=K. -A.|last2=Sato|first2=K.|date=1970|title=The effect of ischemia on sensorimotor cortex of cat|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf00316134|journal=Zeitschrift für Neurologie|volume=198|issue=1|pages=33–45|doi=10.1007/bf00316134|issn=0340-5354}}</ref>
1970cryonicsscienceHossmann, SatoHossmann and Sato demonstrate that, contrary to decades of biomedical dogma, it is possible to restore robust electrical activity and demonstrate evoked potentials in cat brains that had been subjected to 1 hour of normothermic ischemia. This marks the beginning of the debunking of 3-6 minute limit on brain viability under conditions of normothermic ischemia. It also shows that brain cells do not undergo autolysis after ~10 minutes of normothermic ischemia, a view that was commonly held by both many physicians and neurologists prior to this time.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Hossmann|first=K. -A.|last2=Sato|first2=K.|date=1970|title=The effect of ischemia on sensorimotor cortex of cat|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/bf00316134|journal=Zeitschrift für Neurologie|volume=198|issue=1|pages=33–45|doi=10.1007/bf00316134|issn=0340-5354}}</ref>
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| 1970 || cryonics || organization || founding || Cryonics Society of America || The Cryonics Society of America (CSA) is incorporated.

The purpose of the CSA is to establish “standards and practices” of operations for all of the cryonics societies, to mandate validation of human freezing by requiring the submission of photographic proof along with a death certificate, and a description of the procedure used and the location where the patient was being stored (essentially establishing a registry of cryonics patients). It is also created to allow for the creation of a Scientific Advisory Board which would, in fact, formed in March of 1968. CSA itself never got off the ground due to noncompliance with the "standards and practices" by the Cryonics Society of California.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://appext20.dos.ny.gov/corp_public/CORPSEARCH.ENTITY_INFORMATION?p_token=7361B53D067A654A76A77C3D820968CE25ADADB428A2F2B69B4B1B434D5CDC52D3EF5B4A61760545D791DA3D1A8E4D7F&p_nameid=4A504BB578548E78&p_corpid=A70384D2E44B2C90&p_captcha=11476&p_captcha_check=7361B53D067A654A76A77C3D820968CE25ADADB428A2F2B69B4B1B434D5CDC527922A9872C775310E6F079882FB316C3&p_entity_name=cryonics%20society&p_name_type=A&p_search_type=BEGINS&p_srch_results_page=0|title=Informational Message|website=appext20.dos.ny.gov|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
1970cryonicsorganizationfoundingCryonics Society of AmericaThe Cryonics Society of America (CSA) is incorporated.

The purpose of the CSA is to establish “standards and practices” of operations for all of the cryonics societies, to mandate validation of human freezing by requiring the submission of photographic proof along with a death certificate, and a description of the procedure used and the location where the patient was being stored (essentially establishing a registry of cryonics patients). It is also created to allow for the creation of a Scientific Advisory Board which would, in fact, formed in March of 1968. CSA itself never got off the ground due to noncompliance with the "standards and practices" by the Cryonics Society of California.
<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://appext20.dos.ny.gov/corp_public/CORPSEARCH.ENTITY_INFORMATION?p_token=7361B53D067A654A76A77C3D820968CE25ADADB428A2F2B69B4B1B434D5CDC52D3EF5B4A61760545D791DA3D1A8E4D7F&p_nameid=4A504BB578548E78&p_corpid=A70384D2E44B2C90&p_captcha=11476&p_captcha_check=7361B53D067A654A76A77C3D820968CE25ADADB428A2F2B69B4B1B434D5CDC527922A9872C775310E6F079882FB316C3&p_entity_name=cryonics%20society&p_name_type=A&p_search_type=BEGINS&p_srch_results_page=0|title=Informational Message|website=appext20.dos.ny.gov|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
https://www.reddit.com/r/longevity/comments/ajanjs/timeline_of_cryonics/?sort=old
Cryonics Reports 3(9)1968: pp. 161-71
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|-
| 1970-05-15 || cryonics || organization || status || Cryonics Society of California || Nelson moves the 4 patients from the Cryonics Society of California into an underground vault he recently had designed and built under the aegis of Cryonics Interment. The vault is located in Oakwood Cemetery in {{W|Chatsworth, Los Angeles}}.<ref name="SuspensionFailures"/>
1970-05-15cryonicsorganizationstatusCryonics Society of CaliforniaNelson moves the 4 patients from the Cryonics Society of California into an underground vault he recently had designed and built under the aegis of Cryonics Interment. The vault is located in Oakwood Cemetery in {{W|Chatsworth, Los Angeles}}.
<ref name="SuspensionFailures"/>
Chatsworth, CA
Los Angeles Superior Court case C-161229, records of Oakwood Memorial Park Cemetery, Chatsworth, Calif.
49
471970-05-22

|-
| 1970-05-22 || cryobiology || science || theory || Peter Mazur || Peter Mazur publishes his “two-factor theory” elucidating the basic mechanisms of freezing damage to living cells: solution effects injury and/or intracellular freezing. This insight facilitates a more rational design of freezing and thawing protocols allowing the development of freezing techniques for animal embryos.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Mazur|first=P.|date=1970-05-22|title=Cryobiology: the freezing of biological systems|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5462399|journal=Science (New York, N.Y.)|volume=168|issue=3934|pages=939–949|issn=0036-8075|pmid=5462399}}</ref>
1970-05-22cryobiologysciencetheoryPeter MazurPeter Mazur publishes his “two-factor theory” elucidating the basic mechanisms of freezing damage to living cells: solution effects injury and/or intracellular freezing. This insight facilitates a more rational design of freezing and thawing protocols allowing the development of freezing techniques for animal embryos.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Mazur|first=P.|date=1970-05-22|title=Cryobiology: the freezing of biological systems|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5462399|journal=Science (New York, N.Y.)|volume=168|issue=3934|pages=939–949|issn=0036-8075|pmid=5462399}}</ref>
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| 1971 || resuscitation || science || || Hossmann || Hossmann demonstrates the possible recovery of the cat brain after complete ischemia for 1 hour. The field of cerebral resuscitation is born.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Hossmann|first=K.-A.|last2=Lechtape-Grüter|first2=H.|date=1971|title=Blood Flow and Recovery of the Cat Brain after Complete Ischemia for 1 Hour|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000114515|journal=European Neurology|volume=6|issue=1-6|pages=318–322|doi=10.1159/000114515|issn=0014-3022}}</ref>
1971resuscitationscienceHossmannHossmann demonstrates the possible recovery of the cat brain after complete ischemia for 1 hour. The field of cerebral resuscitation is born.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Hossmann|first=K.-A.|last2=Lechtape-Grüter|first2=H.|date=1971|title=Blood Flow and Recovery of the Cat Brain after Complete Ischemia for 1 Hour|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000114515|journal=European Neurology|volume=6|issue=1-6|pages=318–322|doi=10.1159/000114515|issn=0014-3022}}</ref>
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| 1971 || cryonics || futurism || || Martin || Cryonics by neuropreservation is proposed.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Martin|first=George M.|date=1971|title=On Immortality: An Interim Solution|url=https://muse.jhu.edu/article/404700/summary|journal=Perspectives in Biology and Medicine|language=en|volume=14|issue=2|pages=339–340|doi=10.1353/pbm.1971.0015|issn=1529-8795}}</ref>
1971cryonicsfuturismMartinCryonics by neuropreservation is proposed.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Martin|first=George M.|date=1971|title=On Immortality: An Interim Solution|url=https://muse.jhu.edu/article/404700/summary|journal=Perspectives in Biology and Medicine|language=en|volume=14|issue=2|pages=339–340|doi=10.1353/pbm.1971.0015|issn=1529-8795}}</ref>
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| 1971-08 || cryonics || social || journal || Manrise Technical Review || Fred and Linda Chamberlain begin publishing a bi-monthly technical journal, Manrise Technical Review and in 1972 they publish the first comprehensive technical manual of human cryopreservation procedures. This marks the beginning of a biomedically informed and rigorously scientific approach to cryonics. In this manual, the Chamberlains suggest application of the Farrant technique to cryonics patients.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Chamberlain|first=FR|last2=Chamberlain|first2=LL|date=1972|title=Instructions for the Induction of Solid State Hypothermia|url=|journal=Manrise Corporation|location=La Canada, CA|volume=|pages=|via=}}</ref>
1971-08cryonicssocialjournalManrise Technical ReviewFred and Linda Chamberlain begin publishing a bi-monthly technical journal, Manrise Technical Review and in 1972 they publish the first comprehensive technical manual of human cryopreservation procedures. This marks the beginning of a biomedically informed and rigorously scientific approach to cryonics. In this manual, the Chamberlains suggest application of the Farrant technique to cryonics patients.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Chamberlain|first=FR|last2=Chamberlain|first2=LL|date=1972|title=Instructions for the Induction of Solid State Hypothermia|url=|journal=Manrise Corporation|location=La Canada, CA|volume=|pages=|via=}}</ref>
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481971-12-01

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| 1971 (end of) - 1979-04 || cryonics || organization || status || Cryonics Society of California || 9 patients are thawed by the Cryonics Society of California. This would become known as the Chatsworth Scandal because the patients were stored in an underground vault at a cemetery in Chatsworth.<ref name="SuspensionFailures"/>
1971 (end of) - 1979-04
cryonicsorganizationstatusCryonics Society of California9 patients are thawed by the Cryonics Society of California. This would become known as the Chatsworth Scandal because the patients were stored in an underground vault at a cemetery in Chatsworth.
<ref name="SuspensionFailures"/>
Chatsworth, CA
"Patient Russ Stanley had paid the fee required by CSC for "indefinite maintenance" with his life insurance policy and retirement payout from the Santa Fe Railroad where had been employed for most of his working life ($15,000). Similarly, the sons of patient Mildred Harris, Terry, and Dennis Harris, had paid Nelson a one-time fee of $15,000 for "indefinite maintenance" of their mother. An Orange County District attorney who had his small boy frozen with CI was continuing to make regular payments. This information is available in the civil trial transcripts from when Nelson was sued for allowing the CI patients to thaw out and decompose in what came to be known in cryonics as the "Chatsworth Scandal". Nelson, and his deep-pocket associate, mortician Joseph Klockgether were found guilty by the jury and a $250,000 ($1,550,043.21 in today's dollars) judgment was entered against them (Los Angeles Superior Court case C-161229, Judgment on Verdict in Open Court (Long Form) D-14 (Jun. 5, 1981)). A good account of the Chatsworth Scandal can be found here: https://alcor.org/Library/html/suspensionfailures.html"
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| 1972 || cryonics || technological adoption || || Trans Time || A collaborative working group led by Trans Time President Art Quaife and consisting of Gregory Fahy, Peter Gouras, M.D., Fred, and Linda Chamberlain and Mike Darwin begin working on a standardized protocol for the cryoprotection of cryonics patients. Quaife publishes the first results of this effort, a modification of Collins’ organ preservation solution for use as the carrier solution for Me2SO during cryoprotective perfusion. This marks the first attempt at creating a standardized, science-based human cryopreservation protocol.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Quaife|first=A.|date=1972|title=Recommended modification to Collins’ solution for use as the base perfusate for inducing SSH|url=|journal=Manrise Technical Review|volume=2|pages=3-9|via=}}</ref>
1972cryonicstechnological adoptionTrans TimeA collaborative working group led by Trans Time President Art Quaife and consisting of Gregory Fahy, Peter Gouras, M.D., Fred, and Linda Chamberlain and Mike Darwin begin working on a standardized protocol for the cryoprotection of cryonics patients. Quaife publishes the first results of this effort, a modification of Collins’ organ preservation solution for use as the carrier solution for Me2SO during cryoprotective perfusion. This marks the first attempt at creating a standardized, science-based human cryopreservation protocol.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Quaife|first=A.|date=1972|title=Recommended modification to Collins’ solution for use as the base perfusate for inducing SSH|url=|journal=Manrise Technical Review|volume=2|pages=3-9|via=}}</ref>
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|-
| 1972 || cryonics || organization || founding || Trans Time || Trans Time, Inc., (TT) a cryonics service provider, is founded by Art Quaife, along with John Day, Paul Segall and other cryonicists. It is a for-profit organization. It's initially a perfusion service-provider for the Bay Area Cryonics Society. They buy the perfusion equipment from Manrise Corporation.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/> They would be the first to undertake the effort of clarifying legal issues around cryonics, and to actively market cryonics.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/> The name "Trans Time" is inspired by Trans World Airlines, a prominent airline.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://hpluspedia.org/wiki/History_of_cryonics#Chatsworth_Scandal|title=History of cryonics - H+Pedia|website=hpluspedia.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://businesssearch.sos.ca.gov/CBS/SearchResults?SearchType=NUMBER&SearchCriteria=C0647293|title=Business Search - Business Entities - Business Programs {{!}} California Secretary of State|website=businesssearch.sos.ca.gov|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
1972cryonicsorganizationfoundingTrans TimeTrans Time, Inc., (TT) a cryonics service provider, is founded by Art Quaife, along with John Day, Paul Segall and other cryonicists. It is a for-profit organization. It's initially a perfusion service-provider for the Bay Area Cryonics Society. They buy the perfusion equipment from Manrise Corporation.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/> They would be the first to undertake the effort of clarifying legal issues around cryonics, and to actively market cryonics.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/> The name "Trans Time" is inspired by Trans World Airlines, a prominent airline.
<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://hpluspedia.org/wiki/History_of_cryonics#Chatsworth_Scandal|title=History of cryonics - H+Pedia|website=hpluspedia.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://businesssearch.sos.ca.gov/CBS/SearchResults?SearchType=NUMBER&SearchCriteria=C0647293|title=Business Search - Business Entities - Business Programs {{!}} California Secretary of State|website=businesssearch.sos.ca.gov|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
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| 1972 || cryonics || || || {{W|Mike Darwin}} || {{W|Mike Darwin}} is the first full-time cryonics researcher. He would work at Alcor for a year.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistoryImmortalist">{{Cite web|url=http://www.cryonics.org/immortalist/november08/History.pdf|title=A History of Cryonics|last=Best|first=Ben|date=2008-11-08|website=Cryonics Institute|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130628112826/http://www.cryonics.org/immortalist/november08/History.pdf|archive-date=2013-06-28|dead-url=|access-date=}}</ref>
1972cryonics{{W|Mike Darwin}}{{W|Mike Darwin}} is the first full-time cryonics researcher. He would work at Alcor for a year.
<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistoryImmortalist">{{Cite web|url=http://www.cryonics.org/immortalist/november08/History.pdf|title=A History of Cryonics|last=Best|first=Ben|date=2008-11-08|website=Cryonics Institute|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20130628112826/http://www.cryonics.org/immortalist/november08/History.pdf|archive-date=2013-06-28|dead-url=|access-date=}}</ref>
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| 1972-01-12 || suspended animation || technological adoption || || Klebanoff || Klebanoff reports survival of the first human after blood washout and induction of profound hypothermia with full recovery of health and normal mentation, Air Force Seargent Tor Olsen who, as of 2018, would still be alive and well.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Klebanoff|first=G.|last2=Hollander|first2=D.|last3=Cosimi|first3=A. B.|last4=Stanford|first4=W.|last5=Kemmerer|first5=W. T.|date=January 1972|title=Asanguineous hypothermic total body perfusion (TBW) in the treatment of stage IV hepatic coma|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5058015|journal=The Journal of Surgical Research|volume=12|issue=1|pages=1–7|issn=0022-4804|pmid=5058015}}</ref>
1972-01-12suspended animationtechnological adoptionKlebanoffKlebanoff reports survival of the first human after blood washout and induction of profound hypothermia with full recovery of health and normal mentation, Air Force Seargent Tor Olsen who, as of 2018, would still be alive and well.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Klebanoff|first=G.|last2=Hollander|first2=D.|last3=Cosimi|first3=A. B.|last4=Stanford|first4=W.|last5=Kemmerer|first5=W. T.|date=January 1972|title=Asanguineous hypothermic total body perfusion (TBW) in the treatment of stage IV hepatic coma|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/5058015|journal=The Journal of Surgical Research|volume=12|issue=1|pages=1–7|issn=0022-4804|pmid=5058015}}</ref>
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| 1972-02-23 || cryonics || organization || founding || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || The {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}}, a cryonics service provider, is founded by {{W|Fred and Linda Chamberlain}} in the State of California. The organization is named after a star in the Big Dipper used in ancient times as a test of visual acuity. It would serve as a response team for the Cryonics Society of California. Alcor is initially incorporated as the Alcor Society for Solid State Hypothermia, but would change its name to the "{{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}}" in 1977.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://businesssearch.sos.ca.gov/CBS/SearchResults?SearchType=NUMBER&SearchCriteria=C0645886|title=Business Search - Business Entities - Business Programs {{!}} California Secretary of State|website=businesssearch.sos.ca.gov|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
1972-02-23cryonicsorganizationfounding{{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}}The {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}}, a cryonics service provider, is founded by {{W|Fred and Linda Chamberlain}} in the State of California. The organization is named after a star in the Big Dipper used in ancient times as a test of visual acuity. It would serve as a response team for the Cryonics Society of California. Alcor is initially incorporated as the Alcor Society for Solid State Hypothermia, but would change its name to the "{{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}}" in 1977.
<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://businesssearch.sos.ca.gov/CBS/SearchResults?SearchType=NUMBER&SearchCriteria=C0645886|title=Business Search - Business Entities - Business Programs {{!}} California Secretary of State|website=businesssearch.sos.ca.gov|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
Alcor's office was never located in a "large van". Initially, the office was located in the home of Fred and Linda Chamberlain in La Crescenta, California, and after "Big Al", the mobile operating room was completed, the cryonics capability was moved to house on Foothill Blvd. In La Crescenta and later to a leased industrial bay on Tuxford Street in Sun Valley CA. This is where the cryopreservation of Fred Chamberlain, Jr., Alcor's first patient was carried out. It is not practical, and more arguably not possible to carry out cooling to LN2 temperature and long term storage in a van.
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| 1973-08 || cryobiology || technological development || cryoprotection, re-warming || Hamilton, Lehr || Hamilton and Lehr demonstrate successful preservation of canine small intestine allografts using Me2SO as the cryoprotectant, and cooling and warming using vascular perfusion with helium gas suggesting that even controlled cooling and emptying of the vasculature's fluid/ice are beneficial in organ freezing. The organ is successfully transplanted.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=LaRossa|first=D.|last2=Hamilton|first2=R.|last3=Ketterer|first3=F.|last4=Lehr|first4=H. B.|date=August 1973|title=Preservation of structure and function in canine small intestinal autografts after freezing|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4722678|journal=Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery|volume=52|issue=2|pages=174–177|issn=0032-1052|pmid=4722678}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.journalofsurgicalresearch.com/action/captchaChallenge?redirectUri=%2Farticle%2F0022-4804%2873%2990033-4%2Fpdf|title=Journal of Surgical Research|website=www.journalofsurgicalresearch.com|doi=10.1016/0022-4804(73)90033-4|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
1973-08cryobiologytechnological developmentcryoprotection, re-warmingHamilton, LehrHamilton and Lehr demonstrate successful preservation of canine small intestine allografts using Me2SO as the cryoprotectant, and cooling and warming using vascular perfusion with helium gas suggesting that even controlled cooling and emptying of the vasculature's fluid/ice are beneficial in organ freezing. The organ is successfully transplanted.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=LaRossa|first=D.|last2=Hamilton|first2=R.|last3=Ketterer|first3=F.|last4=Lehr|first4=H. B.|date=August 1973|title=Preservation of structure and function in canine small intestinal autografts after freezing|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/4722678|journal=Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery|volume=52|issue=2|pages=174–177|issn=0032-1052|pmid=4722678}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.journalofsurgicalresearch.com/action/captchaChallenge?redirectUri=%2Farticle%2F0022-4804%2873%2990033-4%2Fpdf|title=Journal of Surgical Research|website=www.journalofsurgicalresearch.com|doi=10.1016/0022-4804(73)90033-4|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
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| 1973-03 || cryonics || science || || Cryonics Society of New York || Fahy and Darwin publish the first technical case report documenting the procedures, problems, and responses of a human patient (Clara Dostal) to cryoprotective perfusion and freezing. The report is severely critical of the way cryonics patients are being treated and suggests many reform and improvements.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Federowicz|first=MD|date=1973|title=Perfusion and freezing of a 60-year-old woman|url=http://www.lifepact.com/images/MTRV3N1.pdf|journal=Manrise Technical Review|volume=3(1)|pages=9-32|access-date=2010-08-31|via=}}</ref>
1973-03cryonicsscienceCryonics Society of New YorkFahy and Darwin publish the first technical case report documenting the procedures, problems, and responses of a human patient (Clara Dostal) to cryoprotective perfusion and freezing. The report is severely critical of the way cryonics patients are being treated and suggests many reform and improvements.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Federowicz|first=MD|date=1973|title=Perfusion and freezing of a 60-year-old woman|url=http://www.lifepact.com/images/MTRV3N1.pdf|journal=Manrise Technical Review|volume=3(1)|pages=9-32|access-date=2010-08-31|via=}}</ref>
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| 1974 || cryonics || organization || status || Trans Time || Due to the closure of the storage facility in New York, the Bay Area Cryonics Society and the {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} change their plan to preserve their patients to the Trans Time facility instead of the New York one, and would do so until the 1980s.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/>
1974cryonicsorganizationstatusTrans TimeDue to the closure of the storage facility in New York, the Bay Area Cryonics Society and the {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} change their plan to preserve their patients to the Trans Time facility instead of the New York one, and would do so until the 1980s.
<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/>
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| 1974 || cryonics || science || || Suda, et al. || Partial recovery of brain electrical activity after 7 years of frozen storage is demonstrated.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Suda|first=Isamu|last2=Kito|first2=Kyoko|last3=Adachi|first3=Chizuko|date=1974-04-26|title=Bioelectric discharges of isolated cat brain after revival from years of frozen storage|url=http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0006899374902637|journal=Brain Research|volume=70|issue=3|pages=527–531|doi=10.1016/0006-8993(74)90263-7|issn=0006-8993}}</ref>
1974cryonicsscienceSuda, et al.Partial recovery of brain electrical activity after 7 years of frozen storage is demonstrated.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Suda|first=Isamu|last2=Kito|first2=Kyoko|last3=Adachi|first3=Chizuko|date=1974-04-26|title=Bioelectric discharges of isolated cat brain after revival from years of frozen storage|url=http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0006899374902637|journal=Brain Research|volume=70|issue=3|pages=527–531|doi=10.1016/0006-8993(74)90263-7|issn=0006-8993}}</ref>
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611974-01-01

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| 1974 || cryonics || organization || status || Cryonics Society of New York || {{W|Curtis Henderson}}, who has been maintaining three cryonics patients for the Cryonics Society of New York, is told by the New York Department of Public Health that he must close down his cryonics facility. The three cryonics patients are returned to their families, and would later be thawed.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/>
1974cryonicsorganizationstatusCryonics Society of New York{{W|Curtis Henderson}}, who has been maintaining three cryonics patients for the Cryonics Society of New York, is told by the New York Department of Public Health that he must close down his cryonics facility. The three cryonics patients are returned to their families, and would later be thawed.
<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/>
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621975-07-01

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| 1975-07 || suspended animation || technological development || || Gerald Klebanoff || Gerald Klebanoff demonstrates the recovery of dogs from total blood washout and profound hypothermia with no neurological deficit using a defined asanguineous solution. Klebanoff documents the critical importance of adequate amounts of colloid in the perfusate to prevent death from pulmonary edema.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Haff|first=R. C.|last2=Klebanoff|first2=G.|last3=Brown|first3=B. G.|last4=Koreski|first4=W. R.|date=July 1975|title=Asanguineous hypothermic perfusion as a means of total organism preservation|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1142760|journal=The Journal of Surgical Research|volume=19|issue=1|pages=13–19|issn=0022-4804|pmid=1142760}}</ref>
1975-07suspended animationtechnological developmentGerald KlebanoffGerald Klebanoff demonstrates the recovery of dogs from total blood washout and profound hypothermia with no neurological deficit using a defined asanguineous solution. Klebanoff documents the critical importance of adequate amounts of colloid in the perfusate to prevent death from pulmonary edema.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Haff|first=R. C.|last2=Klebanoff|first2=G.|last3=Brown|first3=B. G.|last4=Koreski|first4=W. R.|date=July 1975|title=Asanguineous hypothermic perfusion as a means of total organism preservation|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1142760|journal=The Journal of Surgical Research|volume=19|issue=1|pages=13–19|issn=0022-4804|pmid=1142760}}</ref>
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| 1976 || cryonics || Technological development || || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || Manrise Corporation provides initial funding to Alcor for cryonics research.
1976cryonicsTechnological development{{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}}Manrise Corporation provides initial funding to Alcor for cryonics research.
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641976-04-28

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| 1976-04-28 || cryonics || organization || founding || {{W|Cryonics Institute}} || Cryonics Institute is founded, and starts offering cryonics services: preparation, cooling, and long term storage.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://cofs.lara.state.mi.us/CorpWeb/CorpSearch/CorpSummary.aspx?ID=800830993&SEARCH_TYPE=1|title=Search Summary State of Michigan Corporations Division|website=cofs.lara.state.mi.us|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
1976-04-28cryonicsorganizationfounding{{W|Cryonics Institute}}Cryonics Institute is founded, and starts offering cryonics services: preparation, cooling, and long term storage.
<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://cofs.lara.state.mi.us/CorpWeb/CorpSearch/CorpSummary.aspx?ID=800830993&SEARCH_TYPE=1|title=Search Summary State of Michigan Corporations Division|website=cofs.lara.state.mi.us|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
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651976-07-16

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| 1976-07-16 || cryonics || technological adoption || || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || Alcor carries out the first human cryopreservation where cardiopulmonary support is initiated immediately post pronouncement and is continued until the patient is cooled to 15°C (~400 minutes) and where a scientifically designed custom perfusion machine with heat exchanger was used to carry out cryoprotective perfusion (as opposed to an embalming pump) with control over flow, pressure and temperature and incorporating a bubble trap was used. This is also the first neurocryopreservation (head only) patient. The patient was the father of Fred Chamberlain, the co-founder of the organization.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Chamberlain|first=FRC|last2=Chamberlain|first2=LLC|date=July 16-17, 1976|title=Alcor patient A-1001 Case Notes|url=|journal=Alcor Foundation|volume=|pages=|via=}}</ref><ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistoryImmortalist"/>
1976-07-16cryonicstechnological adoption{{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}}Alcor carries out the first human cryopreservation where cardiopulmonary support is initiated immediately post pronouncement and is continued until the patient is cooled to 15°C (~400 minutes) and where a scientifically designed custom perfusion machine with heat exchanger was used to carry out cryoprotective perfusion (as opposed to an embalming pump) with control over flow, pressure and temperature and incorporating a bubble trap was used. This is also the first neurocryopreservation (head only) patient. The patient was the father of Fred Chamberlain, the co-founder of the organization.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Chamberlain|first=FRC|last2=Chamberlain|first2=LLC|date=July 16-17, 1976|title=Alcor patient A-1001 Case Notes|url=|journal=Alcor Foundation|volume=|pages=|via=}}</ref><ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistoryImmortalist"/>
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| 1977 || cryonics || organization || founding || Institute for Advanced Biological Studies || The Institute for Advanced Biological Studies (IABS) is incorporated by Steve Bridge. IABS is a nonprofit research startup.<ref name="IABS">{{Cite journal|last=|first=|date=1981-03-08|title=The Newsletter of The Institute For Advanced Biological Studies, Inc.|url=https://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics8103.txt|journal=Cryonics|volume=|pages=|via=}}</ref>
1977cryonicsorganizationfoundingInstitute for Advanced Biological StudiesThe Institute for Advanced Biological Studies (IABS) is incorporated by Steve Bridge. IABS is a nonprofit research startup.
<ref name="IABS">{{Cite journal|last=|first=|date=1981-03-08|title=The Newsletter of The Institute For Advanced Biological Studies, Inc.|url=https://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics8103.txt|journal=Cryonics|volume=|pages=|via=}}</ref>
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671977-01-01

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| 1977 || cryonics || organization || founding || Soma, Inc. || Soma, Inc. is incorporated. Soma is intended as a for-profit organization to provide cryopreservation and human storage services. Its president is {{W|Mike Darwin}}.
1977cryonicsorganizationfoundingSoma, Inc.Soma, Inc. is incorporated. Soma is intended as a for-profit organization to provide cryopreservation and human storage services. Its president is {{W|Mike Darwin}}.
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| 1977 || cryonics || organization || milestone || {{W|Cryonics Institute}} || The Cryonics Institute preserves its first patient, Rhea Ettinger. She would be preserved in dry ice for 10 years, and then switch to liquid nitrogen.
1977cryonicsorganizationmilestone{{W|Cryonics Institute}}The Cryonics Institute preserves its first patient, Rhea Ettinger. She would be preserved in dry ice for 10 years, and then switch to liquid nitrogen.
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| 1977(?) - 1986 || cryonics || social || festival || Life Extension Festival || The Life Extension Festival is run by {{W|Fred and Linda Chamberlain}}.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=|first=|date=July 1983|title=Report on the Lake Tahoe Life Extension Festival|url=https://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics8307.txt|journal=Cryonics|volume=|issue=36|pages=7-13|via=}}</ref>
1977(?) - 1986cryonicssocialfestivalLife Extension FestivalThe Life Extension Festival is run by {{W|Fred and Linda Chamberlain}}.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=|first=|date=July 1983|title=Report on the Lake Tahoe Life Extension Festival|url=https://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics8307.txt|journal=Cryonics|volume=|issue=36|pages=7-13|via=}}</ref>
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| 1977-07 || cryonics || futurism || || {{W|Mike Darwin}} || Darwin is the first to conceive of the idea of an autonomous, bioengineered cell repair and replacement device to reverse cryo-injury and aging, which he called the “anabolocyte”.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Darwin|first=MG|date=July 1977|title=The anabolocyte: a biological approach to repairing cryoinjury|url=http://www.nanomedicine.com/NMI/1.3.2.1.htm|journal=Life Extension Magazine: A Journal of the Life Extension Sciences|volume=1|pages=|via=}}</ref>
1977-07cryonicsfuturism{{W|Mike Darwin}}Darwin is the first to conceive of the idea of an autonomous, bioengineered cell repair and replacement device to reverse cryo-injury and aging, which he called the “anabolocyte”.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Darwin|first=MG|date=July 1977|title=The anabolocyte: a biological approach to repairing cryoinjury|url=http://www.nanomedicine.com/NMI/1.3.2.1.htm|journal=Life Extension Magazine: A Journal of the Life Extension Sciences|volume=1|pages=|via=}}</ref>
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| 1978 || cryonics || organization || founding || Cryovita Laboratories || Cryovita Laboratories is founded by {{W|Jerry Leaf}}<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://businesssearch.sos.ca.gov/CBS/SearchResults?SearchType=NUMBER&SearchCriteria=C0849138|title=Business Search - Business Entities - Business Programs {{!}} California Secretary of State|website=businesssearch.sos.ca.gov|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>, who had been teaching surgery at the {{W|University of California, Los Angeles}}. Cryovita is a for-profit organization which would provide cryopreservation services for Alcor and Trans Time in the 1980s.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/>
1978cryonicsorganizationfoundingCryovita LaboratoriesCryovita Laboratories is founded by {{W|Jerry Leaf}}<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://businesssearch.sos.ca.gov/CBS/SearchResults?SearchType=NUMBER&SearchCriteria=C0849138|title=Business Search - Business Entities - Business Programs {{!}} California Secretary of State|website=businesssearch.sos.ca.gov|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>, who had been teaching surgery at the {{W|University of California, Los Angeles}}. Cryovita is a for-profit organization which would provide cryopreservation services for Alcor and Trans Time in the 1980s.
<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/>
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721978-07-01

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| 1978-07 || cryonics || technological adoption || || Cryovita Laboratories || Jerry Leaf of Cryovita Laboratories introduces the principles and equipment of extracorporeal medicine into cryonics with the cryopreservation of Samuel Berkowitz. This included the use of the heart-lung machine, closed-circuit perfusion, 40µ arterial filtration, and sterile technique and Universal Precautions to protect the staff caring for the patient:<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Leaf|first=JD|date=March-April 1979|title=Cryonic Suspension of Sam Berkowitz,|url=|journal=Long Life Magazine|volume=|pages=30-35|via=}}</ref>
1978-07cryonicstechnological adoptionCryovita LaboratoriesJerry Leaf of Cryovita Laboratories introduces the principles and equipment of extracorporeal medicine into cryonics with the cryopreservation of Samuel Berkowitz. This included the use of the heart-lung machine, closed-circuit perfusion, 40µ arterial filtration, and sterile technique and Universal Precautions to protect the staff caring for the patient:
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Leaf|first=JD|date=March-April 1979|title=Cryonic Suspension of Sam Berkowitz,|url=|journal=Long Life Magazine|volume=|pages=30-35|via=}}</ref>
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731979-01-01

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| 1979 || cryonics || || || Institute for Advanced Biological Studies || Darwin et al., place the first long term storage marker animal into cryopreservation at the Institute for Advanced Biological Studies in Indianapolis, IN, using glycerol cryoprotection. This animal’s cephalon was subsequently transferred to Alcor where it remains in cryopreservation through the present. This was also the first cryopreservation of a companion animal, which was M. Darwin’s childhood dog “Mitzi”.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Darwin|first=M.|date=1979|title=Glycerol perfusion and extended storage of the canine central nervous system|url=|journal=Institute for Advanced Biological Studies, Inc|location=Indpls, IN|volume=|pages=|via=}}</ref>
1979cryonicsInstitute for Advanced Biological StudiesDarwin et al., place the first long term storage marker animal into cryopreservation at the Institute for Advanced Biological Studies in Indianapolis, IN, using glycerol cryoprotection. This animal’s cephalon was subsequently transferred to Alcor where it remains in cryopreservation through the present. This was also the first cryopreservation of a companion animal, which was M. Darwin’s childhood dog “Mitzi”.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Darwin|first=M.|date=1979|title=Glycerol perfusion and extended storage of the canine central nervous system|url=|journal=Institute for Advanced Biological Studies, Inc|location=Indpls, IN|volume=|pages=|via=}}</ref>
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| 1979 || cryonics || || milestone || Institute for Advanced Biological Studies || The Institute for Advanced Biological Studies (IABS) puts Mitzi into cryopreservation, the first companion animal to receive the procedure. Alcor would later store the animal starting in 1982.
1979cryonicsmilestoneInstitute for Advanced Biological StudiesThe Institute for Advanced Biological Studies (IABS) puts Mitzi into cryopreservation, the first companion animal to receive the procedure. Alcor would later store the animal starting in 1982.
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791980-01-01

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| 1980 || cryonics || technological development || || Leaf, et al. || Leaf et al., carry out the first closed circuit perfusions with stepped increases in cryoprotectant concentration under well-controlled conditions with physiological and biochemical monitoring of the patients in real-time. This is also the first case where remote standby and stabilization using continuous heart-lung resuscitator support is carried out.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Leaf|first=JD|last2=Federowicz|first2=Hixon|last3=H.|first3=|date=1985|title=Case report: two consecutive suspensions, a comparative study in experimental human suspended animation|url=http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereport8511.html|journal=Cryonics|volume=6(11)|pages=13-38|via=}}</ref>
1980cryonicstechnological developmentLeaf, et al.Leaf et al., carry out the first closed circuit perfusions with stepped increases in cryoprotectant concentration under well-controlled conditions with physiological and biochemical monitoring of the patients in real-time. This is also the first case where remote standby and stabilization using continuous heart-lung resuscitator support is carried out.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Leaf|first=JD|last2=Federowicz|first2=Hixon|last3=H.|first3=|date=1985|title=Case report: two consecutive suspensions, a comparative study in experimental human suspended animation|url=http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/casereport8511.html|journal=Cryonics|volume=6(11)|pages=13-38|via=}}</ref>
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| 1980 || cryonics || organization || founding || Life Extension Foundation || The Life Extension Foundation (LEF) is founded. It would later help fund various cryonics organizations, notably Alcor, {{W|21st Century Medicine}}, Critical Care Research, and {{W|Suspended Animation, Inc}}.<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/>
1980cryonicsorganizationfoundingLife Extension FoundationThe Life Extension Foundation (LEF) is founded. It would later help fund various cryonics organizations, notably Alcor, {{W|21st Century Medicine}}, Critical Care Research, and {{W|Suspended Animation, Inc}}.
<ref name="BenBestCryonicsHistory"/>
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751980-01-01

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| 1980 || cryonics || organization || founding || Institute for Cryobiological Extension || The Institute for Cryobiological Extension is founded, and would soon publish its first volume of ICE Proceedings.
1980cryonicsorganizationfoundingInstitute for Cryobiological ExtensionThe Institute for Cryobiological Extension is founded, and would soon publish its first volume of ICE Proceedings.
https://www.reddit.com/r/longevity/comments/ajanjs/timeline_of_cryonics/?sort=old
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| 1981 || cryonics || futurism || || {{W|K. Eric Drexler}} || The first paper suggesting that nanotechnology could reverse freezing injury is published.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Drexler|first=K. Eric|date=1981-09-01|title=Molecular engineering: An approach to the development of general capabilities for molecular manipulation|url=https://www.pnas.org/content/78/9/5275|journal=Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences|language=en|volume=78|issue=9|pages=5275–5278|doi=10.1073/pnas.78.9.5275|issn=0027-8424|pmid=16593078}}</ref>
1981cryonicsfuturism{{W|K. Eric Drexler}}The first paper suggesting that nanotechnology could reverse freezing injury is published.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Drexler|first=K. Eric|date=1981-09-01|title=Molecular engineering: An approach to the development of general capabilities for molecular manipulation|url=https://www.pnas.org/content/78/9/5275|journal=Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences|language=en|volume=78|issue=9|pages=5275–5278|doi=10.1073/pnas.78.9.5275|issn=0027-8424|pmid=16593078}}</ref>
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| 1981 || cryonics || organization || status || Cryovita Laboratories || Soma, Inc. merges with Cryovita Laboratories.
1981cryonicsorganizationstatusCryovita LaboratoriesSoma, Inc. merges with Cryovita Laboratories.
https://www.reddit.com/r/longevity/comments/ajanjs/timeline_of_cryonics/?sort=old
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821981-03-01

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| 1981-03 || cryonics || social || journal || Darwin, Bridge || Michael Darwin and Stephen Bridge begin publication of the monthly magazine Cryonics which, for the next 10 years, would be the principal vehicle for publication of technical and scientific papers in cryonics.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.alcor.org/CryonicsMagazine/archive.html|title=Cryonics Magazine|website=www.alcor.org|access-date=2019-02-01}}</ref>
1981-03cryonicssocialjournalDarwin, BridgeMichael Darwin and Stephen Bridge begin publication of the monthly magazine Cryonics which, for the next 10 years, would be the principal vehicle for publication of technical and scientific papers in cryonics.
<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.alcor.org/CryonicsMagazine/archive.html|title=Cryonics Magazine|website=www.alcor.org|access-date=2019-02-01}}</ref>
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| 1982 || cryobiology || science || toxicity || [[wikipedia:Greg Fahy|Fahy]], et al. || Fahy, et al., publish papers which extensively documents the role of cryoprotectant toxicity as a barrier to tissue and organ cryopreservation suggest possible molecular mechanisms.<ref>{{Citation|last=Fahy|first=G. M.|title=Prospects for organ preservation by vitrification|date=1982|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-6267-8_60|work=Organ Preservation|pages=399–404|publisher=Springer Netherlands|isbn=9789401162692|access-date=2019-02-01|last2=Hirsch|first2=A.}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Fahy|first=Gregory M.|last2=Lilley|first2=Terence H.|last3=Linsdell|first3=Helen|last4=Douglas|first4=Mary St.John|last5=Meryman|first5=Harold T.|date=June 1990|title=Cryoprotectant toxicity and cryoprotectant toxicity reduction: In search of molecular mechanisms|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0011-2240(90)90025-y|journal=Cryobiology|volume=27|issue=3|pages=247–268|doi=10.1016/0011-2240(90)90025-y|issn=0011-2240}}</ref>
1982cryobiologysciencetoxicity[[wikipedia:Greg Fahy|Fahy]], et al.Fahy, et al., publish papers which extensively documents the role of cryoprotectant toxicity as a barrier to tissue and organ cryopreservation suggest possible molecular mechanisms.
<ref>{{Citation|last=Fahy|first=G. M.|title=Prospects for organ preservation by vitrification|date=1982|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-6267-8_60|work=Organ Preservation|pages=399–404|publisher=Springer Netherlands|isbn=9789401162692|access-date=2019-02-01|last2=Hirsch|first2=A.}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Fahy|first=Gregory M.|last2=Lilley|first2=Terence H.|last3=Linsdell|first3=Helen|last4=Douglas|first4=Mary St.John|last5=Meryman|first5=Harold T.|date=June 1990|title=Cryoprotectant toxicity and cryoprotectant toxicity reduction: In search of molecular mechanisms|url=http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0011-2240(90)90025-y|journal=Cryobiology|volume=27|issue=3|pages=247–268|doi=10.1016/0011-2240(90)90025-y|issn=0011-2240}}</ref>
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| 1982 || cryonics || organization || milestone || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || Alcor begins storing its own patients. It was previously storing its patients with Trans Time, Inc.
1982cryonicsorganizationmilestone{{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}}Alcor begins storing its own patients. It was previously storing its patients with Trans Time, Inc.
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841982-01-01

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| 1982 || cryonics || organization || status || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || The Institute for Advanced Biological Studies merges with Alcor.
1982cryonicsorganizationstatus{{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}}The Institute for Advanced Biological Studies merges with Alcor.
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| 1982-09-15 || cryonics || social || bylaws || {{W|Society for Cryobiology}} || The {{W|Society for Cryobiology}} adopts new bylaws denying membership to organizations or individuals supporting cryonics.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://blog.ciphergoth.org/blog/2010/02/12/society-for-cryobiology-statements-on-cryonic/|title=Paul Crowley's Blog - Society for Cryobiology statements on cryonics|website=blog.ciphergoth.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.alcor.org/Library/html/coldwar.html|title=Cold War: The Conflict Between Cryonicists and Cryobiologists|website=www.alcor.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
1982-09-15cryonicssocialbylaws{{W|Society for Cryobiology}}The {{W|Society for Cryobiology}} adopts new bylaws denying membership to organizations or individuals supporting cryonics.
<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://blog.ciphergoth.org/blog/2010/02/12/society-for-cryobiology-statements-on-cryonic/|title=Paul Crowley's Blog - Society for Cryobiology statements on cryonics|website=blog.ciphergoth.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=https://www.alcor.org/Library/html/coldwar.html|title=Cold War: The Conflict Between Cryonicists and Cryobiologists|website=www.alcor.org|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
more information: https://www.alcor.org/Library/html/coldwar.html
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| 1983-01 || cryonics || technological development || || [[wikipedia:Mike Darwin|Darwin]], et al. || Darwin, et al. carry out an extensive study to evaluate the efficacy of a human cryopreservation protocol on whole mammals (rabbits). This research discloses extensive ultrastructural disruption of the brain even when freezing in the presence of 3 M glycerol is employed. This work also documents the extremely adverse effects of prolonged cold ischemia on cryoprotective perfusion.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.cryonet.org/cgi-bin/dsp.cgi?msg=1389|title=Cryoprotective perfusion and freezing of the ischemic and nonischemic cat|last=Darwin|first=M|last2=Leaf|first2=JD|date=|website=|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.cryonet.org/cgi-bin/dsp.cgi?msg=1390|title=CRYONICS: Freezing Damage (Darwin) Part 2|website=www.cryonet.org|access-date=2019-02-01}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.cryonet.org/cgi-bin/dsp.cgi?msg=1391|title=CRYONICS: Freezing Damage (Darwin) Part 3|website=www.cryonet.org|access-date=2019-02-01}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.cryonet.org/cgi-bin/dsp.cgi?msg=1392|title=CRYONICS: Freezing Damage (Darwin) Part 4|website=www.cryonet.org|access-date=2019-02-01}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Federowicz|first=MG|last2=Leaf|first2=JD|date=January 1983|title=Tahoe Research Proposals|url=http://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics8301.txt|journal=Cryonics|volume=|issue=30|pages=14|via=}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://chronopause.com/index.php/2012/02/13/the-effects-of-cryopreservation-on-the-cat-part-1/|title=THE EFFECTS OF CRYOPRESERVATION ON THE CAT, Part 1|last=chronopause|website=CHRONOSPHERE|language=en-US|access-date=2019-02-01}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://chronopause.com/index.php/2012/02/14/the-effects-of-cryopreservation-on-the-cat-part-2/|title=THE EFFECTS OF CRYOPRESERVATION ON THE CAT, Part 2|last=chronopause|website=CHRONOSPHERE|language=en-US|access-date=2019-02-01}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://chronopause.com/index.php/2012/02/21/the-effects-of-cryopreservation-on-the-cat-part-3/|title=THE EFFECTS OF CRYOPRESERVATION ON THE CAT, Part 3|last=chronopause|website=CHRONOSPHERE|language=en-US|access-date=2019-02-01}}</ref>
1983-01cryonicstechnological development[[wikipedia:Mike Darwin|Darwin]], et al.Darwin, et al. carry out an extensive study to evaluate the efficacy of a human cryopreservation protocol on whole mammals (rabbits). This research discloses extensive ultrastructural disruption of the brain even when freezing in the presence of 3 M glycerol is employed. This work also documents the extremely adverse effects of prolonged cold ischemia on cryoprotective perfusion.
<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.cryonet.org/cgi-bin/dsp.cgi?msg=1389|title=Cryoprotective perfusion and freezing of the ischemic and nonischemic cat|last=Darwin|first=M|last2=Leaf|first2=JD|date=|website=|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.cryonet.org/cgi-bin/dsp.cgi?msg=1390|title=CRYONICS: Freezing Damage (Darwin) Part 2|website=www.cryonet.org|access-date=2019-02-01}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.cryonet.org/cgi-bin/dsp.cgi?msg=1391|title=CRYONICS: Freezing Damage (Darwin) Part 3|website=www.cryonet.org|access-date=2019-02-01}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.cryonet.org/cgi-bin/dsp.cgi?msg=1392|title=CRYONICS: Freezing Damage (Darwin) Part 4|website=www.cryonet.org|access-date=2019-02-01}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Federowicz|first=MG|last2=Leaf|first2=JD|date=January 1983|title=Tahoe Research Proposals|url=http://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics8301.txt|journal=Cryonics|volume=|issue=30|pages=14|via=}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://chronopause.com/index.php/2012/02/13/the-effects-of-cryopreservation-on-the-cat-part-1/|title=THE EFFECTS OF CRYOPRESERVATION ON THE CAT, Part 1|last=chronopause|website=CHRONOSPHERE|language=en-US|access-date=2019-02-01}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://chronopause.com/index.php/2012/02/14/the-effects-of-cryopreservation-on-the-cat-part-2/|title=THE EFFECTS OF CRYOPRESERVATION ON THE CAT, Part 2|last=chronopause|website=CHRONOSPHERE|language=en-US|access-date=2019-02-01}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://chronopause.com/index.php/2012/02/21/the-effects-of-cryopreservation-on-the-cat-part-3/|title=THE EFFECTS OF CRYOPRESERVATION ON THE CAT, Part 3|last=chronopause|website=CHRONOSPHERE|language=en-US|access-date=2019-02-01}}</ref>
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| 1983 || cryonics || organization || status || Institute for Cryobiological Extension || Leaf changes hats to President of the Institute for Cryobiological Extension (ICE) with the intention to devise a new project with the goal of having animal heads frozen, thawed, and reattached to a new body in such a way that would allow for neurocognitive evaluation. The project would later be deemed impractical. <ref>{{Cite journal|last=|first=|date=July 1983|title=Report on the Lake Tahoe Life Extension Festival|url=https://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics8307.txt|journal=Cryonics|volume=|issue=36|pages=7-13|via=}}</ref>
1983cryonicsorganizationstatusInstitute for Cryobiological ExtensionLeaf changes hats to President of the Institute for Cryobiological Extension (ICE) with the intention to devise a new project with the goal of having animal heads frozen, thawed, and reattached to a new body in such a way that would allow for neurocognitive evaluation. The project would later be deemed impractical.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=|first=|date=July 1983|title=Report on the Lake Tahoe Life Extension Festival|url=https://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics8307.txt|journal=Cryonics|volume=|issue=36|pages=7-13|via=}}</ref>
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| 1984 || cryonics || science || || [[wikipedia:Mike Darwin|Darwin]], et al. || Darwin et al. publish the first paper documenting the effects of cryopreservation protocols on human patients. This paper documents the presence of extensive macro-tissue fracturing in all three patients examined and shows relatively good histological preservation in the patient treated with 3 M glycerol.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Federowicz|first=M.|last2=Hixon|first2=H.|last3=Leaf|first3=J.|date=1984|title=Post-mortem examination of three cryonic suspension patients|url=http://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics8409.txt|journal=Cryonics|volume=5|issue=9|pages=16-28|access-date=2010-08-31|via=}}</ref>
1984cryonicsscience[[wikipedia:Mike Darwin|Darwin]], et al.Darwin et al. publish the first paper documenting the effects of cryopreservation protocols on human patients. This paper documents the presence of extensive macro-tissue fracturing in all three patients examined and shows relatively good histological preservation in the patient treated with 3 M glycerol.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Federowicz|first=M.|last2=Hixon|first2=H.|last3=Leaf|first3=J.|date=1984|title=Post-mortem examination of three cryonic suspension patients|url=http://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics8409.txt|journal=Cryonics|volume=5|issue=9|pages=16-28|access-date=2010-08-31|via=}}</ref>
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| 1984 || suspended animation || technological development || || Leaf, Darwin, Hixon || Leaf, Darwin and Hixon complete 3-years of research demonstrating successful 4-hour asanguineous perfusion of dogs at 5°C with full recovery of health, mentation, and long term memory. The paper documenting this work is rejected by the Society for Cryobiology because the work was conducted by cryonicists. The perfusate developed during this research, MHP-2 continues to be used for total body washout through the present.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/tbwcanine.html|title=A mannitol-based perfusate for reversible 5-hour asanguineous ultraprofound hypothermia in canines (Report on work performed from 1984-87)|last=Leaf|first=JD|last2=Darwin|first2=M.|date=|website=1986|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=2010-08-31|last3=Hixon|first3=H.}}</ref>
1984suspended animationtechnological developmentLeaf, Darwin, HixonLeaf, Darwin and Hixon complete 3-years of research demonstrating successful 4-hour asanguineous perfusion of dogs at 5°C with full recovery of health, mentation, and long term memory. The paper documenting this work is rejected by the Society for Cryobiology because the work was conducted by cryonicists. The perfusate developed during this research, MHP-2 continues to be used for total body washout through the present.
<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/tbwcanine.html|title=A mannitol-based perfusate for reversible 5-hour asanguineous ultraprofound hypothermia in canines (Report on work performed from 1984-87)|last=Leaf|first=JD|last2=Darwin|first2=M.|date=|website=1986|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=2010-08-31|last3=Hixon|first3=H.}}</ref>
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| 1984 || cryobiology || science || cryoprotection || [[wikipedia:Greg Fahy|Fahy]], et al. || The first paper showing that large organs can be cryopreserved without structural damage from ice is published.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Fahy|first=G. M.|last2=MacFarlane|first2=D. R.|last3=Angell|first3=C. A.|last4=Meryman|first4=H. T.|date=1984-08-01|title=Vitrification as an approach to cryopreservation|url=http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224084900798|journal=Cryobiology|volume=21|issue=4|pages=407–426|doi=10.1016/0011-2240(84)90079-8|issn=0011-2240}}</ref>
1984cryobiologysciencecryoprotection[[wikipedia:Greg Fahy|Fahy]], et al.The first paper showing that large organs can be cryopreserved without structural damage from ice is published.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Fahy|first=G. M.|last2=MacFarlane|first2=D. R.|last3=Angell|first3=C. A.|last4=Meryman|first4=H. T.|date=1984-08-01|title=Vitrification as an approach to cryopreservation|url=http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0011224084900798|journal=Cryobiology|volume=21|issue=4|pages=407–426|doi=10.1016/0011-2240(84)90079-8|issn=0011-2240}}</ref>
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| 1984 || cryonics || science || fracturing || {{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}} || Alcor observes fractures in human cryopreservation patients. <ref name="IntermediateTemperatureStorage"/><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Federowicz|first=M.|last2=Hixon|first2=H.|last3=Leaf|first3=J.|date=1984|title=Postmortem Examination of Three Cryonic Suspension Patients|url=https://alcor.org/Library/html/postmortemexamination.html|journal=Cryonics|volume=|pages=16-28|via=}}</ref>
1984cryonicssciencefracturing{{W|Alcor Life Extension Foundation}}Alcor observes fractures in human cryopreservation patients.
<ref name="IntermediateTemperatureStorage"/><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Federowicz|first=M.|last2=Hixon|first2=H.|last3=Leaf|first3=J.|date=1984|title=Postmortem Examination of Three Cryonic Suspension Patients|url=https://alcor.org/Library/html/postmortemexamination.html|journal=Cryonics|volume=|pages=16-28|via=}}</ref>
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| 1985 || cryonics || technological adoption || remote stabilization || Federowicz, et al. || For the first time, a cryonics patient is given remote standby with in-field total body washout. Cardiopulmonary support (CPS) is initiated within 2 minutes following monitored cardiac arrest. This is also the first case where anesthesia is used to inhibit consciousness during cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) and external cooling.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Federowicz|first=MG|last2=Leaf|first2=JD|last3=Hixon|first3=H.|date=1986|title=Case report: neuropreservation of Alcor patient A-1068 (1 of 2)|url=http://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics8602.txt|journal=Cryonics|volume=7|issue=2|pages=17-32|via=}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Federowicz|first=MG|last2=Leaf|first2=JD|last3=Hixon|first3=H.|date=1986|title=Case report: neuropreservation of Alcor patient A-1068 (2 of 2)|url=http://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics8603.txt|journal=Cryonics|volume=7|issue=3|pages=15-29|via=}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.cryocare.org/index.cgi?subdir=bpi&url=tech21.txt|title=Securing anesthesia in the human cryopreservation patient|last=Darwin|first=M.|date=18 January 1997|website=CryoNet|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=}}</ref>
1985cryonicstechnological adoptionremote stabilizationFederowicz, et al.For the first time, a cryonics patient is given remote standby with in-field total body washout. Cardiopulmonary support (CPS) is initiated within 2 minutes following monitored cardiac arrest. This is also the first case where anesthesia is used to inhibit consciousness during cardiopulmonary arrest (CPA) and external cooling.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Federowicz|first=MG|last2=Leaf|first2=JD|last3=Hixon|first3=H.|date=1986|title=Case report: neuropreservation of Alcor patient A-1068 (1 of 2)|url=http://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics8602.txt|journal=Cryonics|volume=7|issue=2|pages=17-32|via=}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal|last=Federowicz|first=MG|last2=Leaf|first2=JD|last3=Hixon|first3=H.|date=1986|title=Case report: neuropreservation of Alcor patient A-1068 (2 of 2)|url=http://www.alcor.org/cryonics/cryonics8603.txt|journal=Cryonics|volume=7|issue=3|pages=15-29|via=}}</ref><ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.cryocare.org/index.cgi?subdir=bpi&url=tech21.txt|title=Securing anesthesia in the human cryopreservation patient|last=Darwin|first=M.|date=18 January 1997|website=CryoNet|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=}}</ref>
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| 1985 || cryobiology || technological development || vitrification || [[wikipedia:Greg Fahy|Fahy]], Rall || Fahy and Rall successfully apply vitrification to embryo preservation introducing the technique to mainstream medicine and highlighting its potential utility in solid organ cryopreservation.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Rall|first=W. F.|last2=Fahy|first2=G. M.|date=14 Feb 1985|title=Ice-free cryopreservation of mouse embryos at -196 degrees C by vitrification|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3969158|journal=Nature|volume=313|issue=6003|pages=573–575|issn=0028-0836|pmid=3969158}}</ref>
1985cryobiologytechnological developmentvitrification[[wikipedia:Greg Fahy|Fahy]], RallFahy and Rall successfully apply vitrification to embryo preservation introducing the technique to mainstream medicine and highlighting its potential utility in solid organ cryopreservation.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Rall|first=W. F.|last2=Fahy|first2=G. M.|date=14 Feb 1985|title=Ice-free cryopreservation of mouse embryos at -196 degrees C by vitrification|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3969158|journal=Nature|volume=313|issue=6003|pages=573–575|issn=0028-0836|pmid=3969158}}</ref>
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| 1980s (mid) || cryonics || legal || life insurance || Jackson National || Jackson National is the first life insurance company to definitively state that it acknowledges that cryonics arrangements constitute a legitimate insurable interest.<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://groups.yahoo.com/|title=Yahoo! Groups|website=groups.yahoo.com|language=en-US|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
1980s (mid)cryonicslegallife insuranceJackson NationalJackson National is the first life insurance company to definitively state that it acknowledges that cryonics arrangements constitute a legitimate insurable interest.
<ref>{{Cite web|url=https://groups.yahoo.com/|title=Yahoo! Groups|website=groups.yahoo.com|language=en-US|access-date=2019-01-22}}</ref>
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| 1980s (mid) || cryobiology || technological adoption || vitrification || {{W|Greg Fahy}} and William F. Rall || Researchers {{W|Greg Fahy}} and William F. Rall help introduce {{W|vitrification}} to reproductive cryopreservation.
1980s (mid)cryobiologytechnological adoptionvitrification{{W|Greg Fahy}} and William F. RallResearchers {{W|Greg Fahy}} and William F. Rall help introduce {{W|vitrification}} to reproductive cryopreservation.
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| 1986 || cryonics || social || textbook || {{W|Mike Darwin}} || M. Darwin publishes the first textbook on acute stabilization of human cryopreservation patients.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/1990manual.html|title=Transport Protocol for Cryonic suspension of Humans|last=Darwin|first=MG|date=1986|website=Alcor Life Extension Foundation|location=Fullerton, CA|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=}}</ref>
1986cryonicssocialtextbook{{W|Mike Darwin}}M. Darwin publishes the first textbook on acute stabilization of human cryopreservation patients.
<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://www.alcor.org/Library/html/1990manual.html|title=Transport Protocol for Cryonic suspension of Humans|last=Darwin|first=MG|date=1986|website=Alcor Life Extension Foundation|location=Fullerton, CA|archive-url=|archive-date=|dead-url=|access-date=}}</ref>
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| 1986 || cryobiology || science || vitrification || {{W|Greg Fahy}} || Greg Fahy proposes vitrification as a mean of achieving viable parenchymatous organ preservation.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Fahy|first=G. M.|date=1986|title=Vitrification: a new approach to organ cryopreservation|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3540994|journal=Progress in Clinical and Biological Research|volume=224|pages=305–335|issn=0361-7742|pmid=3540994}}</ref>
1986cryobiologysciencevitrification{{W|Greg Fahy}}Greg Fahy proposes vitrification as a mean of achieving viable parenchymatous organ preservation.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Fahy|first=G. M.|date=1986|title=Vitrification: a new approach to organ cryopreservation|url=https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/3540994|journal=Progress in Clinical and Biological Research|volume=224|pages=305–335|issn=0361-7742|pmid=3540994}}</ref>
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| 1986 || cryonics || futurism || || {{W|K. Eric Drexler}} || {{W|K. Eric Drexler}} publishes ''Engines of Creation''<ref>{{Cite book|title=Engines of creation|last=K. Eric|first=Drexler|publisher=Anchor Press/Doubleday|year=1986|isbn=0385199724|location=Garden City, N.Y|pages=}}</ref> -- the first book on molecular nanotechnology --. The book has a chapter on cryonics. It creates a surge in growth in cryonics interest and membership.
1986cryonicsfuturism{{W|K. Eric Drexler}}{{W|K. Eric Drexler}} publishes ''Engines of Creation''<ref>{{Cite book|title=Engines of creation|last=K. Eric|first=Drexler|publisher=Anchor Press/Doubleday|year=1986|isbn=0385199724|location=Garden City, N.Y|pages=}}</ref> -- the first book on molecular nanotechnology --. The book has a chapter on cryonics. It creates a surge in growth in cryonics interest and membership.
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| 1986 || suspended animation || science || || Haneda, et al. || The first paper showing that large mammals can be recovered after three hours of total circulatory arrest (“clinical death”) at +3°C (37°F) is published. This supports the reversibility of the hypothermic phase of cryonics.<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Haneda|first=Kiyoshi|last2=Thomas|first2=Robert|last3=Sands|first3=Murray P.|last4=Breazeale|first4=Donald G.|last5=Dillard|first5=David H.|date=1986-12-01|title=Whole body protection during three hours of total circulatory arrest: An experimental study|url=http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/001122408690057X|journal=Cryobiology|volume=23|issue=6|pages=483–494|doi=10.1016/0011-2240(86)90057-X|issn=0011-2240}}</ref>
1986suspended animationscienceHaneda, et al.The first paper showing that large mammals can be recovered after three hours of total circulatory arrest (“clinical death”) at +3°C (37°F) is published. This supports the reversibility of the hypothermic phase of cryonics.
<ref>{{Cite journal|last=Haneda|first=Kiyoshi|last2=Thomas|first2=Robert|last3=Sands|first3=Murray P.|last4=Breazeale|first4=Donald G.|last5=Dillard|first5=David H.|date=1986-12-01|title=Whole body protection during three hours of total circulatory arrest: An experimental study|url=http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/001122408690057X|journal=Cryobiology|volume=23|issue=6|pages=483–494|doi=10.1016/0011-2240(86)90057-X|issn=0011-2240}}</ref>
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