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Zoom link: https://us02web.zoom.us/j/88448149570?pwd=TmR5dGVIcTY1SVNDdEEwcDNOWFlrdz09

Galaxies SIG Website: https://cor.gsfc.nasa.gov/sigs/galaxies-sig.php
Join the email list: https://cor.gsfc.nasa.gov/sigs/galsig/galaxies-sig-email-list.php

YouTube playlist for recorded talks: https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PL4-P-mpX4eDQZ3I8LbgL8XMGN8ADdJVwd

Announcements:
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DateTime
(US Eastern)
SpeakerTitleRecordingsAbstract
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Sep 5, 2023 (Tue)1pm - 2pmJason Tumlinson
(STScI / JHU)
HabWorlds and What YOU Can Do About ItHere

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YouTube
NASA’s Cosmic Origins Program has established a Science Interest Group (SIG) specifically for galaxies science. Our goals are to map out the galaxies’ science priorities for the Habitable Worlds Observatory (HWO, the 6m UV-Optical-IR space telescope that is the top recommendation from the Astro2020 Decadal Survey report), and other Future FIR and X-ray Great Observatories. On behalf of the NASA Galaxies Science Interest Group (Galaxies SIG), we would like to invite you to join our Fall Seminar Series. This kick-off seminar for an overview of the HWO is given by Jason Tumlinson (STScI).

Join the new great observatories slack: https://join.slack.com/t/greatobservatories/shared_invite/zt-22pci4gr8-9YbHyXw2rMtPNFqvDuC1tA
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Oct 3, 2023 (Tue)1pm - 2pmAaron Smith
(UT Dallas)
Emission and Absorption Line Modeling from Hydrodynamical SimulationsHere

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YouTube
The forthcoming Habitable Worlds Observatory (HWO) and Great Observatories Maturation Program (GOMAP) promise unparalleled opportunities for probing emission and absorption lines from galaxies. This talk will focus on the use of hydrodynamical simulations for generating robust line modeling predictions essential for HWO endeavors. I will discuss the merits and challenges of various approaches, hindering a community consensus on galaxy formation. Given the complexities of comparing simulations with different physical accuracy, numerical resolution, and population statistics, I advocate for advancing the state-of-the-art across multiple methodologies, ranging from generic templates to comprehensive radiative transfer calculations. Finally, I will highlight several scientific questions that stand to gain from GOMAP capabilities, emphasizing the role of simulations in providing insights and interpretations.
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Nov 7, 2023 (Tue)1pm - 2pmMia de los Reyes
(Amherst College)
Near, far, wherever you are: Connecting local and high-z dwarf galaxy populations with HWOHere

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YouTube
Although we are entering a new era of high-redshift science, we still don’t fully understand the systematic effects that impact our observations of high-redshift galaxies. At the same time, although we have begun mapping our own galaxy and its closest satellites in unprecedented detail, this level of detail has largely been limited to our Milky Way’s immediate surroundings. The Habitable Worlds Observatory (HWO) provides an incredible opportunity to connect these two disparate regimes using low-mass dwarf galaxies. Not only will HWO be able to identify some of the least massive galaxies in the early universe (including the progenitors of today’s Milky Way galaxies), it will also be able to observe dwarf galaxies as resolved stellar systems out to previously inaccessible distances, allowing us to bridge the gap between the different techniques used to measure galaxy properties. In this talk, I will discuss ongoing work towards this goal, and what this could mean for HWO.
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Dec 5, 2023 (Tue)1pm - 2pmBlakesley Burkhart
(Rutgers / CCA)
The Case for a High-resolution FUV Spectrograph: From the Molecular Galactic ISM to the Hot IGMHere

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YouTube
In this talk, I will highlight two areas in gaseous astrophysics where exciting mysteries could be addressed with a high-resolution (R>10, 000) FUV spectrograph. First, I will discuss how the low redshift (z~0.1) Lyman-α forest observations (requiring space-based FUV with R>10000) have challenged the most advanced cosmological simulations and defy physical arguments that work well at z>2, as the amount of neutral hydrogen predicted is far larger in simulations than what is observed. I will show how including active black hole feedback can reconcile the amount of neutral gas by providing extra heating. These findings herald a significant paradigm shift for cosmological simulations and observations that target the low redshift IGM, however, more data is needed to disentangle the models. Second, I will zoom back to the local ISM, where a large FoV R>10,000 FUV spectrograph could reveal molecular H2 in emission via the H2 fluorescent excitation lines. Such observations could illuminate molecular cloud lifecycles and uncover the origins of mysterious structures in our Galaxy.
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Jan 7, 2024 (Sun)9am - 1pmAAS Splinter SessionNASA's Cosmic Origins Program Analysis Group
Splinter Session
linkSunday, January 7, 2024 | 9:00 AM CT - 1:00 PM CT

Room 244/245

Overview of recent activities and accomplishments of the Cosmic Origins Program Analysis Group (COPAG) along with highlights of the Science Interest Groups (SIG) and Science Analysis Groups (SAG) that are within the Cosmic Origins Program.
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Jan 24, 2024 (Wed)1pm - 2pm
Viraj Pandya
(Columbia / Hubble Fellow)
How Habitable Worlds Observatory Can Definitively Constrain the 3D Geometry of High-Redshift Milky Way ProgenitorsHere

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YouTube
There is now strong evidence from both NASA's HST and JWST that the majority of high-redshift dwarf galaxies (including Milky Way progenitors) cannot be axisymmetric (circular) disks or spheroids as commonly assumed. Instead, galaxies may start out intrinsically flattened in two dimensions like cigars (prolate ellipsoids) or surfboards (unusually oval, triaxial disks). However, current facilities are unable to make the "smoking gun" measurement needed to confirm this striking finding: constraining the orbits of the stars. It is imperative that we definitively constrain the 3D geometry of high-redshift (z>2) Milky Way progenitors because it has major astrophysical implications for the origin of our own Galaxy as well as cosmological implications about the nature of dark matter. NASA's Roman mission and the upcoming 30m class telescopes will contribute but not fully address this problem. In this talk, I will make a fresh science case for the Habitable Worlds Observatory (HWO) that helps answer one of NASA's key questions concerning our Cosmic Origins: How Did We Get Here? In particular, I will stress the need for a multi-object spectrograph in space with both high spatial (<~0.03") and spectral (R~10,000) resolution. Such a spectrograph will be required to detect the stellar continuum and resolve absorption lines in the spectra of these incredibly distant, small, elongated and faint early galaxies.
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Feb 7, 2024 (Wed)1pm - 2pmPeter Behroozi
(U. Arizona / NAOJ)
Using Empirical Models to Explore Science Uncertainties for HWOHere

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YouTube
We review recent progress in empirical modeling, including a new empirical model, Trinity, that observationally constrains the joint relationship between supermassive black holes (SMBHs), galaxies, and dark matter halos from z=0 to z=7. Trinity can recover the average growth and merger histories of all detectable SMBHs, describe the evolution of the SMBH—galaxy relationship through time, and reveal correlations between galaxy growth and SMBH growth. We discuss how empirical models like Trinity and others can provide forecasts for the range of results expected for new observations with new telescopes, including HWO.
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Mar 6, 2024 (Wed)1pm - 2pmMatilde Mingozzi
(STScI)
The role of UV spectroscopy to interpret the properties of the first galaxiesHere

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YouTube
Rest-frame UV spectra play a key role in the understanding of massive stellar populations, chemical evolution, feedback processes, and reionization. In particular, in the current JWST era, the UV spectroscopic frontier has been pushed to higher redshifts than ever before, to finally reveal the first galaxies in the distant Universe. It is thus fundamental to understand the diagnostic power of UV lines. To do this, I will discuss how HST UV spectra of local high-z analogues can represent a powerful ideal laboratory, thanks to the level of data quality and spatial resolution the local Universe can offer. Taking a step further, in order to fully understand the physical conditions that give rise to the excitation of UV lines, I will show how we can spatially tackle them using HST imaging to isolate the sources of the UV photons within these systems. These studies represent an ideal pathfinder for a future UV integral field unit (IFU) on Habitable Worlds Observatory (HWO). In particular, I will discuss how a large-scale UV IFU would allow us to perform chemo-dynamic studies with UV diagnostics of nearby high-z analogues at pc-scales for the first time. Overall, this will be crucial to interpret high-z spatially resolved spectra in the rest-frame UV revealed with current and future IR and optical observatories, such as JWST and the future ELTs.
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Apr 3, 2024 (Wed)1pm - 2pmDaniel Anglés-Alcázar
(U. Connecticut)
Cosmological hyper-refinement simulations to leverage Future Great Observatories Here

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YouTube
The Habitable Worlds Observatory and other Future Great Observatories will provide an unprecedented window into the physical mechanisms driving active galactic nuclei (AGN) fueling and feedback, which play a key role in galaxy evolution but are still poorly understood. Leveraging these future observatories requires detailed, physically predictive models of galaxy evolution but, despite much recent progress, cosmological galaxy formation simulations have been limited by resolution, interstellar medium physics, and uncertain sub-grid treatment of black holes. In this talk, I will present a new class of cosmological hyper-refinement simulations that for the first time explicitly resolve AGN fueling and feedback at sub-pc resolution in a full cosmological setting while modeling a realistic multi-phase interstellar medium including gas consumption by star formation, local feedback from supernovae, stellar winds, and radiation, and gravitational torques from multi-scale stellar non-axisymmetries. I will highlight some of the lessons learned from these multi-scale simulations, with important implications for the nature of luminous quasars, the star formation-AGN connection, black hole-galaxy scaling relations, and galaxy quenching, and I will present a new pipeline to produce mock emission line data cubes with unprecedented information content to make detailed comparisons between theoretical models and future observational constraints of AGN fueling and feedback.
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Apr 17, 2024 (Wed)1pm - 2pmAnne Jaskot
(Williams College)
Understanding the Production and Escape of Ionizing Photons - Far-UV Science with HWOHere

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YouTube
JWST is transforming our knowledge of galaxy properties at z>6, but one property it cannot observe is the emission of ionizing, Lyman Continuum (LyC) photons from these galaxies. At high redshifts, these LyC photons are absorbed by the IGM en route to Earth. Yet studying LyC radiation is critical to understand how galaxies reionized the IGM and how massive stars affect their host galaxy’s ISM. We need to know how LyC radiation is produced within galaxies and with what energies, what processes enable its escape into the IGM, and how much LyC radiation escapes from different types of galaxies. Recent LyC observations of low-redshift galaxies with HST have begun to answer these questions but are limited to moderately bright (MUV -18 to -21) galaxies at z~0.3 with limited spatial information. I will review what we’ve learned from these HST observations as well as the open questions that remain. I will discuss how future FUV science with HWO at higher spatial resolution, higher sensitivity, or shorter wavelengths could provide important insights into low-metallicity super star clusters, their effects on the ISM, and the reionization of the universe.
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May 1, 2024 (Wed)1pm - 2pmBurçin Mutlu-Pakdil
(Dartmouth College)
Dwarf galaxies: yesterday, now, and tomorrowHere

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YouTube
I will review the revolution that has unfolded over the last 20 years in the search for the satellites in the Local Group and beyond thanks to a flurry of large photometric surveys with which we can unveil dwarf galaxies of incredibly low luminosity. The discovery and characterization of these smallest galaxies have pushed the edges of observational endeavors and theoretical advancements alike, reshaping our understanding of galaxy formation and dark matter. I will quickly review these exciting results, discuss what will be possible in dwarf galaxy studies over the next decade, and conclude with the potential role of HWO in furthering these scientific endeavors.
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Jun 5, 2024 (Wed)1pm - 2pmRahul Kannan
(York University)
Modelling the interstellar medium of galaxiesThe Habitable Worlds Observatory is set to provide groundbreaking imaging and spectroscopic observations of galaxies, which will greatly enhance our understanding of how galaxies form and evolve. To fully capitalize on these new observations, it is crucial to develop advanced numerical models that can accurately predict the complex physics involved in galaxy formation. In this presentation, I will introduce an interstellar medium (ISM) model that self-consistently incorporates the effect of radiation fields, dust physics, and molecular chemistry (H2) in galaxies. I will showcase the model’s success in predicting both the integrated (such as stellar masses and star formation rates) and resolved (such as dust content, emission lines, etc.) properties of high and low redshift galaxies. Lastly, I will discuss the limitations of current models and outline improvements to both the physical models and numerical algorithms that will allow us to effectively interpret data from next-generation telescopes.
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Jul 3, 2024 (Wed)1pm - 2pmNo meeting -- Summer Break
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Aug 7, 2024 (Wed)1pm - 2pmNo meeting -- Summer Break