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Last NameFirst NamePreferred Email AddressShare InformationCategoryKit TitleSource 1Source 2Source 3Source 4Source 5Source 6Source 7Source 8Source 9Source 10Source 1 TitleSource 2 TitleSource 3 TitleSource 4 TitleSource 5 TitleSource 6 TitleSource 7 TitleSource 8 TitleSource 9 TitleSource 10 TitleAdditional SourcesOther Kit ThemeHistorical OverviewApplicable Grade LevelsLesson Objective 1Lesson Objective 2Lesson Objective 3Lesson Objective 4Lesson Objective 5Additional ObjectivesNeeded MaterialsSponge ActivityAnticipatory SetContent DeliveryActivityVocabulary WordsAssessmentClosureAdditional CommentsSocial Studies StandardsLanguage Arts StandardsMath StandardsScience StandardsPE StandardsHeath StandardsArt StandardsMusic StandardsTheater StandardsComputer and Technology StandardsForeign Language StandardsLesson TitleLesson OverviewIncludeLast NameFirst NamePreferred Email AddressWhen sharing your primary source kit online, would you like the following information to appear with your work?What is the primary category in which this primary source kit fits?What is the title for this primary source kit?Primary Source 1 URLPrimary Source 2 URLPrimary Source 3 URLPrimary Source 4 URLPrimary Source 5 URLPrimary Source 6 URLPrimary Source 7 URLPrimary Source 8 URLPrimary Source 9 URLPrimary Source 10 URLAdditional Primary Source URLs If "Other," describe your main theme.Provide a historical overview of the information contained in this primary source kit. Be sure to describe each artifact, state the purpose for including each artifact, and provide background information needed by teachers so they can field student questions relating to the primary sources and history relating to this kit.Lesson TitleLesson OverviewApplicable Grade LevelsLesson ObjectivesLesson Objective 2Lesson Objective 3Lesson Objective 4Lesson Objective 5Additional Lesson ObjectivesNeeded MaterialsPrimary Source 1 TitlePrimary Source 2 TitlePrimary Source 3 TitlePrimary Source 4 TitlePrimary Source 5 TitlePrimary Source 6 TitlePrimary Source 7 TitlePrimary Source 8 TitlePrimary Source 9 TitlePrimary Source 10 TitleSponge ActivityAnticipatory Set
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BarkerAngelaYour NameRailroadsThe Coming of the Railroadhttp://digital.library.unlv.edu/boomtown/dm.php/snv/1244http://digital.library.unlv.edu/boomtown/dm.php/snv/1245http://digital.library.unlv.edu/boomtown/dm.php/snv/6019http://digital.library.unlv.edu/boomtown/dm.php/snv/2470http://digital.library.unlv.edu/boomtown/dm.php/snv/5880http://digital.library.unlv.edu/boomtown/dm.php/snv/2466http://digital.library.unlv.edu/boomtown/dm.php/snv/2556William Clark and the railroadMen at Las Vegas Auctiontelegram regarding railroad strike 1922the train depot in Las Vegasmap of the railroads crossing NevadaLas Vegas railroad yardbuilding the railroadThe expansion of the west created a need to travel from east to west faster than six months. The railroad made it possible to travel from Chicago to Sacramento in six days verses six months. Throughout the west the railroad was used to transport not only people, but goods as well. Towns started forming around the railroad and businesses started popping up where there were railroad stops.
In Southern Nevada the railroad connected Salt Lake City and Los Angeles. The gold discovered in Tonopah, Goldfield, and Bullfrog district made exporting gold and ore important. The agriculture of Southern California needed to be exported to the east. The area also needed a better transportation system. Las Vegas was a stopping point for the Union Pacific Railroad from Southern California to Salt Lake City. Salt Lake City was important because this was a connection to the transcontinental railway; connecting west coast to as far east as St. Louis.
The most significant farming ranch in Las Vegas at the time of the railroad was the Las Vegas Ranch, later known as Stewart Ranch. This ranch serviced travelers that were traveling to the mines or to Southern California. There was a store and a hostelry, or watering hole, for travelers. This area was a crossroads for wagon trails. This ranch was one of the few water sources that was in the Las Vegas Valley. Helen Stewart who owned the ranch saw the opportunity for the railroad coming right through the ranch.
The Clark brothers as well as E.H. Harriman saw the opportunity for Las Vegas to be a stopping point for the railroad. In 1905 the Las Vegas Townsite was auctioned off. This area was Fremont Street and became an important part to Las Vegas from 1905 to the present day. By 1909 William Clark helped Las Vegas develop a train yard, repair shop, and employed hundreds of people.
In 1922 there was a railroad strike due to wage cuts, and supplies were halted. Within a few months an agreement was made with the shop men and railroads. Also in 1922 William Clark sold his portion of the railroad to the Union Pacific.
3 to 5SWBAT assemble a map of the railroads of Nevada.
SWBAT describe the impact of the railroad in Southern Nevada.
SWBAT draw conclusions about the railroad strike of 1922.
SWBAT view perspectives of the people that had a part of the railroad coming to Las Vegas.
SWBAT identify places were the railroad used to be in Las Vegas.
primary source map of railroads crossing Nevada cut out like a puzzle, other primary sources, paper, history of railroadCut up the primary source map of the railroad system crossing Nevada. Divide the class into groups depending on how many pieces you cut. Have them guess what this is a map of. Once they have their guesses have one group join another group that they can piece together a part of the map (like finding a match to a puzzle piece). With the two pieces put together, now have the students make another guess of the map. Continue this until the map is halfway put together, gather the class back and review the guesses that were made. Teacher will have an assembled map shown for the class. Make sure that before moving on that they know this is an old map of where the railroads came through Nevada.What would it be like to work for a railroad?
Why would a railroad be needed in Las Vegas?
How would you get people to buy land for the railroad?
Teacher shows all the primary pictures and explains about each picture giving the history to the students about the railroad coming through the state. Explain the importance of the transcontinental railroad connecting east and west. Then explain the need for having a railroad connecting Salt Lake City and Los Angeles. Discuss why there was a need for the railroad to come through Nevada (shipping ore out, bringing mining supplies in). Mention the people associated with the railroad in Southern Nevada and their role with the railroad coming.Perspectives of the Railroad
Divide students into groups. Each group is going to research and be someone associated with the railroad.
Group 1: These people are the owners of the railroad. They will be creating a persuasive flyer or brochure explaining the reasons why Nevada needs a railroad coming through the state, and to convince people to ride the railroad.
Group 2: This group will be the people riding the railroad. This group will have a journal entry like a diary expressing how they feel and why they are excited for the railroad.
Group 3: These are the people that are associated with the railroad (Helen Stewart, Clark brothers, Harriman). This group will have a journal entry as well expressing their role for the railroad coming through Las Vegas.
Group 4: These are people that are work for the railroad. They are going to write a letter explaining why they go on strike in 1922, and what needs to be done about them going back to work.
strike
townsite
ranch
Union Pacific Railroad
auction
Written assessment stating what they learned about each perspective of the railroad. Then stating which person they would have liked to be during the time period when the railroad was running and being built, and why.Have students display work they did with their groups, and close with what they liked about the project. Option H3.4.4 Explain how advances in technologies have impacted Nevada, i.e., railroads, mining, and gaming., G6.4.1 Describe the distinguishing features of historical regions in Nevada, i.e., Native American tribal territories, pioneer trails, and settlement areas. , G6.4.2 Identify regional changes in Nevada over time.Literary Text: 3.5.4 Describe an example of first-person point of view., Literary Text: 3.5.7 Explain the influence of historical events and culture.NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNonePerspective and History of RailroadThis lesson will familiarize students with the impact of the railroad on the state, as well as the city of Las Vegas and surrounding areas. They will be assembling a map and describing different perspectives of people associated with the railroad.Definitely
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BarkerAngelaYour NameGeographyTake a Trip to Great Basin National Parkhttp://www.nps.gov/grba/historyculture/lehman-aqueduct.htmhttp://www.onlinenevada.org/media/?id=529http://www.onlinenevada.org/media/?id=568http://www.onlinenevada.org/media/?id=875http://content.lib.utah.edu/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/GBA_Photos&CISOPTR=50&CISOBOX=1&REC=5http://www.onlinenevada.org/media/?id=571http://www.nps.gov/grba/naturescience/lightscape.htmPicture of Lehman and his aqueductPicture of bristlecone pinesPicture of Lehman CaveStella Lake one of the shallow lakes Picture of pictograph rock artWheeler Peakphoto of Milky Way taken at Great BasinGreat Basin National Park became a national park in 1986. The park has been used throughout history from Native Americans, miners, Mormons, to explorers. During the time of the Fremont Indians farming was an important part of life. The oldest living bristlecone pine was found in Great Basin National Park. These pines can endure the harsh environment of the desert and can live for thousands of years.
The landscape of the park is made of many basins, not just one. The streams and rivers collect in shallow salt lakes, and then evaporate. Glaciers have left their impact on the park as well. There is proof of boulders and lakes carved from the glaciers. The area is made of mountain ranges as well as desert landscape. There is a variety of plants and animals depending on where you are at in the park.
Great Basin National Park is also one of the darkest places in the United States. Light pollution is minimal at the park. You can see the Milky Way in the night sky at Great Basin.
Upper Pictograph Cave: Display pictographs were painted by the Fremont Indians. The images are unknown; however archeologists can tell the difference between the people drawn and the animals drawn. The cave was most likely used to protect them from the weather as well. In the 1930’s more artifacts were found in the cave such as fire-cracked rocks, ashes, animal bones, and stone artifacts.
Lehman Caves/orchard/aqueduct: Lehman Caves was named after the explorer Absalom Lehman, it is said he discovered the caves in 1885. Lehman also planted an orchid. The orchid could not survive unless a form of irrigation existed, so Lehman created an aqueduct. Some of the trees remain today on the 7 acres Lehman had used to plant these fruit trees.
Lexington Arch: This arch is unique in that it is made of limestone and not sandstone. Archeologists are not sure whether it is an arch or a natural bridge. The difference is an arch is caused by natural elements and a bridge would have been formed from a stream or river. It is a mystery if the Lexington Arch was really an opening to a cave system that no longer exists.
Johnson Lake Mining District: This area is located on the western side of the park. Tungsten was discovered in the early 1900s in this area by Snake Creek. In the 1930s a snow slide came through the area and halted mine production. After the snow slide the mine was abandoned and closed. Most of the equipment was salvaged and used for other mines. Still today archeologists are finding clues of the mining process there at Johnson Lake.
Osceola Ditch: Gold was found just west of the park in 1872. By 1882 the town of Osceola had a population of more than 1500 people. There was not enough water in the area to make a large scale operation for mining gold. Between 1884 and 1885 a ditch was dug at a costly price tag. This helped production of mining for a few years, however by 1892 the water supply was scarce again and mining came to a standstill.
Wheeler Peak: Wheeler Peak is the second highest peak in Nevada. The elevation is 13,065 feet. It is also a rock glacier, which means in moves like a glacier; a little at a time. It is named after George Wheeler who surveyed and measured the mountain top. He published a report and a map six years after his venture up the mountain, and the name Wheeler Peak stuck.
3 to 5SWBAT draw a point of interest inside the park and explain why it is important to the park.
SWBAT explain and describe one person or group of people significant to the park.
SWBAT create a travel brochure explaining points of interest in the park and reasons for visiting them.
paper to make brochures
primary source pictures
colors
Showing them a picture of the night sky, pointing out some stars and constellations. This usually sparks an interest because we cannot see many of the stars where we live. Why do people visit national parks?
Who do you think lived in national parks before they were parks?
What kinds of things do you think you would find in a national park?
Teacher will need to explain the history of Great Basin National Park, using either the attached history synopsis or by looking at the nps.gov site. (You can tell them about the park or use the LCD and show them the nps.gov site for Great Basin). You can choose to show them or explain to them the places mentioned in the activity. Create a travel brochure for Great Basin
Divide the class into partners, each pair will get to choose two-three of the primary source pictures to use on their brochure. Their job is to convince people to come to the park and to visit these places they have picked. First they will need to explain briefly about the park, explaining location, climate, and things to do there. Then they will explain the places they have picked to visit in the park. If possible they need to explain the history of the place in the park and features associated with that place. They will use the primary source pictures on their brochure and one drawing of their own of the park. (teacher may add other things to the brochure that they want included or have them do more than three sources if time permits)
peak
ditch
arch
limestone
sandstone
rock glacier
basin
glaciers
Milky Way
evaporate
A written assessment will be done by showing the product of what is produced by brochure. When all brochures are completed have students look through each other’s and have them choose which places they would visit and why. The students will write their choices in a short paper explaining why. Have students display work and write a paragraph about what they liked and didn’t like about the project. H2.4.3 Identify explorers and settlers in pre-territorial Nevada. , G6.4.1 Describe the distinguishing features of historical regions in Nevada, i.e., Native American tribal territories, pioneer trails, and settlement areas. , G8.4.2 Describe how technologies altered the physical environment in Nevada, and the effects of those changes on its people.Effective Writing: 5.5.7 Select a publishing format appropriate to the audience and purpose.NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneTake a Trip to Great Basin National ParkThis lesson will familiarize students of the importance of The Great Basin National Park, the geographic features, people, and points of interest in the park. They will be creating a travel brochure highlight key points in the park. Definitely
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BarkerAngelaYour NameKey PlacesHistory and Importance of Lake Tahoehttp://www.onlinenevada.org/media/?id=116http://www.onlinenevada.org/media/?id=246http://www.onlinenevada.org/media/?id=852http://www.onlinenevada.org/media/?id=843http://www.onlinenevada.org/media/?id=820Glen Brook Mill, Timber logging in the LakeThunderbird Mansion on Nevada side of LakeTruckee River Canyon, picture of railroadVillage Flume, logging effects at LakeCrystal Bay Ta-Ne-Va-Ho CasinoLake Tahoe has been important in the history of Nevada since the first people arrived. Native Americans would use the shore as a summer gathering place. The Washoe tribe were the first people to inhabit the area. Explorers like Kit Carson and John C. Fremont also came upon the Lake, during their explorations.
In 1859 gold was discovered in the Comstock Lode in Virginia City, which is very close to Lake Tahoe. Many gold seekers came to Lake Tahoe in search of gold and silver. With all these people flocking to the area roads needed to be built. The “Bonanza Road,” which is now highway 50, was built through the mountains connecting the mother lode of California to South Lake Tahoe and Virginia City. This became a toll road as traffic increase to the area.
From 1860 to 1890 Lake Tahoe was heavily logged, because the timber was so valuable. Luckily when the Comstock Lode declined, the logging in Tahoe also declined. When Nevada became a state in 1864, California and Nevada agreed to partition the lake between the two states. By the 1900s wealthy families built mansions on the lake for a getaway from San Francisco. The hotels were also very spectacular.
1944 marked the year of the first casino in the area. By 1950 the roads were being maintained year round for tourists who were flocking to the area. 1960 put Lake Tahoe on the map when the Winter Olympics were held in Squaw Valley. In 1964, Tahoe City was built as a resort community for nearby Virginia City, this marked the beginning of Lake Tahoe as a vacation destination.
Environmentalists realized the beauty of the lake in 1968 when California and Nevada formed the Tahoe Regional Planning Agency. This agency’s job is to control the construction and form a redevelopment plan for the Lake. The League to Save Lake Tahoe is responsible for the use of the Lake’s resources, and also protects and restores the natural features of the Lake. The Lake Tahoe Interagency Monitory Program monitors the water quality and the runoff water quality of the Lake.
3 to 5SWBAT map Lake Tahoe and routes that were familiar to Tahoe area during the 1860-1900s.
SWBAT explain the effects that logging had on the Lake.
SWBAT describe what is being done today to preserve the Lake.
SWBAT draw conclusions about why mansions were built on the Lake.
map of Nevada and California together showing Lake Tahoe
different colored pencils to show routes taken
primary source pictures of the Lake
Take one of the primary source photos of the Lake and make a puzzle out of it. (enough for each or partners) The students piece together the puzzle and try to guess what place is showing in the picture. Record the guesses and then see if anyone got the correct answerHow would mining affect Lake Tahoe?
Why is Lake Tahoe important to Nevada?
Why do people travel to Lake Tahoe today?
Students will need to become familiar with Lake Tahoe, so this will involve them reading a little bit of history or the teacher telling them the history of the Lake. The students need to know that the Washoe tribe were the first people to use the Lake. They also need to know a brief history of the mining in the area. Use a map to show where Lake Tahoe, Virginia City, and Placerville, CA are. Give them a blank map and together map the trails that were taken from Virginia City to Lake Tahoe, from Virginia City to Glenbrook, from San Francisco to South Lake Tahoe, and highway 50 into Lake Tahoe. Use the five primary source pictures to explain the history of certain aspects of the Lake: first casino built, logging, common roads to Lake, and mansions.Creating a living time line
Divide the class into five groups, each group will receive a primary source picture and a blank map of the Lake Tahoe area. Their job is to briefly research the picture; what it is, why it’s important to the Lake, about what time did the picture occur, and map it. They must come up with one paragraph explaining the picture. (depending on size of the class, depends on who does what job) After they have gathered all their information they put themselves into chronological order based on when their picture/event happened. After they are in order they take turns explaining their part of the time line. The teacher also participates in the timeline explaining the agencies that are protecting the Lake today. When all groups have gone, you can display the timelines with the pictures in the room or hallway.
mansion
preserve
logging
An informal assessment will be done while the students are researching or presenting to check for knowledge of topic. Create a list of questions that pertain to the information that was presented, having a premade list of questions might not be beneficial since the students might find other information on the topic than you found. Using a piece of notebook paper, have the students write responses to the questions you created while listening to the time lines. Your question for your part of the time: “Describe what is being done today to protect the Lake.” “What would happen if there were no agencies to protect the Lake?” “Why did people build mansions on the Lake?”Have students write on a note card three things they learned about Lake Tahoe. Option H3.4.4 Explain how advances in technologies have impacted Nevada, i.e., railroads, mining, and gaming., G5.4.1 Identify and use intermediate directions on a compass rose to locate places on a map of Nevada., G5.4.3 Construct a map of Nevada displaying human and physical features., G6.4.1 Describe the distinguishing features of historical regions in Nevada, i.e., Native American tribal territories, pioneer trails, and settlement areas. , G6.4.2 Identify regional changes in Nevada over time.Effective Writing: 5.5.1 Explore a topic to plan written work., Effective Writing: 5.5.7 Prepare a legible final draft to display or share., Types of Writing: 6.5.9 Write research papers by choosing and narrowing a research topic, locating and collecting information from primary and secondary sources, recording information, paraphrasing and summarizing information, organizing collected information, and documenting sources using a given format., Speaking: 8.5.2 Apply Standard English to communicate ideas., Speaking: 8.5.3 Use public speaking techniques to deliver presentations with appropriate prosody, volume, eye contact, enunciation, posture, expressions, audience, and purpose., Speaking: 8.5.3 Communicate information by maintaining a clear focus, following a logical sequence, and illustrating information with media aids.NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneTimeline history of Lake TahoeThis lesson will familiarize students with the importance of Lake Tahoe during the mining era as well as the importance that it has today. Students will be creating a living timeline for the Lake. Definitely
5
BarneyRochelleYour NameNative PeoplesValley of Fire-Natives, Petroglyphs, and Rocks://www.sunsetcities.com/Valley-of-Fire/petroglyphwall-003.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Valley_of_Fire_Nevada11.jpghttp://farm4.static.flickr.com/3437/3209243726_56a9316952.jpghttp://parkerlab.bio.uci.edu/pictures/photography%20pictures/2008_11_08_Arizona_SELECT/IMG_5616_tweak.jpghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/03/Valley_of_Fire_Nevada6.jpghttp://www.sunsetcities.com/Valley-of-Fire/bighornsheep-000.htmlhttp://www.sunsetcities.com/Valley-of-Fire/dancersatangle.htmlhttp://www.sunsetcities.com/Valley-of-Fire/manandspirits.htmlhttp://artfiles.art.com/5/p/LRG/27/2722/Q9ZND00Z/carol-polich-petroglyphs-valley-of-fire-state-park-valley-of-fire-state-park-nevada-usa.jpghttp://www.emporia.edu/earthsci/student/henderson1/rock_cycle.gifPetroglyph WallValley of FireBeehives-Valley of FireFire CaveValley of Fire rock formationPetroglyphs of Bighorn SheepDancer Petro glyphsMan and Spirits Petro glyphsPetroglyphs of people holding handsRock Cycle
Valley of Fire

The Valley of Fire was dedicated in 1935 and it is Nevada's oldest state park. It received its name from the valley's vibrant sandstone rock formations. When the light strikes this red, orange, and yellow sandstone, it appears as if they are on fire. Complex uplifting and faulting of the region, followed by extensive erosion, have created the present landscape. Other important rock formations include limestones, shales, and conglomerates.

Rocks at Valley of Fire
These sandstone cliffs and rocks are part of the Navajo Sandstone Formation that is found all across southern Nevada and areas of the Southwest. This Navajo Sandstone is the same formation that is also found in Red Rock Canyon and Zion National Park as well as others. The red coloring in the sandstone is due to the by product of the minerals in the rock, primarily iron oxides. Throughout this valley, there are pink, yellow and red sand dunes.

Plants
The plant community is dominated with desert scrub, burro bush, brittle bush and creosote bushes colored an unusual green. Several cactus species, including beaver tail and cholla, are also common. In the spring, the desert marigold, indigo bush, and desert mallow look beautiful along park roads.

Animals
Birds in the Valley include the raven, house finch, sage sparrow, and roadrunner. Many migrant birds also pass through the park. Most desert animals are nocturnal and thus, they are not frequently seen if you are driving through. Many species of lizards and snakes are common in the valley, as well as the coyote, kit fox, spotted skunk, black tailed jack rabbit, and antelope ground squirrel. The desert tortoise is a rare species but may be spotted as well.

Geography and Climate
Valley of Fire is 46,000 acres and is located only 50-55 miles northeast of Las Vegas, Nevada. Winters are mild with temperatures ranging from freezing to 75 degrees. Daily summer highs usually exceed 100 degrees, and may reach 120 degrees.
Historical Significance
Prehistoric users of the Valley of Fire included the Basket Maker people and later the Anasazi Pueblo farmers from the nearby fertile Moapa Valley. Their approximate span of occupation has been dated from 300 B.C. to A.D. 1150. Their visits probably involved hunting, food gathering, and religious ceremonies, although scarcity of water would have limited the length of their stay. Beautiful examples of rock art left by these ancient peoples can be found at several places within the park. This rock art is now referred to as petro glyphs. Petro glyphs from these visits are found throughout the park. It has been said that other Native people later in history could also have created the petroglyphs. In addition, there are petrified logs that are said to date back to prehistoric times.

Tourism
Over 250,000, visitors see the Valley of Fire each year where sheer sandstone cliffs and amazing rock formations inspire the humaneye.

Background Information for Petroglyphs and Rocks

What are petroglyphs?
A petroglyph is a mark made into a stone surface by humans to represent some object. This is contrasted to what is often referred to as ‘rock painting’, which is a design or image painted or drawn on to the surface of the rock. Those are called pictographs. Petro glyph images are pecked, scratched or ground into the surface of the rock. In some areas the authors used a hammerstone and a pebble as a chisel.

Who Made The Petroglyphs?

The Muddy River is formed from hot springs that are only a few miles from the Colorado River. Its flow is pretty constant because it sources come from artesian springs rather than precipitation. Due to these natural springs, the Muddy River area is drought-proof to a certain degree, thus making it a reliable and attractive resource.

The Virgin Anasazi lived in the Muddy River valley which is just below the Valley of Fire. The Valley of Fire and its major petroglyph concentrations, are within walking distance to the Pueblo Grande de Nevada (sometimes referred to as Nevada's lost city) and most of the Virgin Anasazi villages in the Muddy and Virgin River valleys. Depending on the route, the walk could be about 10 to 15 miles from most of the Anasazi Villages to the petroglyphs. Many generations of the Anasazi lived in this area from their archaic and basketmaker beginnings through the Pueblo periods to the eventual abandonment.

Before the flooding of Lake Mead, the Virgin River was just short distance from the Colorado River. It is likely that Colorado River cultures found their way here from the Colorado River via the Virgin River, then the Muddy River. It is very possible that Yuman speaking people found their way into the Valley of Fire through this route.

It is known that the Southern Paiute visited this area and hunted in the Muddy and Virgin River valleys until historic times. The Paiutes were foragers with varying degrees of dependence on horticulture; they recognized territorial distinctions and had an uneasy relationship with neighboring Utes, Chemehuevis and Mohaves, but strong, mostly friendly ties to the Western Shoshone peoples to the north and in California. The Paiute are classified as a Great Basin culture. The Atl Atl is a primary hunting weapon in the Desert Archaic of the Great Basin. Because there seems to be the depiction of Atl Atl images at the Valley of Fire, it truly seems to make a tie to those cultures. Author of A Guide to Rock Art Sites, David Whitley, states, ' .. it is also likely that some of the engravings at this site were made both earlier and more recently.' According to Whitley, the introduction of the bow and arrow displaced the Atl Atl as a hunting implement in this area. Therefore he estimates that date to be around 1500 BP. So, he infers that the images here must be at least 1500 years old.

Petroglyphs are found throughout the US. From what we know about Native American history, it is very probable that many groups created them. It is also possible that some groups traveled extensively and produced petroglyphs throughout a wide area and not necessarily in their own or home area.

Background on the Rock Cycle
The rock cycle is similar to the water cycle. During this process, rocks are continually developing and changing. Sometimes magma which lies below the earth’s surface can be forced above ground by volcanic activity. Once above the surface this material is called lava. After the volcanic eruption, the lava cools. Other magma will remain below the surface and cool there. As the lava or magma cools, it becomes igneous rock. Uplifting will eventually bring the underground igneous rock to the surface.
Once on the earth’s surface, these rocks erode due to wind or water. Pieces of these igneous rocks are deposited in various places by wind or water. As these pieces settle and mix with other sediments, they begin to harden and form layers. Pressure from new layers on top of them gradually turn them into sedimentary rocks.
The third type of rocks, metamorphic rocks, are formed when either igneous or sedimentary rocks are changed either by heat or pressure. This cycle is an ongoing part of nature.

How Sedimentary Rocks are Formed
For thousands, even millions of years, little pieces of our earth have been eroded--broken down and worn away by wind and water. These little bits of our earth are washed downstream where they settle to the bottom of the rivers, lakes, and oceans. Layer after layer of eroded earth is deposited on top of each. These layers are pressed down more and more through time, until the bottom layers slowly turn into rock.

Sedimentary Rocks in Valley of Fire
Sandstone, limestone, shale, and conglomerates can be seen in the Valley of Fire.
3 to 5Students will draw the steps of the rock cycle
-identify and create a sedimentary rock and learn the process of sedimentary rock building
-look at petroglyphs and draw conclusions
-learn about the Native people of Valley of Fire
and students will create their own petroglyphs
• Sand (1/4 cup per group)
• Dirt (1/4 cup per group)
• Pieces of shells
• Water
• 1/4 cup measuring cup (1 per group)
• Spoons (one for each group)
• paper
• chart paper
• construction paper
• crayons
• computer projector
• map
Show them picture of a petroglyph(Primary Source 1). Have students write down what they think the petroglyphs represent or what story they tell.
Primary Source #1 Petroglyph Wall
http://www.sunsetcities.com/Valley-of-Fire/petroglyphwall-003.html
Have them share petroglyph interpretations.
Ask: Why do you think the Natives wrote on walls?

Why do you think the Natives came to the Valley of Fire?

Teach this background: The Muddy River is formed from hot springs that are only a few miles from the Colorado River. Its flow is pretty constant because it sources come from artesian springs rather than precipitation. Due to these natural springs, the Muddy River area is drought-proof to a certain degree, thus making it a reliable and attractive resource. Please see background for further information.

Do you think they drew the pictures to tell a story? to have fun? or were they learning/teaching something?
In this unit, you will be looking at pictures of the Valley of Fire, learn about the history of the first people and their art in this Valley, create your own petroglyphs, learn about the rock cycle and create your very own model of a sedimentary rock.
Show pictures of Valley of Fire--Primary Sources 2-5
On board, have the following questions on board and read them aloud so they can find the answers as they look at pictures.
What do you think caused the rocks to take on such interesting formations? Discuss weathering and erosion.
What type of rocks do you think these are?
Why do you think this place was named Valley of Fire?
Do you think these rocks could have provided shelter or homes for people? Why or why not?

Discuss questions and their answers after looking at the primary source pictures.

Primary Source 2-- Valley of Fire
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Valley_of_Fire_Nevada11.jpg
Primary Source 3-Beehives-Valley of Fire
http://farm4.static.flickr.com/3437/3209243726_56a9316952.jpg
Primary Source 4-Fire Cave
http://parkerlab.bio.uci.edu/pictures/photography%20pictures/2008_11_08_Arizona_SELECT/IMG_5616_tweak.jpg
Primary Source 5-Valley of Fire rock formation
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/03/Valley_of_Fire_Nevada6.jpg

Activity 1: Teacher direction: Now, we will be looking at some art work left by the first people who roamed this valley. This artwork is known as petroglyphs. (See background information for petroglyph information). Take a look at these fascinating petroglyphs found on the walls of these beautiful sandstone formations.
Number your paper from 1-4 and write down what you think each petroglyph could have symbolized or the story they might have told.
Primary Source #6-Petroglyphs of Bighorn Sheep
http://www.sunsetcities.com/Valley-of-Fire/bighornsheep-000.html
Primary Source #7-Dancer Petro glyphs
http://www.sunsetcities.com/Valley-of-Fire/dancersatangle.html
Primary Source #8-Man and Spirits Petro glyphs
http://www.sunsetcities.com/Valley-of-Fire/manandspirits.html
Primary Source #9-Petroglyphs of people holding hands
http://artfiles.art.com/5/p/LRG/27/2722/Q9ZND00Z/carol-polich-petroglyphs-valley-of-fire-state-park-valley-of-fire-state-park-nevada-usa.jpg
Tell a little bit about what is known about the history of these petro glyphs using background information under "Who made the Petro glyphs?".
Students will then create a wall of petro glyphs on a brown paper sack or red/brown construction paper and write an accompanying paragraph about its meaning or interpretation.

Activity 2
Students will discuss the geologic rock cycle and work with their group to simulate creating a sedimentary rock.
1. Discuss with students how the rock cycle functions. Comparing it to other cycles you have already studied in science should help, i.e. water cycle, food webs, plant cycle, etc.
On a chart paper draw the cycle explaining it as you draw:
Rock Cycle Diagram--go to link for example of rock cycle.
Primary Source #10--Rock Cycle http://www.emporia.edu/earthsci/student/henderson1/rock_cycle.gif

2. Leaving your chart up for the class to view, hand out paper for each of the students to draw their own copy of the rock cycle.
3. Have samples of each type of rock out for the class to view. Remind the class of the properties studied in previous lessons and allow ample time to observe the rocks. If you don't have samples, you can have your students view samples on-line with the following website: http://www.fi.edu/fellows/fellow1/oct98/create/sediment.htm
4. Conduct an experiment to help children understand how sedimentary rocks are formed.
-- Distribute an 8 oz. container, consider a clear container like a pop bottle a measuring cup, and a spoon to each group. Allow students to fill their containers with 1/4 cup sand and 1/4 cup dirt, and a few broken shell pieces. Then pour enough water into each container to cover the soil and sand with two inches of water. After the water is added, ask students to predict what will happen once you stir all of the contents of the container.
--Stir or shake vigorously for at least one minute. Then set the containers down and watch as the sand and dirt settle. Have the students draw what they observe. Check the containers again in 15 minutes and then again the next day. Draw the containers again and have students write about the differences they observed. Place the containers in an area where they won’t be disturbed and continue to observe throughout the week.
3. As a culmination, review the 4 different sedimentary rocks (sandstone, limestone, shale, conglomerate)found in Valley of Fire.
petroglyph
sedimentary rock
metamorphic rock
igneous rock
Anasazi
Paiute
weathering and erosion
Teacher will assess overall student participation and involvement, read over student created petroglyphs and paragraphs to explain meaning, teacher will evaluate rock cycle diagram, and look at experiment notes for creating sedimentary rock.Ask the following questions:
What type of rock does Valley of Fire mainly contain?
How is sedimentary rock formed?
What gave the Valley of Fire its interesting formations?
Who were the first people to inhabit or visit the Valley of Fire? Why might they have visited?
How did they leave their mark on history?
What may the petroglyphs have represented?
What makes the Valley of Fire unique or special?
Discuss and answer these questions with the class as closure
You may want to prepare a pre-made outline of the rock cycle for children with fine motor control problems to assist in drawing rock formation diagram.H1.4.1 Describe the lifestyles of Nevada’s Desert Archaic people., H1.4.2 Define hunter-gatherer., H1.4.3 Describe the lifestyles of Nevada’s Native American cultures. 3, H3.4.1 Compare and/or contrast their daily lives with children in Nevada’s past., H3.4.2 Recognize that communities include people who have diverse ethnic origins, customs, and traditions, and who make contributions to Nevada., G6.4.2 Identify regional changes in Nevada over time., G6.4.3 Identify and describe the diversity and cultural traditions of Nevada’s people, i.e., Native Americans, Basque communities.Word Analysis: 1.5.4 Comprehend, build, and extend vocabulary using context clues and structural analysis., Word Analysis: 1.5.4 Build vocabulary using pictures and symbols., Word Analysis: 1.5.5 Apply knowledge of high frequency words in text to build fluency and comprehension. , Word Analysis: 1.5.5 Apply knowledge of content-specific vocabulary in text to build comprehension. , Literary Text: 3.5.7 Explain the influence of time periods., Literary Text: 3.5.8 Make and revise predictions based on evidence., Literary Text: 3.5.9 Make connections to self, other text, and/or the world., Literary Text: 3.5.9 Use information to answer specific questions., Effective Writing: 5.5.4 Edit essays and compositions to ensure correct spelling of high frequency works and content words., Listening: 7.5.5 Actively listen to oral communications., Listening: 7.5.5 Listen to and participate in conversations., Listening: 7.5.5 Listen to and evaluate constructive feedback., Speaking: 8.5.1 Ask questions to clarify directions., Speaking: 8.5.2 Use precise language to describe and elicit feelings, experiences, observations, and ideas., Speaking: 8.5.3 Communicate statements that express and opinion.NoneN.5.A.1 Students know scientific progress is made by conducting careful investigations, recording data, and communicating the results in an accurate method. , N.5.A.2 Students know how to compare the results of their experiments to what scientists already know about the world. , N.8.A.3 Students know how to draw conclusions from scientific evidence. , N.5.A.4 Students know graphic representations of recorded data can be used to make predictions. , N.5.A.5 Students know how to plan and conduct a safe and simple investigation. , N.5.A.6 Students know models are tools for learning about the things they are meant to resemble. , N.5.A.7 Students know observable patterns can be used to organize items and ideas. , L.5.C.2 Students know organisms interact with each other and with the non-living parts of their ecosystem., P.5.A.4 Students know that, by combining two or more materials, the properties of that material can be different from the original materials.None4.5.1 Model effective verbal and non-verbal communication skills. 1.5.2 Examine how different media, techniques, and processes cause different responses (e.g. Look at two-dimensional vs. three-dimensional works of art)., 2.5.1 Describe various visual characteristics of art (e.g. sensory, formal, technical, and expressive)., 2.5.2 Identify and describe possible purposes and/or functions of art (e.g. The purpose for a pot’s decoration might be to tell a story while the pot’s function might be storage)., 3.5.2 Produce a work of art that demonstrates the ability to convey meaning by integrating subject matter and symbols with ideas., 5.5.3 Describe meanings of art.NoneNone3.5.3 Select information from a variety of remote resources for a research topic or problem exploring hyperlinks., 4.5.2 Employ tools and materials to design or develop products or projects.NoneValley of Fire-Natives, Petroglyphs, and RocksAt the end of this lesson, students should have an understanding of the Native people of the Valley of Fire and their petroglyph creations,know that the Valley of Fire consists of sedimentary rock and how sedimentary rock forms, discuss the process of weathering, Definitely
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AnonymousList My Work AnonymouslyStatehoodNevada Statehoodhttp://www.nevada-map.org/nevada-road-map.gifhttp://www.50states.com/flag/image/nunst046.gifhttp://www.netstate.com/states/symb/seals/images/seal_nvl.gifhttp://www.archives.gov/press/press-releases/2009/images/nevada-constitution-pg1-l.jpghttp://www.onlinenevada.org/media/image/Capitol.jpgState Map of NevadaNevada State FlagNevada State SealPage 1 of the Nevada Constitution TelegraphNevada State Capitol Building Nevada’s statehood was the result of the politics of the Civil War and President Lincoln’s reelection campaign. On September 2, 1863, voters of the Nevada territory voted 6:1 in favor of pursuing statehood. However, in January 19, 1864 once the constitution was drafted and voted on it failed overwhelmingly. Their inability to pass an approved constitution did not hinder the push for statehood. The US Congress passed the Enabling Act for Nevada, on March 21, 1864. This act would allow the US government the ability to assist Nevada in achieving statehood and expedite the process. One reason to have Nevada’s statehood move quickly and smoothly was that it would become part of the Union and support President Lincoln’s position in the Civil War and provide additional votes in favor of the thirteenth amendment. Secondly, having another Republican State would support Lincoln in his reelection. On September 7, 1864 the new version of the Nevada state constitution passed without hesitation. Some of the provisions included in this version of the constitution were the outlawing of slavery and inability for any unobstructed state land to be taxed by the state. President Lincoln proclaimed Nevada a state on October 31, 1864. 3 to 5SWBAT identify key elements in Nevada’s statehood.Color printed replications of the listed primary sources. To be displayed around the classroom.
Large construction paper
Pencils, colored pencils, and markers
Books on Nevada’s history
District adopted Social Studies text
Access to internet, if necessary
Nevada (Hello U.S.A) by Karen Sirvaitis 2002
As students enter the classroom allow them to take a gallery walk of the primary source materials that have been posted around the classroom. Teachers may want to add color pictures of the Nevada state symbols to the gallery.What are some key terms that surrounded Nevada’s statehood?There were many events that lead to the statehood of Nevada. Unlike the statehood of several other states, Nevada’s path to statehood was very complex. Although the people living in the Nevada territory wanted to achieve statehood they were unable to reach an agreement over the adoption of their constitution. The US Congress enacted an Enabling Act to support and expedited the process to statehood. Ultimately agreement was reached on the adoption of the constitution, Nevada became a state on October 31, 1864, President Lincoln’s reelection was supported by this new Republican state, and the 13th amendment was ratified. Using the picture gallery and other sources students will complete an acrostic poem about the statehood of Nevada.
Distribute large construction paper to each student.
Have students write NEVADA STATEHOOD vertically along the left side of the paper.
Instruct students that they will have to find a word or statement about Nevada’s statehood to correspond with each letter of the phrase.
Allow students to further explore the picture gallery, read relevant books, and search the internet.
Once the poem is complete students can decorate the empty space in the paper with drawing of the state symbols.
Statehood
Constitution
Election
Vote
Territory
Use the words and phrases they’ve found to write a paragraph about Nevada’s statehood.Students can share their poems and display them in the classroom or common area.
Read aloud Nevada (Hello U.S.a) by Karen Sirvaitis 2002
H2.4.5 Explain the symbols, mottoes, and slogans related to Nevada, i.e., “Battle Born,” the state seal, and “Silver State.”, H3.4.5 Discuss major news events on the local and state levels., C13.4.5 Explain why we celebrate Nevada Day.Types of Writing: 6.5.3 Write poetry.NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNevada Statehood Acrostic PoemUsing primary sources and additional resources students will complete an acrostic poem about Nevada’s statehood.Definitely
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CollentineAustenYour NameGamingNevada Gaminghttp://www.newspaperarchive.com/FreePdfViewer.aspx?topic=1931%3a+Nevada+votes+to+legalize+gambling&img=9253780&terms=Gaming&dpviewdate=03%2f17%2f2009&firstvisit=truehttp://www.newspaperarchive.com/FreePdfViewer.aspx?topic=1931%3a+Nevada+votes+to+legalize+gambling&img=9253780&terms=Gaming&dpviewdate=03%2f17%2f2009&firstvisit=truehttp://www.nevadaresorts.org/docs/history/1930.jpghttp://www.nevadaresorts.org/docs/history/1960.jpghttp://www.nevadaresorts.org/docs/history/1970.jpghttp://www.nevadaresorts.org/docs/history/1980.jpghttp://www.nevadaresorts.org/docs/history/1990.jpghttp://www.gambling-law-us.com/State-Laws/Nevada/NewspaperGamblersDowntownLaughlinSports bookMirageStripLawGambling began in Nevada long before it ever became legalized by the state. As prospectors moved to Nevada during the middle of the nineteenth century, they brought along games of chance. Before Nevada became a state, territorial governor James Nye tried to ban gambling in the territory and attempted to enforce harsh fines for involvement. As Nevada entered statehood, legislatures pushed to legalize gambling. The bill did not pass at the time. However, this caused gambling laws to become more lax and certain games were decriminalized in 1869. In 1909, legislature was passed that outlaw most games in Nevada. Slowly more games were legalized in the state until in 1931 the wide-open gambling law was signed and a large amount of games were legalized. This did not instantly lead to more casinos or gaming establishments, but did allow for the current establishments to grow and be more successful. In the 1940’s, gambling began to emerge as the first resort, the El Rancho, was opened on what would become the Las Vegas strip. More casinos opened in Las Vegas as it became a more popular tourist destination. Gaming continued to grow and in 1959 the Nevada Gaming Commission was established to oversee and regulate Nevada’s largest revenue producer. Gaming became more legitimate and gained more notoriety as Howard Hughes entered the Nevada casino market in the 1960’s. In 1967 legislation was passed that allowed public companies to operate casinos. Gaming continued to increase the population and budget of Nevada. Harrah’s became the first publicly owned casino in 1972. Taxes to sports betting were reduced and sports books began to grow around the state. In 1989, the first mega-resort was built in Las Vegas as gaming revenues continued to support the state. More resorts opened in the coming years. At the end of the century, a competition began between northern Nevada and California for gaming as California passed a proposition allowing Native American casinos to operate.
Primary Sources
1. Newspaper from 1931 when Nevada legalized gambling.
2. Gamblers ready for the law to legalize gambling to take effect.
3. Photo of Downtown Las Vegas in the 30’s.
4. Photo of Laughlin.
5. Photo of Nevada Sports book.
6. Photo of Mirage the first megaresort.
7. Photo of the strip today.
8. Nevada’s laws involving gambling.
3 to 5Students will learn the history of gaming in Nevada.
Students will understand the economic impact gaming has had on the state of Nevada.
Students will learn the development of the city of Las Vegas.

Photographs of Las Vegas through the decades from the listed primary sources.
Newspaper from the day the open-wide gaming law was signed.
Chart of average revenue created by gaming.
Copies of fact book: http://www.nevadaresorts.org/docs/factbook/factbook.pdf
Maps of Nevada with major cities and population density
Word Pile - As students enter the classroom they will examine a photograph of the Las Vegas strip and write down anything that comes to mind. Have students hold onto the list and then write down what activities people may be doing on the strip.Why do people relate Nevada to gambling?
What affect does gambling have on the state and the city of Las Vegas?
Describe the city layout of Las Vegas?
How has gambling affected the population of Nevada?
Evaluate the importance of gaming in Nevada today and in the past.
Read the Newspaper from 1931 discussing the passage of the wide-open gaming law. Discuss gambling with students. Allow students to share what they know or have heard about it, positive or otherwise. Students may have opinions about gambling, acknowledge it, but try to focus on what gambling is. Talk to students about gambling around the country and why it is seen more regularly in Nevada. Challenge students to find out what impact gambling has had on Nevada and changed the landscape of Las Vegas.Students will work in groups to answer the inquiry questions as well as the challenge. Each group will receive a copy of the fact book as well as a have access to the primary source sets including the maps of Nevada. They will need to present their findings in the format of a news report or newsletter. Legislature – a deliberative body of persons, usually elective, who are empowered to make, change, or repeal the laws of a country or state; the branch of government having the power to make laws, as distinguished from the executive and judicial branches of government

Revenue – the income of a government from taxation, excise duties, customs, or other sources, appropriated to the payment of the public expenses

Gaming – gambling, especially casino gambling
As a follow-up students will identify people outside of the casinos who are affected by the revenue the casinos provide. They will then explain how that person is affected by legalized gambling in Nevada.Review the impact of California on the location of Nevada’s population. Review the impact gaming has had on Nevada’s economy and how it has changed since its legalization in1931. On a ticket to leave index card students will write down one thing they learned about the impact of gaming.H3.4.3 Define social responsibility., Option H3.4.4 Explain how advances in technologies have impacted Nevada, i.e., railroads, mining, and gaming., H3.4.5 Discuss major news events on the local and state levels., G5.4.2 Identify spatial patterns on a map of Nevada, i.e., deserts, mountains, population., G5.4.4 Utilize different types of Nevada maps, i.e., population and physical maps, to understand spatial distribution.Word Analysis: 1.5.4 Comprehend, build, and extend vocabulary using context clues and structural analysis., Word Analysis: 1.5.4 Apply alphabetic order to locate words in resources. , Word Analysis: 1.5.5 Apply knowledge of content-specific vocabulary in text to build comprehension. , Reading Strategies: 2.5.1 Select before reading strategies appropriate to text and purpose to preview text, access prior, knowledge, build background knowledge, set purpose for reading, make predictions, determine reading rate, and determine text type., Literary Text: 3.5.3 Explain a lesson learned based on events and/or a character’s actions., Expository Text: 4.5.1 Evaluate information from illustrations, graphs, charts, titles, text boxes, diagrams, headings, and maps., Expository Text: 4.5.5 Develop hypotheses based on information., Types of Writing: 6.5.4 Summarize information., Speaking: 8.5.2 Apply Standard English to communicate ideas., Speaking: 8.5.3 Use public speaking techniques to deliver presentations with appropriate prosody, volume, eye contact, enunciation, posture, expressions, audience, and purpose., Speaking: 8.5.4 Ask relevant questions to clarify and extend ideas.NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNone1.5.2 Work together in a group to plan, rehearse, and present a dramatized idea or story.2.5.5 Create a multimedia document or presentation using text, graphics, and/or sound., 3.5.7 Summarize and share the research process and its outcome.NoneGaming in NevadaDuring this lesson students will examine the history of gambling in Nevada. Students will interpret the effects gambling has had on the state population as well as its economy. Students will also describe the city structure of Las Vegas.Definitely
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Cooper-SandersKyrynKyryn_L_Cooper-sanders@interact.ccsd.netYour Name, Your Email AddressMiningMining in Nevadahttp://digital.library.unlv.edu/boomtown/dm.php/snv/371http://digital.library.unlv.edu/boomtown/dm.php/snv/272http://digital.library.unlv.edu/boomtown/dm.php/snv/269http://digital.library.unlv.edu/boomtown/dm.php/snv/2686http://digital.library.unlv.edu/boomtown/dm.php/snv/386http://digital.library.unlv.edu/boomtown/dm.php/snv/102http://www.onlinenevada.org/media/?id=266Men at Red Top MinePanning Ore in Mining CampMen Working in January Lease MineMiner Working Topside Filling Ore CartExplosion at Velvet LeaseTwo Men Inside MineComstock MineIt seems that fortune seekers have been coming to Nevada for over 150 years. Today’s fortune seekers visit the casinos. In the 1800’s, fortune seekers were prospectors hoping to strike it rich.

In 1849, Mormon 49’s heading to California discovered gold in a stream flowing into the Carson River. Others were inspired to look around the area and see if there was more gold. The explorations of these people led to the discovery in 1859 of the Comstock Lode. Miners started to find “black stuff” with the gold. This turned out to be silver from a vein that for many years yielded more than half the nation’s output of silver. The Comstock mines eventually produced over $1 billion in ore and created dozens of millionaires in Virginia City.

Hard Rock Mining

Early hard rock miners in Nevada used technology that dated back to medieval Europe, Spanish “Colonial America, and China. Miners dug “glory holes” or “rat holes” which were shallow shafts usually 100-200 feet deep used to reach the ore body. By the early 1860’s, some industrial technology was introduced. Once the miners had reached the ore, they used gear trains, cams, pistons, and cylinders to make pumping, hoisting, transporting, and grinding machines. Miners used hand drills to bore holes into the rock. A charge was placed in the holes with black powder. The miners then used picks and shovels to muck out the ore. The introduction of dynamite and the mechanical compressed air rock drill changed the excavation process.

Mining to the depths that were necessary in Virginia City, often led to cave-ins. Philipp Deidesheimer, a German engineer, was hired to reduce this possibility. In late 1860, he designed “square-set timbering” which utilized a system of cribs (cubes) to support the mines. The cribs could support an underground chasm and could be made even stronger when it was filled with waste rock. This was actually more efficient than clearing the rock out of the way by hauling it to the surface. The “square-set timbering” system was quickly adopted by others. In fact, it was the international standard of mining for the next fifty years.

Other improvements were made in the manner in which miners and materials were hoisted up and down the shafts. Powerful hoisting engines were used to replace hand cranked windlasses and animal powered whims. Many mines also flooded. In this situation the miners would bail out the water with the aide of hoisting machines. In addition, engine powered fans and blowers ventilated the mines so that hand bellows and wind sails were unnecessary.

Placer Mining

Placer Mining is the type of mining that is occurring when one “pans for gold.” It tended to be less industrialized and involved excavated into sand bars. These miners used pans, rockers, sluices, Long Toms, and dry washers to separate the metals from gravels. Often it was necessary to grind or crush rocks into smaller sized particles. Chilean mills, ball mills, and tube mills were used for this. After the crushing occurred, miners used vibrating or shaking machines to separate the heavier metal-bearing ores from the others.

Placer miners tended to be transient, moving from one place to another. Therefore, their tools were inexpensive, light weight, and had a limited capacity.

Open Pit Mining

Open Pit mining first appeared with the Comstock Lode in 1859. It is used when ore bodies are present relatively close to the surface. The first open pit mine in Nevada was the Ophir Pit, which is the sight of the original Virginia City strike. During the twentieth century, the open pits were expanded due to the large heavy equipment and better engineered sidewalls.

Regardless of the type of mining, it all helped to lead to the development of Nevada. Without the presence of gold, silver, and copper, many people would have lost their incentive to go west and would never have made the journey.

The primary sources were chosen for the mining tools that they showed:

1) Men at Red Top Mine – This shows the prospectors using picks and other tools to break up the tough ground.

2) Panning Ore in Mining Camp – This shows prospectors panning and using a sluice.

3) Men Working in January Lease Mine – This shows the prospectors working inside a mine. You can see the cribs, candlestick holders, and other tools.

4) Miner Working Topside Filling Ore Cart – This photo shows a miner filling using an ore cart on tracks. You can also see a headframe.

5) Explosion at Velvet Lease –This shows an explosion which indicates the use of dynamite or black powder. One can also see shovels, picks, drill steels, etc. in the picture.

6) Two Men Inside Mine – This image shows two men inside a mine. You can see their attire including their hats. Tracks can also be seen which indicates ore carts. A pick, candlestick holder, and the reinforced walls are also visible.

7) Comstock Mine – This map shows the mines in Comstock. It also illustrates the square set timbering technique used inside of mines.


3 to 5Students will describe the important historical events in Nevada.

Students will use primary sources to identify mining tools and make predictions as to how the tools were used.

Students will research to learn the actual uses of 5 (or more) of the tools.

Students will be create a mining scene which correctly depicts the use of 5 (or more) mining tools.
chocolate chip cookies
napkins
craft items (paperclips, shoe boxes, construction paper, scissors, glue, crayons/markers, clay, brads, craft sticks, etc.)
index cards
pencils
paper
mining photographs (primary sources)
computers with internet access
straight edge

Suggested Books:
BeDunnah, Gary. Nevada: Our Home. Salt Lake City: Gibbs Smith, Publisher, 2006

Green, Michael. Nevada: A Journey of Discovery. Salt Lake City: Gibbs Smith, Publisher, 2005

Burkhard, Daryle. The Cornish Miners. New York: Nomad Press, 2005

Suggested Websites:
http://www.darylburkhard.com/intothemine.html

http://kmsamistad409.wikispaces.com/Mining+Tools+of+the+Late+1800s

Other Suggested Materials:
A “Mining” trunk can be borrowed from the Nevada State Museum. This trunk contains many artifacts and replicas of mining tools. It also provides photographs and other information about mining.
Cookie Mining (a simplified version) – Students will each be given a chocolate chip cookie and a napkin. The teacher will inform the students that they are miners and their goal is to remove the chocolate chips from the cookies. Students will have no tools to begin with except their fingers and they cannot pick their cookie up off of the napkin. As with real mining, the more intact a chip is the more that it is worth. Tell the students to begin and then stop them after about 1-2 min. Ask them what would make their task easier. Hopefully, they will realize that tools would make their mining easier. Give each student a paperclip which they can straighten and use as a tool. Allow them to continue mining for 5 minutes. At the end of the 5 minutes, collect the paperclips and see who has been successful at removing whole chips from the cookies. They will probably want to eat their cookie and any crumbs.1) How did you feel when you first started mining?
2) How did the “tools” impact your mining ability?
3) What tasks do you think miners have that could be helped with tools?
4) What types of tools do you think Nevada’s miners used?
Just like we used tools today to remove chocolate chips from our cookies, miners of the past and present have used tools to make their job easier.

Today we are going to be looking at some photographs from Nevada mines over the years and see what types of tools they used. We are going to take this information, do some research, and then create our own mining scene in which you’ll show some mining tools in use. This means that you’ll have to know how the tools were used.
This is a multi-day lesson based on 50 minute class sessions.

After doing the Sponge Activity, give each student a piece of paper and a straight edge. They will need to draw 2 lines down the paper so that there are 3 columns on the paper. The first column should be labeled “Tool”; the second column should be labeled “Predicted Use”; and the last column should be labeled “Actual Use.”

Put the students in small groups. Each group should have a picture from the primary sources. Have the students work together to find items in the pictures that they think are tools. They should sketch (not draw) the tool and then as a group make a prediction as to how the tool was used. Remind the students that even though they are working as a group, they are each responsible for having the information on their paper. After about 5 minutes, give each group a different picture at which to look.

After all the pictures have been studied, you might want to gather the class and share some tools that were found in the pictures and how they were actually used. The information provided in the overview should help with this.

If you prefer, you can send them to the books mentioned or to the internet to find out more specifically how the tools were used. The students should complete the final column, “Actual Use”, as they find the information. When they find out the name of a tool, they should also add it in the “Tool” column near the sketch.
Claim
Comstock Lode
deposit
dynamite
mineral/ore
panning
crib
prospector
sluicing
vein
strike
Students can either work independently, in pairs, or in small groups to complete the next part of the lesson.
Using a shoebox and craft materials, students create a mining scene. In this scene they have to show 5 (or more) mining tools being used correctly.

Students should present their mining scenes by naming the tools they chose and explaine how they are used. Or, you can provide the students with an index card on which to write this information. The card can then be posted on the shoebox.

For assessing purposes, you can assign a point value to each tool and correct explanation. I would suggest 10 points for each tool which would permit for “partial credit” for answers that may not be as thorough as desired.

You should now be able to identify and explain how some of the mining tools were used. How did the photographs help us learn about mining? What do you think were some of the hardships the miners faced? Would you want to be a miner? Why/Why not?

Now that you have learned a little about the miners and their tools, we are going to learn about the impact that mining had on Nevada in future lessons.
Students will more than likely want to bring some items from home to add to their mining scenes. I would probably allow this within reason. Some of them may get very creative!

You can group the kids in heterogeneous groups to help those that have language and/or learning challenges.

It may be helpful to have the students sketch their mining scene before they start working on it. This might help them to work more efficiently.
H2.4.4 Identify the diverse population of Nevada’s early settlers and discuss their unique experiences., Option H3.4.4 Explain how advances in technologies have impacted Nevada, i.e., railroads, mining, and gaming., G6.4.4 Show how regional change in Nevada from decade to decade has affected characteristics of place, i.e., plows allow farmers to prepare the land for planting, pick axes assist in mining operations. , G7.4.2 List examples of movements of people, goods, and ideas into and across Nevada., G7.4.4 Describe historical and current economic issues in Nevada using geographic resources, i.e., illustrate demographic changes due to mining and gaming., G8.4.1 Describe ways physical environments affect human activity in Nevada using historical and contemporary examples., G8.4.2 Describe how technologies altered the physical environment in Nevada, and the effects of those changes on its people., G8.4.5 Describe the distribution patterns of natural resources in Nevada.Word Analysis: 1.5.5 Apply knowledge of content-specific vocabulary in text to build comprehension. , Expository Text: 4.5.5 Use information to answer specific questions., Expository Text: 4.5.5 Develop hypotheses based on information., Expository Text: 4.5.5 Summarize information., Effective Writing: 5.5.1 Explore a topic to plan written work., Effective Writing: 5.5.4 Edit essays and compositions to ensure correct spelling of high frequency works and content words., Effective Writing: 5.5.4 Edit for correct capitalization., Listening: 7.5.5 Actively listen to oral communications., Listening: 7.5.5 Listen to and participate in conversations., Speaking: 8.5.4 Distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information.NoneN.5.A.6 Students know models are tools for learning about the things they are meant to resemble. , E.5.C.5 Students know soil varies from place to place and has both biological and mineral components.None1.5.12 Explain the relationship of the environment to positive health behaviors and the prevention of injury, illness/disease, and premature death. 1.5.3 Create artworks using various media, techniques, and processes to communicate ideas., 3.5.2 Produce a work of art that demonstrates the ability to convey meaning by integrating subject matter and symbols with ideas., 4.5.3 Create works of art that demonstrate historical and cultural influence.NoneNone3.5.1 Select a research topic or define a problem and predict outcomes using technology tools., 3.5.2 Generate keywords for a research topic or problem., 3.5.3 Select information from a variety of remote resources for a research topic or problem exploring hyperlinks., 3.5.4 Use an organizational format to arrange information for presentation or decision-making., 3.5.5 Demonstrate an understanding of intellectual property and identify source and content of information collected.NoneMining ToolsStudents will use the primary sources to identify tools that miners have used. They will then make predictions and the research to find out more about these tools. They will use this information and their creativity to create a mining scene. Students will present their mining scenes to others and be able to explain the tools and how they were used.Definitely
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AnonymousList My Work AnonymouslyNative PeoplesWhat does it look like?• http://www.clan.lib.nv.us/media/default.asp?media=image&url=1-015-3• http://www.clan.lib.nv.us/media/default.asp?media=image&url=1-015-2• http://www.minnehahacounty.org/museums/exhibits/l_c_gifts_mandan/teachers/artifact_pages/26_woman's_dress.htm • http://jrhoan.wordpress.com/2009/02/04/earliest-photos-of-paiutes/http://www.texasbeyondhistory.net/plateaus/peoples/images/shelter.html • http://www.flickr.com/photos/cowlishaw/1362779615/Sagebrush ShoesSagebrush DressNative American Womans' DressPauite SheltersWickiupAnother WickiupAll of the Nevada Native Americans were able to survive the Nevada’s harsh climate and when the white settlers came to the area, they tried to learn from the natives. With scarce resources they were mostly hunters and gathers. They used the sagebrush and pine trees for much of their food and supplies during the warmer seasons, and hunted small animals during the winter months. They would travel where the plants and animals were, therefore their homes were made of light, portable items. When explorers first came to the Nevada region they discovered three major tribes: the Northern and Southern Paiutes, the Shoshone, and the Washoe. The Shoshones are divided into Snakes, Bannacks, Tosiwithces, Goshautes, Cumumpahs, and Utes. The Paiutes were divided into two groups, one in northern and one it southern Nevada. The Southern Paiutes were mainly found in the Moapa Valley area. The Shoshone were in much of northeastern Nevada. The Washoe were in the area of the Sierra Nevada Mountain Range, which is around the modern-day border of Nevada and California. Washoe were well known for their baskets and have lived in their homeland for 4,000 years. Their dialect is very different from other Nevada Natives, and has no affinity with any other Indians. Sacajawea, who was the famous Indian guide for Lewis and Clark, was Shoshone. The Paiute and Shoshone dominated the Nevada area and their ideas and culture have influenced Native American culture nationwide.
Primary Sources:
•http://www.clan.lib.nv.us/media/default.asp?media=image&url=1-015-3
•Sagebrush Shoes were one of the many items of clothing made with the materials available to the Natives of Nevada. Although these shoes weren’t the most comfy, they projected the feet from all the small stickers and rocks in the desert.

•http://www.clan.lib.nv.us/media/default.asp?media=image&url=1-015-2
•This dress was made of sagebrush and tule and trimmed with grass. Members of the Paiute tribe would have worn it in the winter as protection against the cold. It would definitely have been a scratchy garment to wear, but it shows the use the natives made of the materials available. Native Americans in Nevada also used sagebrush to construct items to cover their heads and their feet.

•http://jrhoan.wordpress.com/2009/02/04/earliest-photos-of-paiutes/
•This collection of photos shows some Paiute shelters from the late 1800s. The photos show how they were made of materials that were found nearby, like small pieces of wood. These shelters were easy to put up and take down, which allowed the Natives to follow animals.

•http://www.minnehahacounty.org/museums/exhibits/l_c_gifts_mandan/teachers/artifact_pages/26_woman's_dress.htm
•Shoshone woman’s dress made from large game, like the bighorn sheep. It was the woman’s duty to make the clothing. Men made anything related to hunting and war. All parts of the animals were used, trying not to waste anything. They demonstrated great artistic skill and would decorate the clothing with small bones, animal tails, and teeth.

• http://www.texasbeyondhistory.net/plateaus/peoples/images/shelter.html
•This photo shows a Wickiup. They were used by the Southern Paiutes and other natives in the southwest. These were light and made with the local resources, like branches and reeds. The Paiutes were hunters and gathers, and were constantly searching for food and items for daily life in the Great Basin.

•http://www.flickr.com/photos/cowlishaw/1362779615/ - another Wickiup
3-5, 6-81.Students will identify and describe the types of shelters made by the Native Tribes of Nevada.
2.Students will identify and describe the types of tools made and used by the Native Tribes of Nevada.
3.Students will identify and describe the types of clothing made by the Native Tribes of Nevada.
4.Students will create/construct (draw, build, diorama, sew, etc.) a shelter, tools, and/or clothing used by the Natives of Nevada.
5.Students will understand that shelters, tools, and clothing were based on differing factors: difficulty in procuring materials, projected use, duration of stay, etc.
6.Students will share their presentation with their peers and families (at end of unit).
*Art supplies such as markers, glue, string, paper, poster, cloth, beads, feathers, etc.
•Small boxes for dioramas
•Natural materials such as soil, grasses, sticks or rocks
•Multiple copies of the primary sources, all different sizes
*Computers with internet access for research
•Any resource books about NV Native Americans (specific to your school, local library, etc.)
•Items of clothing, tools, and photos (for Sponge Activity below)
Teacher will hang a t-shirt, pair of jeans, purse, tennis shoes, hammer, screw driver, drill, and photos of different kinds of homes all around the classroom. As students enter the classroom, they must try to figure what the items all have in common. After some discussion, the teacher can tell them that they are all tools and equipment used by modern day people in Nevada. Then display the copies of primary source photos. Have students predict what they are made out of and used for. Then discuss actual items. Pass around the photos for students to get a better view. Have students write one observation and/or idea about each one in their journals.1.What has been the most interesting thing you have seen or learned about during your research about Natives from Nevada?Teacher will read books, show online photos, and discuss the primary sources again. (At this stage in the unit, students should have a good background and be excited to do this final project.)1.Explain to students that this is the final step in creating the “Nevada Native American Museum”.
2.In this final activity, the students will create a visual display of whichever topic they enjoyed learning about the most in this unit. (posters, brochures, dioramas, dress-up like a Native American, make clothing/jewelry, write and perform a song/skit, etc.)
3.Brainstorm a list of possible topics (homes, clothing, tools, people, etc).
4.Tell students that they must use at least two of the primary sources in their presentation, anyway they would like (poster, clipart, part of a costume, background, etc.).
5.Give students 5 minutes to brainstorm and plan their own ideas/projects. Have them share their ideas with a few neighbors. If they seem like they are going in the right direction, let them begin working. If they need additional guidance or ideas, help to develop their plans further.
6.Allow students time to research and create projects. If you would like very detailed visual aids, allow them to work on them at home to encourage parent’s help.
7.Teacher will monitor students to make sure they are on task and working on a focused idea/project.
8.After the projects are created, students must write a paragraph or two that they will share about the visual aid during the museum.
9.Once all projects are completed, have students make invitations to visit the “Nevada Native American Museum”. Select a date and place (making sure it is supported by school administration).
10.Set up the projects in a large area (like multipurpose room or common area). Invite school staff, students, families, and even the community to view all their hard work. Play Native American music in the room while the visitors tour the “museum”. Students will give presentations and answer all questions.
shelter
culture
primary source
climate
natural resources
artifact
Students will be graded on the final visual aid created, based on a teacher created rubric. Students must include at least 2 of the primary sources used in this unit in their display. Students must prepare and give a short presentation about their topic during the “Nevada Native American Museum”,Students will share all the hard work they've done over the past unit with the community. They will invite staff, students, and families to the museum to share their knowledge!Some students may need extra guidance conducting research and/or creating a visual aid. If possible, bring in parent helpers or older students to help with the projects. This lesson is designed to let all students work at their own levels. Students who have strong research/reading skills will be able to go into depth, while students who are not as capable can find basic information. Students could make posters, brochures, reports, songs, poems, dramatic plays, etc. to demonstrate their understanding of the concepts. This entire unit can be as small or large as you want it!H1.4.1 Describe the lifestyles of Nevada’s Desert Archaic people., H1.4.2 Define hunter-gatherer., H1.4.3 Describe the lifestyles of Nevada’s Native American cultures. 3, H1.4.4 Discuss the interactions of pioneers with the Great Basin Indians. 4, H2.4.1 Discuss examples of compromise and conflict within Nevada, i.e., Pyramid Lake Wars, water allocation, Sagebrush Rebellion., H2.4.3 Identify explorers and settlers in pre-territorial Nevada. Word Analysis: 1.5.4 Comprehend, build, and extend vocabulary using context clues and structural analysis., Word Analysis: 1.5.4 Build vocabulary using pictures and symbols., Word Analysis: 1.5.5 Apply knowledge of content-specific vocabulary in text to build comprehension. , Literary Text: 3.5.7 Explain the influence of historical events and culture., Literary Text: 3.5.7 Explain the influence of time periods., Literary Text: 3.5.7 With assistance, compare texts from the same historical period on a single topic., Literary Text: 3.5.9 Make connections to self, other text, and/or the world., Literary Text: 3.5.9 Use information to answer specific questions., Literary Text: 3.5.9 Summarize information., Expository Text: 4.5.1 Evaluate information from illustrations, graphs, charts, titles, text boxes, diagrams, headings, and maps., Expository Text: 4.5.3 Describe a main idea based on evidence. , Expository Text: 4.5.4 Explain the influence of historical events., Expository Text: 4.5.4 Explain the influence of cultures., Expository Text: 4.5.4 Explain the influence of time periods., Expository Text: 4.5.5 Make connections to self, other text, and/or the world., Expository Text: 4.5.5 Use information to answer specific questions., Expository Text: 4.5.5 Summarize information., Expository Text: 4.8.6 Make inferences and draw conclusions based on evidence., Expository Text: 4.8.6 Analyze the accuracy of facts., Expository Text: 4.8.6 Distinguish between fact and opinion., Expository Text: 4.8.6 With assistance, determine accuracy of evidence., Expository Text: 4.8.6 With assistance, verify information by referencing other sources., Expository Text: 4.5.7 Read and follow directions to complete tasks or procedures., Effective Writing: 5.5.1 Use prewriting strategies to plan written work., Effective Writing: 5.5.1 Choose and narrow a topic to organize ideas., Effective Writing: 5.5.1 Explore a topic to plan written work., Effective Writing: 5.5.4 Edit essays and compositions to ensure correct spelling of high frequency works and content words., Effective Writing: 5.5.7 Prepare a legible final draft to display or share., Effective Writing: 5.5.7 Select a publishing format appropriate to the audience and purpose., Types of Writing: 6.5.4 Summarize information., Types of Writing: 6.5.7 Write a variety of communications in appropriate formats., Types of Writing: 6.5.9 Write research papers by choosing and narrowing a research topic, locating and collecting information from primary and secondary sources, recording information, paraphrasing and summarizing information, organizing collected information, and documenting sources using a given format., Types of Writing: 6.5.9 Demonstrate an understanding of the difference between original works and plagiarized works., Listening: 7.5.1 Listen for a variety of purposes including gaining information, being entertained, and understanding directions., Listening: 7.5.1 Listen for and identify main idea, mood, purpose, messages, and tone., Listening: 7.5.1 Listen for and distinguish fact from opinion., Listening: 7.5.1 Listen for and summarize ideas and supporting details., Listening: 7.5.1 With assistance, listen for and evaluate the effect of the speaker’s attitude on audience., Listening: 7.5.1 With assistance, listen for and identify persuasive techniques., Listening: 7.5.2 Listen to and evaluate oral communications for content, delivery, point of view, and ideas., Listening: 7.5.2 With assistance, listen to and evaluate the purpose and value of oral communications., Listening: 7.5.3 Expand vocabulary through listening., Listening: 7.5.5 Actively listen to oral communications., Listening: 7.5.5 Listen to and participate in conversations., Listening: 7.5.5 Listen to and evaluate constructive feedback., Listening: 7.5.5 Provide constructive feedback., Speaking: 8.5.1 Ask questions to clarify directions.NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNone2.5.1 Apply correct finger placement for basic keyboarding skills., 2.5.2 Create a document including a graphic using basic formatting techniques that demonstrate the ability to type, edit, and print., 2.5.5 Create a multimedia document or presentation using text, graphics, and/or sound., 3.5.1 Select a research topic or define a problem and predict outcomes using technology tools., 3.5.2 Generate keywords for a research topic or problem., 3.5.3 Select information from a variety of remote resources for a research topic or problem exploring hyperlinks., 3.5.4 Use an organizational format to arrange information for presentation or decision-making., 3.5.5 Demonstrate an understanding of intellectual property and identify source and content of information collected., 3.5.6 Generate a list of sources., 3.5.7 Summarize and share the research process and its outcome., 4.5.1 Recognize that technological resources include people, information, materials, machines, energy, capital, and time., 4.5.2 Employ tools and materials to design or develop products or projects., 4.5.3 Demonstrate the importance of safety and ease of use in selecting appropriate tools.NoneWhat Does It Look Like? (Lesson #3)The lesson is designed to be the last of a Native American unit about Nevada. The students will create visual presentations to share at a "Nevada Native American Museum" with the school, and community if desired.Definitely
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AnonymousList My Work AnonymouslyGaming The Las Vegas Strip (past and present through photos) http://digital.library.unlv.edu/early_las_vegas/nightclubs/nightclubs.htmlhttp://www.earlyvegas.com/the_strip.htmlhttp://www.onlinenevada.org/virtualgalleriesview?action=cover&id=168http://www.camh.net/egambling/issue3/photos/f3rancho_vegas_aerial.jpghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vEuc3NYHX9MUNLV Libraries Digital Projects: Early Las Vegas: Night Club Las Vegas Earlyvegas.com: Las Vegas Strip History Through Photographs and PicturesNevada Online Encyclopedia: Virtual Galleries: Las Vegas Casino ImplosionsA bird's eye view of the El Rancho Vegas in its first decadeLas Vegas Hotel Implosions Top 10 Video (5 min 8 sec) The Las Vegas Strip has been around for many years and gaming is one of the main sources of the income for the Las Vegas community. The gambling laws resulted in the growth of the Las Vegas area. The first gaming license in Las Vegas was given to J.H. Morgan and Mayme Stocker for the Northern Club.

The El Rancho Vegas casino marked the beginning of the Las Vegas Strip in 1941; it was a low-rose hotel-casino. It was located on the corner of Highway 91 and San Francisco Street, across from where the Sahara stands today. The Hotel Last Frontier followed in 1942 it too was a low rise. It had a wedding chapel, the Hitching Post. It also had Frontier Village and a stagecoach that was used as a shuttle bus to the airport.

The strip has drastically changed from the 1940’s version of our beginning to today. There are many casinos that have occupied the Las Vegas Strip. Some casinos are still with us and some that have been imploded. Here are a few from then and now: The Thunderbird, Desert Inn, Sahara, Sands, Riviera, and Tropicana on one side of the street and The New Frontier, Dunes, Hacienda, and Stardust opened on the other side. Now: The Mirage, Luxor, MGM Grand, Mirage, Wynn, and The Venetian, just to name a few.

There were many different attractions that tourists came to see. Some are showgirls, the nightclubs, and wedding chapels. The newly themed hotels such as, The Mirage, the main attraction was the volcano out front, The Mandalay Bay’s attraction the Shark Reef. However, almost all come to gamble and as the advertisements say “Win Big!”
3 to 5G8.4.2A Explain how advances in technologies have altered the physical environment, both positively and negatively, and the effects on people, railroads, mining, gaming, and the physical environment.

H3.4.4 Explain how advances in technologies have impacted Nevada, i.e., railroads, mining, and gaming.

(4) 2.3 A. select after-reading strategies appropriate to text and purpose to: 8. connect, compare, and contrast story elements
internet access, a computer, LCD projector, the links from the lesson plan, large construction paper for student generated Two-Tab Book (foldable), Book: S is for Silver: A Nevada Alphabet, markers, glue sticks, pen, pencil, pre-download link #5 (the video is from you tube) The students will be asked to have a seat. TTW read from the book, “S is for Silver: A Nevada Alphabet.” TTW read the entry for the letter L. We have been learning about present NV. Today we will take a look at the Las Vegas Strip and how it has changed over the years. TTW ask the following questions (sample answers are in parentheses).

1. What is the Las Vegas Strip? (a group of hotel/casinos)

2. What are some attractions/things you can visit or do on the Strip? ( visit the Shark Reef, eat at a buffet, see dolphins, see tigers, etc)
TTW tell the class that today they will see through pictures and video how the Las Vegas Strip has changed since its birth. TTW now show links 1-5. Remind students to focus on the similarities and differences that they notice in the primary source documents. TCW now use their Two-Tab Book to Compare and Contrast the Las Vegas Strip past and present. The tabs will be labeled Past and Present. TSW use the information gained from the photos and video to fill in the similarities and differences they see. (TTW reshow the picture links one at a time letting the students fill in their foldable.)N/ATTW assess the end result of the Two-Tab Book, which is using the skill of compare and contrast. TSW finish their foldable and the teacher will read from the book, “A Tomas the Tortoise Adventure: Tales For Tomas.” (The book is in celebration of Las Vegas being around for 100 years.) TSW create a list of 5 facts that they learned from the book. Option H3.4.4 Explain how advances in technologies have impacted Nevada, i.e., railroads, mining, and gaming., G8.4.2 Describe how technologies altered the physical environment in Nevada, and the effects of those changes on its people.Reading Strategies: 2.5.2 Select during reading strategies appropriate to text and purpose to use self-correcting strategies, make, confirm, and revise predictions, understand and use key vocabulary, identify main idea and supporting details, make inferences, adjust reading rate, and apply knowledge of text type., Reading Strategies: 2.5.3 Select after reading strategies appropriate to text and purpose to recall details, restate main ideas, organize information, record information, synthesize text, evaluate text, and evaluate the effectiveness of reading strategies., Listening: 7.5.1 Listen for a variety of purposes including gaining information, being entertained, and understanding directions., Listening: 7.5.3 Expand vocabulary through listening.NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneGaming: The Las Vegas Strip The students will learn some of the history of the Las Vegas Strip as well as, get a view of implosions. The students will analyze the past and present photos of the Las Vegas Strip using a Two-Tab Book (foldable). TSW listen to a story celebrating Las Vegas’ 100th birthday, “A Tomas the Tortoise Adventure: Tales For Tomas” and create a list of facts gained form the book. Definitely
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AnonymousList My Work AnonymouslyNative PeoplesSarah Winnemuccahttp://memory.loc.gov/ammem/today/oct14.htmlhttp://www.nanations.com/dishonor/sarah-winnemucca.htmhttp://www.yosemite.ca.us/library/life_among_the_piutes/http://nsla.nevadaculture.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=1540&Itemid=1http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarah_WinnemuccaPhoto of Sarah WinnemuccaLetter from Sarah Winnemucca to Major H. Douglas Sarah Winnemucca's book Life Among the PiutesVideo of dedication of Statue of Sarah WinnemuccaBiography of Sarah WinnemuccaSarah Winnemucca's history is one of importance and historical value. Born during a time of historical change for the Paiute people.
Born into the Northern Paiute tribe in 1844, she was given the name Thocmetony, which means, "shell flower." At the time of her birth, the Northern Paiutes and Washos were the only tribes inhabiting the western part of the state of Nevada. Her grandfather, Chief Truckee, welcomed the arrival of his "white brothers." He would later go on to help General John C. Fremont in the Bear War against Mexican control of California. However, her father, Chief Winnemucca, did not trust the white people and cautioned his own people to keep their distance. Which may have led Sarah’s desire to find a way to intertwine both cultures. This would lead Sarah to play an important role of becoming the primary communicator between her people and the white people. Her role would transfer into one of defending the rights of Paiute and try to create understanding.
Sarah’s first encounter with white people was at age six when her grandfather took her with him to California. She was initially frightened, but soon took a liking to luxuries as beds, chairs, brightly colored dishes and the food she was served. At thirteen, Sarah’s grandfather arranged for Sarah and her sister to become members of Major Ormsby's household at Mormon Station. By the time she was fourteen, she had acquired five languages, three Indian dialects, English and Spanish.
The times that she left her tribe, Sarah returned to them after incidents in which white people treating her tribe poorly. Sarah's final visit in the white culture was at the age sixteen. It was done to fulfill her grandfather's last request that she and her sister be educated in a convent school at San Jose, California.
As Sarah reached maturity and the whites continued to encroach on Paiute territory her and her people were eventually moved onto Indian reservations.
In 1871 Sarah began working as an interpreter for the Bureau of Indian Affairs at Fort McDermitt. During this time, she married Lt. E. C. Bartlett but left him within a year. She later married an Indian husband, but left him for his abuse of her.
In January 1880, she traveled to Washington, D.C. and spoke to the Secretary of the Interior Carl Schurz and President Rutherford B. Hayes. Eventually, Sarah did receive promises of improvements for her people, which were later broken by the government. Despite her advocacy for her people, the broken promises caused them to distrust her. Still, she dedicated the remainder of her life to her work.
She also was dedicated to teaching school to Paiute children. She opened the "Peabody's Institute" near Lovelock, Nevada for Paiute children.
Sarah died on October 17, 1891.
Sarah continues to be a historical person in Nevada history. Her role and dedication to her people and the whites to live harmonious have earned her honors. A statue in her likeness currently resides in Washington, D.C. and Carson City. She was awarded the Nevada Writers Hall of Fame Award for her book from the Friends of the Library, University of Nevada, Reno. An elementary school was named in her honor in Washoe County School District.
3 to 5SWBAT demonstrate that they have mastered Standard H1.3.1 by being able to discuss Sarah Winnemucca’s contributions to our state.
SWBAT utilize artifacts and primary sources to support their findings.
SWBAT demonstrate their mastery of Standard H1.3.2 by creating a foldable detailing Winnemucca’s timeline.
SWBAT answer the "Essential Question" and identify the reason behind Sarah Winnemucca’s legacy.
Teacher Materials: Power point with images of Sarah Winnemucca and her famous words; large chart paper, teacher/ student KWL chart of information known of Winnemucca.
Student Materials: various research books, websites information, pre-test; post-its; construction paper, scissors, glue,
TW copy and create a power point with images of Sarah Winnemucca to present
TW create a KWL chart to use during lesson
TW gather samples of alternative report forms to use for final presentation.
TW copy rubric for S.
Have you ever heard of Sarah Winnemucca?
What do you know about Sarah Winnemucca?
Now that we have read about Sarah Winnemucca, describe her influence in our state.
What would you have done in Sarah Winnemucca's shoes if people were against you? Would you continue to fight?
Do you believe fighting for a connection between the two cultures worth the cost?
SW receive a quick biography of Sarah Winnemucca.
SW view a five part biography "In Her Footprints: Sarah Winnemucca" found on www.youtube.com
SW receive a rubric outlining the expectations of the project.
SW create an artistic interpretation of Sarah Winnemucca's biography.
SW need to use a creative mean to represent their report.
SW create a play, commercial, character puppet, foldable, to present their understanding of Sarah Winnemucca.
historical
influential
advocate
SW be asked to answer the essential question of the lesson.
SW be able to list three reasons for Sarah Winnemucca's legacy.
SW present a final oral presentation explaining their project.
TW check to ensure that all elements of the rubric have been met.
H1.4.2 Define hunter-gatherer., H2.4.3 Identify explorers and settlers in pre-territorial Nevada. Types of Writing: 6.5.4 Write responses that demonstrate an understanding of character development and motivations., Types of Writing: 6.5.4 Summarize information., Listening: 7.5.2 Listen to and evaluate oral communications for content, delivery, point of view, and ideas., Listening: 7.5.5 Listen to and participate in conversations., Speaking: 8.5.2 Use precise language to describe and elicit feelings, experiences, observations, and ideas., Speaking: 8.5.2 Apply Standard English to communicate ideas., Speaking: 8.5.3 Use public speaking techniques to deliver presentations with appropriate prosody, volume, eye contact, enunciation, posture, expressions, audience, and purpose., Speaking: 8.5.3 Communicate information by maintaining a clear focus, following a logical sequence, and illustrating information with media aids., Speaking: 8.5.3 Communicate statements that express and opinion.NoneNoneNoneNone1.5.3 Create artworks using various media, techniques, and processes to communicate ideas.NoneNone3.5.1 Select a research topic or define a problem and predict outcomes using technology tools.NonePeople in History Research: People from our past. SWBAT identify Sarah Winnemucca from photo.
SWBAT relay information presented to class regarding Sarah Winnemucca.
SWBAT make connections with Winnemucca’s struggle and history to present oral and visual presentation.
SWBAT apply their knowledge of history to class.
Definitely
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AnonymousList My Work AnonymouslyKey PlacesEvents in Nevada Historyhttp://www.oac.cdlib.org/view?docId=tf10000759;developer=local;style=oac4;doc.view=itemshttp://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cdm4/document.php?CISOROOT=/TrailGuides&CISOPTR=2978http://www.thestormking.com/Donner_Party/Tamsen_Donner_Letters/Frances_Donner_Portrait/frances_donner_portrait.htmlhttp://www.thestormking.com/Donner_Party/Tamsen_Donner_Letters/Donner_Party_Ad/donner_party_ad.htmlhttp://www.books-about-california.com/Pages/History_of_Donner_Party/Donner_Party_chapter_02.htmlhttp://ic.ucsc.edu/~traugott/hist007/sources/KochGoldGulchLetters.pdfhttp://www.utahcrossroads.org/DonnerParty/index.htmlhttp://www.secctv.org/video/?p=405Diary of Patrick Breen The Emigrants guide to Oregon and California the book used to guide the Donner party written by Lansford W. Hastings:Portrait of Frances Donner daughter of Tamsen and George Donner Copy of ad placed by George Donner recruiting travelers to CaliforniaLetters written by Tamsen Donner during her travels:A letter from James Reed to his wife Margaret Reed of the Donner party: A great online resource for Information regarding the Donner PartyVideo from Students at Elitha Donner Elementary School in Elk Grove, CaliforniaKey EventOn April 16, 1846 a group of nine covered wagons left Springfield, Illinois in hopes of traveling to California. The allure of the gold and the promise of land from the government led James Frasier Reed to consider the long trek across the country.
Reed had read the works of Landsford W. Hastings and its promise of a shorter route into the great west. What was not known to Reed was that the information provided by Hastings was falsified in an attempt to lure people to his visions of building an empire at Sutter’s Fort.
Soon Reed and Donner joined forces with various other families and single men on their trip to the west. The group and their wagons anticipated the trip to take about four months. They would stop in Independence, Missouri prior to continuing on to California.
Though Reed was advised by a friend not to take the trail Hastings had written about, Reed ignored the warning for a quick way to reach his destination.
After a time the group that originated and wanted to continue on using Hastings’ map continue on the north and others took the safer route to the west.
As the wagons continued on to the west, members of the caravan continued to die. They decide to continue on the trail even though many of their provisions have dwindled. As they continued their journey, by September 26th as they near Humboldt River, they realize that their supplies are so depleted for the remaining 600 miles.
Soon disillusionment sets in and many on the wagon trail are upset with Reed. As they reached Donner Lake and attempts were made to cross the path, the group agreed to stay and wait out the snow. Though many from the group attempted to cross the path, few would make it. Soon with no provisions left, the group resorted to cannibalism in order to survive.
On January 19, 1847 seven of the group were able to cross the path and found help. Only two of the ten men survived but all five women lived through the journey. Of the eight that died seven had been cannibalized. Immediately after their arrival messages were sent to neighboring settlements to rally together to save the rest of the Donner party.
On February 19th, the first party reached the lake. Twelve of the remaining emigrants were dead and of the forty-eight remained.
3 to 5SWBAT research the Donner party through non-fiction books and internet.
SWBAT map the route of the Donner party.
SWBAT present their findings to the class in a clear and creative way.
SWBAT explain their designated timeline and trail.
SWBAT utilize primary sources to support their findings.
Teacher Materials: Map of Donner party route found at: http://www.donnerpartydiary.com/maps.htm; video of documentary found at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s1ceO0gtlJ4; books; download Oregon Trail game at: http://www.classic-pc-games.com/pc/educational/oregon_trail_deluxe.html
Student Materials: various research books, websites information, pre-test; post-its; construction paper; shoe boxes
TW present “sponge activity” – A RECIPE FOR DISASTER
TW explain S what a recipe is and how it is typically written
SW write a recipe for disaster.
Based on the ad printed by George Donner, would you join his caravan?
Based on your findings, would you have continued on with the Donner/Reed party or taken the safe route?
Do you think the trip was destined to be a "disaster?"
Would you have used Hastings map?
TW present “sponge activity” – A RECIPE FOR DISASTER
TW explain S what a recipe is and how it is typically written
SW write a recipe for disaster.
TW gather samples of previous dioramas to use for final presentation.
TW copy rubric for S.
WGW create a KWL based on “recipes”
TW copy the History of the Donner Party obtained from http://www.donnerpartydiary.com/
WGW read and discuss History of Donner party
WGW add to KWL
TW present rubric for assignment and presentation
TW present research books from library
TW assign teams to work together
GW select various books to use during their research
WGW view and discuss assignment and samples of finish project.
Canibalism
Tragedy
Guide
Map
Can you map the trail taken by the Donner/Reed party?
Students will create a diorama of various stops and trail markers the Donner/Reed party made on their trek across the country to the west.
SWBAT demonstrate that they have mastered standard H1.3.1 by being able to discuss the impact of the Donner party to our state.
SWBAT utilize artifacts and primary sources to support their findings.
SWBAT demonstrate their mastery of Standard H1.3.2 by creating dioramas of the trail taken by the Donner party.
SWBAT answer the "Essential Question."
SWBAT discuss and explain the reason behind the Donner party and their need to form a group.
Comments from Dr. Keeler:
“Take advantage of the NEH to bring Dr. Dwyer to your class to present Margaret Breen!
I love the idea of creating a "recipe" for disaster. As a model, check out these recipe cards created during the 1930s module (by Lori Ritter):
http://christykeeler.com/TAH/1930s/ExemplaryStudentWork/RitterLori_DepressionRecipeCards.JPG
Please read Ordeal by Hunger by George Stewart before doing this lesson. It's an incredible resource!”
H2.4.2 Describe the experiences of pioneers moving west. , H2.4.3 Identify explorers and settlers in pre-territorial Nevada. , H2.4.4 Identify the diverse population of Nevada’s early settlers and discuss their unique experiences.Word Analysis: 1.5.3 Decode unknown words in text using structural analysis through spelling patterns, base words, root words, suffixes, prefixes, and syllables., Literary Text: 3.5.3 Describe a theme based on evidence. , Literary Text: 3.5.4 Identify third-person limited point of view., Types of Writing: 6.5.4 Summarize information., Listening: 7.5.1 Listen for and identify main idea, mood, purpose, messages, and tone., Speaking: 8.5.2 Apply Standard English to communicate ideas., Speaking: 8.5.4 Contribute to conversations and discussions about a given topic.NoneNoneNone1.5.4 Identify key nutrients, their functions, and the role they play to promote optimal health. 1.5.3 Create artworks using various media, techniques, and processes to communicate ideas.NoneNone3.5.2 Generate keywords for a research topic or problem., 3.5.3 Select information from a variety of remote resources for a research topic or problem exploring hyperlinks.NoneEvents in Nevada HistorySWBAT identify the Donner’s party trail on a US map.
SWBAT relay information presented to class regarding the Donner party.
SWBAT make connections with the Donner party struggles and history to present oral and visual presentation.
SWBAT apply their knowledge of history to class.
Definitely
13
AnonymousList My Work AnonymouslyGeographyEvents in Nevada Historyhttp://www.nps.gov/history/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/122fort/http://www.docstoc.com/docs/2187230/THE-EARLY-PIONEER-HISTORY-OF-JAMES-ALLREDhttp://www.nevadaobserver.com/Reading%20Room%20Documents/History%20of%20Las%20Vegas%20Mission%201%20(1926).htmhttp://www.nps.gov/history/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/122fort/122facts2.htmhttp://www.nps.gov/history/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/122fort/122facts2.htmhttp://parks.nv.gov/pdf/09OLVMF.pdfhttp://www.mynews3.com/story.php?id=16662John Steele’s journal entry of the Mormon MissionaryAccount of James T. S. Allred’s life at the Mormon Fort of Las Vegas by his granddaughter, Eliza Munson.A history book regarding the history of the mission: Letter from John Steele to his wife while living at the Mission in Las VegasPicture of fortNevada Parks and Recreations pamphlet for the Mormon fort with layoutNews 3 footage of the old Mormon FortImportant LandmarksMore than 150 years ago, creek flowed through the valley. That creek led William Bringhurst and 29 others to settle in the area. In June of 1855, Bringhurst and 29 fellow Mormon missionaries from Utah arrived at this site. They began to build a structure of adobe that would become their fort. This fort served as a way station for many travelers. After two years, the Mormon’s effort to colonize the area was Abandoned.

Ten years later, in 1865, Octavius D. Gass bought the
site and developed a large-scale ranch.

In 1881, Gass lost the ranch and Helen Stewart came to own it. Helen, with the help of her father and others, continued to operate the ranch.

In 1902, Helen sold the ranch to the San Pedro, Los Angeles & Salt Lake Railroad. By 1905 with the help of the railroad coming through a new town, Las Vegas, sprang into existence.
3 to 5SWBAT research the Mormon fort through non-fiction books, pamphlets, and internet.
SWBAT locate the location of the old Mormon Fort.
SWBAT present their findings to the class in a clear and creative way.
SWBAT utilize primary sources to support their findings.
Teacher Materials: Map of Mormon fort; pamphlet from Nevada State Parks and Recreations; construction paper, sample, directions,
Student Materials: various research books, websites information, pre-test; post-its; construction paper;
TW present “sponge activity” – Map Sections
TW hand out maps of various areas within the Las Vegas area varied in age
SW work in table teams to answer the questions form found at:
http://www.unco.edu/primarysources/Tools/Maps/na_map_analysis_worksheet.pdf
TW explain the idea behind the activity.
SW have to analyze their map section
SW try and locate their corresponding map within the class group.
Why was the creation of the Mormon fort important to our city's history?
What makes it a valuable landmark for us?
Why do you think the Mormon's chose this location?
WGW discuss important landmarks within Las Vegas
TW introduce the Mormon Fort by passing out pamphlet
WGW read and discuss
TW present rubric for assignment and presentation
TW present research books from library
TW assign teams to work together
GW select various books to use during their research
WGW view and discuss assignment and samples of finish project.

A new fort has been created by… you! You are the missionary that created it!!! Congratulations!
You will be making a map and diorama of the fort for us. Give the fort a name. Show the locations and landforms of your fort. Create some special landmarks. Don’t forget the key!

Make sure that your map…

Fort
Mormon
Religious persecution
Settlement
Landmarks
SWBAT demonstrate that they have mastered standard H1.3.1 by being able to discuss the impact of the Mormon fort and how it is the beginning to our city.
SWBAT utilize artifacts and primary sources to support their findings.
SWBAT demonstrate their mastery of Standard H1.3.2 by creating their own fort.
SWBAT answer the "Essential Question."
SWBAT present a fort with landmarks and important parts to make them functional.
SWBAT locate the Mormon fort on a map of Las Vegas.
SWBAT define and explain the key vocabulary.
SWBAT explain the importance of community.
SWBAT use various keys on maps.
H1.4.5 Identify contributions of immigrants in Nevada., H2.4.2 Describe the experiences of pioneers moving west. , H2.4.3 Identify explorers and settlers in pre-territorial Nevada. , H2.4.4 Identify the diverse population of Nevada’s early settlers and discuss their unique experiences., G5.4.1 Identify and use intermediate directions on a compass rose to locate places on a map of Nevada., G5.4.2 Identify spatial patterns on a map of Nevada, i.e., deserts, mountains, population., G6.4.1 Describe the distinguishing features of historical regions in Nevada, i.e., Native American tribal territories, pioneer trails, and settlement areas. Word Analysis: 1.5.3 Decode unknown words in text using structural analysis through spelling patterns, base words, root words, suffixes, prefixes, and syllables., Word Analysis: 1.5.5 Apply knowledge of content-specific vocabulary in text to build comprehension. , Literary Text: 3.5.4 Describe an example of first-person point of view., Literary Text: 3.5.4 Identify third-person limited point of view., Literary Text: 3.5.7 Explain the influence of historical events and culture.NoneNoneNoneNone2.5.4. Select and use specific visual characteristics to communicate. , 3.5.2 Produce a work of art that demonstrates the ability to convey meaning by integrating subject matter and symbols with ideas., 4.5.2 Associate a variety of artworks with cultures, times, and places., 4.5.3 Create works of art that demonstrate historical and cultural influence.NoneNone3.5.6 Generate a list of sources., 3.5.7 Summarize and share the research process and its outcome.NoneEvents in Nevada HistorySWBAT identify the location of the Mormon fort on a map of Las Vegas.
SWBAT relay information presented to class regarding the old Mormon Fort.
SWBAT make connections with the missionaries from the Mormon Fort their struggles and history to present oral and visual presentation.
SWBAT apply their knowledge of history to class.
Definitely
14
AnonymousList My Work AnonymouslySymbolsHome Means Nevadahttp://www.50states.com/songs/nevada.htmhttp://www.parks.nv.gov/trail/photos.htmhttp://www.leg.state.nv.us/general/facts.cfmhttp://www.planetware.com/pictures/nevada-usnv.htm?pg=9http://www.mapcruzin.com/free-state-maps/states/nevada/nevada.gifhttp://digital.library.unlv.edu/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=%2FLV_Maps&CISOPTR=429&DMSCALE=12.50000&DMWIDTH=600&DMHEIGHT=600&DMMODE=viewer&DMFULL=0&DMOLDSCALE=1.07914&DMX=0&DMY=0&DMTEXT=&DMTHUMB=1&REC=14&DMROTATE=0&x=20&y=53 State SongPictures of NevadaState FactsPictures of NevadaState MapState Map Nevada became an official part of the United States of America in 1864 as the 36th state. The state was nicknamed the “Battle Born” state do to the fact that it was entered into statehood during the Civil War as a Union state. Some of the other nicknames included the “Silver State” and “Sagebrush State.” The capitol of Nevada is Carson City and the largest city is located in the southern part of the state, Las Vegas.
Nevada has many mountain ranges throughout the state including the Sierra Nevada mountain range. A few rivers a spread across the state and the southern part of Nevada made up of the Mojave Desert. California, Idaho, Utah, and Arizona border the state of Nevada.
Early Nevada was populated by Native Americans who lived off the land. Soon Spanish missionaries came through the state, mapping out small areas, and eventually more pioneers traveling west would pass through the state to map other routes through the state.
Mining was Nevada’s first form of economy. After the California Gold rush, people settled all around Nevada searching for gold and silver. Nevada had large amounts of silver deposits, so it was nicknamed the “Silver State.”
The second form of economy in the state of Nevada is found in tourism. In the early nineteen hundreds gambling attracted a lot of people’s interests. Casinos were built with themes to invite people in. Today, Nevada’s economy is based on the large amount of tourists that pass through the state.
The Hoover Dam was built in the 1930’s during the great depression. It supplied many jobs and brought a lot of people to the nearby town of Boulder City and Las Vegas. The Dam would control the Colorado River and supply Nevada, parts of California, and parts of Arizona with power. The building of the Dam was the largest project during it’s time of construction.
Nevada was site for atomic testing in the 1950’s. Many nuclear explosions were set off above and below ground in Nye County, which is close to the city of Las Vegas. The test site has been closed and is now a museum.
3 to 5Students will identify geographical points throughout the state of Nevada and the states towns, cities, symbols, mottoes, and slogans that are related to the state.

H2.4.5 Explain the symbols, mottoes, and slogans related to Nevada, i.e., “Battle Born,” the state seal, and “Silver State.”

H1.3.2 Using artifacts and primary sources, and investigate how individuals and families contributed to the founding and development of the local community.

H3.4.2 Recognize that communities include people who have diverse ethnic origins, customs, and traditions, and who make contributions to Nevada.
Nevada History Book
Nevada Maps
Nevada Facts
Large card stock cutout in the shape of Nevada (one for each student)
Items brought in by students and items provided by teacher all relating to Nevada
Scissors, glue, markers, crayons, and glitter
Students will start by looking at the state song, Home Means Nevada. The whole class will discuss what things mean Nevada to each individual student, and then teacher will introduce the activity.What does Nevada mean to you?

Why do people have different opinions on what Nevada means?
Students will have already learned state facts, such as symbols, mottoes, counties, and cities. Students will also be familiar with geological features, such as state parks, mountains, rivers, and man made features (The Hoover Dam and Casinos).Using what students have learned, students will create a collage of things that mean Nevada to them. Each student will be provided with a large card stock cut out of Nevada and students will use images, personal items, any coloring utensil, glitter, and any additional items for their collage. When students have completed their collage, they will write about their collage and explain how what they create means Nevada to them.Geography
Motto
Slogan
Symbol
Community
Tradition
Students will go home and ask their family memebers what Nevada means to them. Students will record the information and analyze that different responses. Students will share some of their finds the next day in class and why their family memebers have different opinions on what Nevada means.The whole class will discuss how culture plays a part in the meaning of Nevada. Focusing our attention on the different collages to help our closing discussion.H2.4.5 Explain the symbols, mottoes, and slogans related to Nevada, i.e., “Battle Born,” the state seal, and “Silver State.”, H3.4.2 Recognize that communities include people who have diverse ethnic origins, customs, and traditions, and who make contributions to Nevada.Word Analysis: 1.5.3 Decode unknown words in text using structural analysis through spelling patterns, base words, root words, suffixes, prefixes, and syllables., Word Analysis: 1.5.4 Comprehend, build, and extend vocabulary using homographs, homophones, syntax, parts of speech, synonyms, antonyms., Word Analysis: 1.5.4 Comprehend, build, and extend vocabulary using context clues and structural analysis., Effective Writing: 5.5.2 Draft multiple paragraph papers about a single topic that address audience, purpose, supporting details, introduction, conclusion, and transitions., Effective Writing: 5.5.7 Prepare a legible final draft to display or share.NoneL.5.C.3 Students know changes to an environment can be beneficial or detrimental to different organisms., E.5.C.1 Students know fossils are evidence of past life., E.5.C.2 Students know water, wind, and ice constantly change the Earth's land surface by eroding rock and soil in some places and depositing them in other areas., E.5.C.3 Students know landforms may result from slow processes (e.g., erosion and deposition) and fast processes (e.g., volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides, flood, and human activity)., E.5.C.5 Students know soil varies from place to place and has both biological and mineral components.NoneNone3.5.3 Explain the way subject matter, symbols, and ideas are chosen to present meaning in student artwork., 4.5.3 Create works of art that demonstrate historical and cultural influence.NoneNoneNoneNoneHome Means NevadaUsing what students have learned, students will create a collage of things that mean Nevada to them. Each student will be provided with a large card stock cut out of Nevada and students will use images, personal items, any coloring utensil, glitter, and any additional items for their collage. When students have completed their collage, they will write about their collage and explain how what they create means Nevada to them.Definitely
15
AnonymousList My Work AnonymouslyGeographyLandforms-Rock Shaping Forceshttp://www.worldatlas.com/webimage/countrys/namerica/usstates/nvland.htmwww.ask.com/questions-about/Landforms-of-NevadaSurveying the western land provides unusual geography resulting in the creation of nat’l parks.www.teachersfirst.com/share/states/states-3.cfm?state=nvhttp://fermi.jhuapl.edu/states/nv_0.htmlhttp://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?gmd:2:./temp/~ammem_6h7C::www.fs.fed.us/psw/publications/millar/psw_2008_millar003.pdfhttp://www.onlinenevada.org/earthquakes_in_dixie_valleyPyramid Lake-ariel viewButtes, Mesas, and HoodoosSurveying the western land provides unusual geography resulting in the creation of nat’l parks.Great Basin Color relief map of Nevada in 1885Map of Nevada 1861GlaciersEarthquakesLand Statistics
Land Area (land) 109,826 sq miles 7th largest state (water) 761 sq miles 13,145 feet above sea level (TOTAL) 110,587 sq miles
What is the Great Basin?
The Great Basin is known for the landscape, how the water flows, and its biology (plants and animal life).

The Great Basin was created by heat forces under the Earth’s surface as well as weathering (erosion) above ground. Basins are found world wide.
A basin is a hollow or depression in Earth's surface with no outlet for water. Water does not escape it. A basin circular like your bathroom sink. It can be small or large. It is usually surrounded by a higher surface land area. The Great Basin is surrounded by the desert. There is a lot of erosion in a basin since water never gets out. The action of wind and water surrounding a basin strips away sediment—gravel, clay, sand, silt, various salts, and other rock particles.
The Great Basin covers a large land area including almost all of Nevada, much of Utah, and parts of Oregon, California, and Idaho.

The Great Basin rivers and streams do not drain into the sea. There are pools of water that go stagnant due to lack of circulation and drainage. Alkali flat are were dangerous pools of water to drink from. Many early pioneers commented on the disgusting water as well as the dust blown into their eyes from fierce winds.

The Great Basin is part of the range area in the western U.S. Nevada has many mountain ranges that run from north to south. One geographer called them, “an army of caterpillars toward Mexico.” The mountains became one of the most difficult regions to cross for the early settlers.

The highest point in Nevada in Boundary Peak on the border of California and Nevada. The lowest point is the southern part of the state in the Colorado River canyon.
The southern tip of Nevada is called the Mojave Desert. The Mojave desert is the smallest desert and also the driest.
The desert Southwest of the United States is dotted with mesas and with buttes. Buttes are smaller mesas. This photo shows mesas and hoodoos (large blocks of rock) in the background with a butte on the right. It's easy to see that all three are part of an erosion.
The butte has sheer sides of thick layer of homogeneous, resistant rock in its middle. The lower part is sloping than sheer. It is made up of sedimentary rock that can crumble due to erosion.
Black Rock Desert, Fly Geyser is on privately owned land. It is not a natural phenomenon. It was created accidentally from a geothermal test well that wasn’t capped off correctly. The geyser has been erupting since 1964, leaving calcium carbonate deposits growing at the rate of several inches per year. The red and green colors on the mounds are formed by algae thriving in the extreme climate of the geysers. The geyser also formed a pond near by.
The 1954 earthquake in Dixie Valley produced large cracks of up to thirty inches across in the earth and roadways. The shocks also moved huge boulders, across the roadways weighing fifty tons.

Dixie Valley settlers didn’t experience normal aftershocks at first. Instead, according to first hand accounts, they heard loud booms before the quake hit and they continued until the earthquake stopped. They also experience another effect, The Fallon Eagle wrote, "The Thursday earthquake may be the largest, as far as upheaval, that has taken place in this country in modern times. Judging from the gigantic faults and displacement areas in hard-hit Dixie Valley, [it] greatly exceeds the San Francisco jolt of 1906 . . ." They had a fifty-four-mile-long fault area which produced a crack 20 feet deep. The quake ended opening up four faults along both mountain ranges flanking the Valley as well as near Fairview Peak. You can still see evidence of shift in rocks due to the earthquake by highway 50.
Nevada was created several million years ago. One geological force that is constantly changing Nevada are earthquakes. Earthquakes are caused by sudden shifts in fault line (cracks in the Earth’s crust) caused by plate tectonics. Nevada is one of the most active states for earthquakes to occur. Much of Nevada’s landscape was caused by earthquakes thousands of years ago. Everyday in Nevada there are earthquakes, but they are so small that you can’t feel them. However, a machine that records movements in the Earth known as a seismograph picks up on all of the little murmurs.

Ice and snow were also contributors to the changing landscape of Nevada. During the colder periods of geological time in Nevada, the snow that fell on top of mountains never melted. Over time these sections became deeper and deeper with the constant packing of snow on top of snow. The pressure and weight of the snow formed ice and the ice turned into glaciers. These glaciers slowly moved down the mountain sides reshaping them as they moved into the valleys below. The valleys were formed into U shaped valleys as the glaciers eventually retreated.
Some of the mountains in Nevada were formed by volcanoes erupting. The magma would flow to the surface and cool. As it harden, it would form the cone shape of a mountain. Much of Nevada’s volcanic activity occurred millions of years ago. Many of the mountains formed by volcanoes have weathered over time or eroded. They are just remnants of past volcanoes. You can still see the crater and the sloped sides of the ancient non-active volcanoes.

The Sierra Nevada mountain range is not actually in Nevada. The crest line is in California; however, California did not agree to the language set forth in the 1864 Enabling Acts. They didn’t want to part with Lake Tahoe as part of their eastern border.

Sierra is plural for mountains and Nevada in Spanish means “snow-covered.’
3 to 51. Students will be able to visualize from their own perceptions of a particular landform feature
2. Students will construct a model using a variety of art supplies as they formulate their viewpoint. You can modify 3-D model using Tier 1 to make several features and Tier 3 to make only one feature.
3. Students will use vocabulary words including: plate tectonics, faults, erosion, mesas, buttes, basin, valleys, alkali flats, stalactites, stalagmites, elevation, sea level, earthquakes, coordinate grid, y-axis, and x-axis within the description of their model.
sugar, bowl, paper clip, string (crystals0
• Art supplies, flat cardboard boxes
• cookie mold, blue frosting, frosting bag.
Pin the Landform on the Grid
Teacher creates a large scale grid. Very large
Teacher places either a point or ordered pairs on the grid
Students are given a puzzle landform piece as they enter the room
On the back of the puzzle is math words puzzle that when figured out will tell you either the point to the ordered pair on the grid or the ordered pair that matches the grid.
Who has visited certain landform sites?

Has anyone been caught in an earthquake?

What was it like?

What does it mean when we use the word erosion?

How are landforms important to immigrants?

How are they important today?
We will review the power point showing artifacts and research notes. We will conduct whole class discussions and entertain questions from previous days or general ones to clarify any unknowns they may have.Students will make their 3-D image of a particular landform found in Nevada using flattened cardboard and an assortment of art supplies depending on what feature they chose with a description of its features. They will also make stalagmites and stalactites as depicted in Lehman Caves using a recipe for making crystals. Students will also use their math facts of coordinate grids and ordered pairs to place known features on a large scale map. Also, students will be able to make a cookie of Nevada and use the frosting to draw the lakes and rivers found in Nevada (Tier 1-3 ) Details to be process can be modified to a few for Tier 3Students will use vocabulary words including: plate tectonics, faults, erosion, mesas, buttes, basin, valleys, alkali flats, stalactites, stalagmites, elevation, sea level, earthquakes, coordinate grid, y-axis, and x-axis within the description of their model.Students will use books on landscapes found in Nevada and the southwest. They will also use the Internet to collect data themselves for their project.1. Students follow directions given in class for making a 3D feature
2. Students follow directions for making stalactites and stalagmites.
3. Students write up description of 3-D feature
4.Students decorate cookie map using blue frosting correctly as well as identifying rivers and lakes on cookie prior to eating.
H2.4.1 Discuss examples of compromise and conflict within Nevada, i.e., Pyramid Lake Wars, water allocation, Sagebrush Rebellion., H2.4.2 Describe the experiences of pioneers moving west. , H2.4.3 Identify explorers and settlers in pre-territorial Nevada. , H3.4.5 Discuss major news events on the local and state levels., G5.4.1 Identify and use intermediate directions on a compass rose to locate places on a map of Nevada., G5.4.2 Identify spatial patterns on a map of Nevada, i.e., deserts, mountains, population., G5.4.4 Utilize different types of Nevada maps, i.e., population and physical maps, to understand spatial distribution., G6.4.1 Describe the distinguishing features of historical regions in Nevada, i.e., Native American tribal territories, pioneer trails, and settlement areas. , G6.4.6 Identify the equator, Prime Meridian, and the International Date Line., G8.4.1 Describe ways physical environments affect human activity in Nevada using historical and contemporary examples., G8.4.2 Describe how technologies altered the physical environment in Nevada, and the effects of those changes on its people., G8.4.3 Explore the impact of human modification of Nevada’s physical environment on the people who live there., G8.4.4 Identify natural hazards in Nevada and their impact on the population., G8.4.5 Describe the distribution patterns of natural resources in Nevada., E9.4.1 Give examples of incentives and determine whether they are positive or negative., C16.4.1 Identify their county, city, state, and country.Word Analysis: 1.5.4 Build vocabulary using pictures and symbols., Word Analysis: 1.5.5 Apply knowledge of high frequency words in text to build fluency and comprehension. , Word Analysis: 1.5.5 Apply knowledge of content-specific vocabulary in text to build comprehension. , Word Analysis: 1.5.5 Read fluently aloud and/or silently with a focus on prosody, accuracy, automaticity, and reading rate., Literary Text: 3.5.3 Describe a theme based on evidence. , Literary Text: 3.5.5 Explain the use of imagery and figurative language., Literary Text: 3.5.5 Explain how words and phrases create mood., Literary Text: 3.5.7 Explain the influence of time periods., Literary Text: 3.5.7 With assistance, compare texts from the same historical period on a single topic., Literary Text: 3.5.8 Make and revise predictions based on evidence., Literary Text: 3.5.9 Make connections to self, other text, and/or the world., Literary Text: 3.5.9 Use information to answer specific questions., Literary Text: 3.5.9 Summarize information., Expository Text: 4.5.1 Evaluate information from illustrations, graphs, charts, titles, text boxes, diagrams, headings, and maps., Expository Text: 4.5.1 Evaluate information from table of contents, glossaries, and indices., Expository Text: 4.5.1 Identify and explain the use of bold-faced words, underlined words, highlighted words, and italicized words., Expository Text: 4.5.3 Describe a theme based on evidence., Expository Text: 4.5.3 Explain a cause and its effect on events and/or relationships., Expository Text: 4.5.3 Explain a problem and its solution., Expository Text: 4.5.3 Compare events., Expository Text: 4.5.5 Make connections to self, other text, and/or the world., Expository Text: 4.5.5 Summarize information., Expository Text: 4.8.6 Analyze the accuracy of facts., Expository Text: 4.8.6 Distinguish between fact and opinion., Expository Text: 4.8.6 With assistance, determine accuracy of evidence., Types of Writing: 6.5.4 Write responses that demonstrate an understanding of character development and motivations., Types of Writing: 6.5.4 Summarize information., Types of Writing: 6.5.8 Write directions to complete tasks or procedures., Types of Writing: 6.5.8 With assistance, write directions to complete tasks or procedures with attention to clarity, format, technical vocabulary, and text features., Listening: 7.5.1 Listen for a variety of purposes including gaining information, being entertained, and understanding directions., Listening: 7.5.1 Listen for and identify main idea, mood, purpose, messages, and tone., Speaking: 8.5.3 Use public speaking techniques to deliver presentations with appropriate prosody, volume, eye contact, enunciation, posture, expressions, audience, and purpose., Speaking: 8.5.3 Communicate information by maintaining a clear focus, following a logical sequence, and illustrating information with media aids., Speaking: 8.5.3 Communicate statements that express and opinion., Speaking: 8.5.3 Defend a position using evidence., Speaking: 8.5.4 Contribute to conversations and discussions about a given topic., Speaking: 8.5.4 Respond to questions to clarify and extend ideas., Speaking: 8.5.4 Ask relevant questions to clarify and extend ideas., Speaking: 8.5.4 Take a leadership role in conversations and discussions., Speaking: 8.5.4 Distinguish between relevant and irrelevant information.2.5.2 Find possible solutions to an inequality involving a variable using whole numbers as a replacement set. & Solve equations with whole numbers using a variety of methods, including inverse operations, mental math, and guess and check., 3.5.1 Estimate and convert units of measure for weight and volume/capacity within the same measurement system (customary and metric). , 3.5.6 Determine equivalent periods of time, including relationships between and among seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, and years., 4.5.9 Represent relationships using Venn diagrams. , 5.5.4 Represent and solve problems involving combinations using a variety of methods.N.5.A.1 Students know scientific progress is made by conducting careful investigations, recording data, and communicating the results in an accurate method. , N.5.A.2 Students know how to compare the results of their experiments to what scientists already know about the world. , N.8.A.3 Students know how to draw conclusions from scientific evidence. , N.5.A.5 Students know how to plan and conduct a safe and simple investigation. , N.5.A.6 Students know models are tools for learning about the things they are meant to resemble. , N.5.A.7 Students know observable patterns can be used to organize items and ideas. , N.5.B.1 Students know that, throughout history, people of diverse cultures have provided scientific knowledge and technologies. , N.5.B.2 Students know technologies impact society, both positively and negatively. , N.5.B.3 Students know the benefits of working with a team and sharing findings., P.5.B.3 Students know a magnetic force causes certain kinds of objects to attract and repel each other., P.5.C.4 Students know heat can move from one object to another by conduction, and some materials conduct heat better than others., E.5.C.3 Students know landforms may result from slow processes (e.g., erosion and deposition) and fast processes (e.g., volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides, flood, and human activity)., E.5.C.5 Students know soil varies from place to place and has both biological and mineral components.NoneNone1.5.2 Examine how different media, techniques, and processes cause different responses (e.g. Look at two-dimensional vs. three-dimensional works of art)., 1.5.3 Create artworks using various media, techniques, and processes to communicate ideas., 2.5.1 Describe various visual characteristics of art (e.g. sensory, formal, technical, and expressive)., 3.5.2 Produce a work of art that demonstrates the ability to convey meaning by integrating subject matter and symbols with ideas., 3.5.3 Explain the way subject matter, symbols, and ideas are chosen to present meaning in student artwork.NoneNoneNoneNoneLand Forms and Rock Shape ForcesStudents will make their 3-D image of a particular landform found in Nevada using flattened cardboard and an assortment of art supplies depending on what feature they chose with a description of its features. They will also make stalagmites and stalactites as depicted in Lehman Caves using a recipe for making crystals. Students will also use their math facts of coordinate grids and ordered pairs to place known features on a large scale map. Also, students will be able to make a cookie of Nevada and use the frosting to draw the lakes and rivers found in Nevada (Tier 1-3 ) Details to be process can be modified to a few for Tier 3.
Goal:
To have the students appreciate the many factors that creates as well as destroys such landforms and appreciates their beauty and their potential as a resource
Definitely
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AnonymousList My Work AnonymouslyWestward MigrationWestward Migration: Donner Partyhttp://sunsite.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/ebind2html/2/breen?caphttp://www.legendsofamerica.com/CA-DonnerParty.htmlhttp://loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3a28397/http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/upboverbib:@field(DOCID+@lit(tr2978))http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/OTImages&CISOPTR=48http://www.legendsofamerica.com/CA-DonnerParty.html: http://www.legendsofamerica.com/CA-DonnerParty3.html: http://www.legendsofamerica.com/CA-DonnerParty3.htmlDiary of Patrick BreenPicture of Independence, MissouriPicture- Stumps of trees cut by Donner PartyEmigrants’ Guide to Oregon and CaliforniaPicture-Over the Donner Summit: Map: Trail of the Donner PartyPicture-The Donner Party Stranded in Sierra NevadaPicture- Sutter’s Fort in Sacramento, California 1847In April of 1846, the Donner Party a company of 87 emigrants, experienced what was known as one of the worst disasters in the history of wagon trains in the westward migration. The party, led by George Donner, followed the advice of Lansford Hastings in The Emigrants' Guide to Oregon and California by taking a short cut through the Great Salt Lake Basin. The trail began to turn disastrous when the wagons sank into the soft dirt of the trail, slowing them down. The delay caused the party to be high in the Sierra Nevada Mountains in the middle of winter. Only 47 of the original emigrants survived.
Reports of cheap farmland and good weather led people to migrate west. So on May 25th 1846, the Donner Party left Independence, Missouri in their quest of a better life. The journey was 2,000 miles ling which meant a journey of about five months since travel by oxen or horses only allowed for 15 miles a day. The party followed the trail from Missouri to the Platte River over South Pass to the Snake River. Then they would turn off the Snake River and cross to the Humboldt River and follow it to a steep pass over the Sierra Nevada Mountains. They searched for a cut-off that would save miles by taking a more direct route.
Some of the families that were part of the wagon train were James and Margaret Reed, Margaret’s mother, their four children, five employees and one friend; two brothers and their families, George and Tamsen Donner and Jacob and Elizabeth Donner, and between them thirteen children and three teamsters; Patrick and Margaret Breen, their seven children and a friend; William and Eleanor Eddy and their two children; Lewis and Philippe Keseberg with one child and one on the way; Colonel Russel; Lavinia Jackson and her seven children, two sons-in-law and three grandchildren; Franklin and Elizabeth Graves, their nine children, son-in-law and a teamster; Charles Stanton and other families like William and Amanda McCutchen with their infant daughter.
The first obstacle the train encountered was at the Big Blue River where they could not cross because of high waters due to a recent thunderstorm. It was here that they encountered their first death. The train built ferries to cross the water and continued on to follow the Platte River for the next month. Despite the problems they arrived in Fort Laramie only a week behind schedule.
Upon arriving at the Little Sandy River, the wagon train split where some would take the northerly route which was safer while a majority would take the untested Hastings Cutoff despite the discouragement of others. George Donner was elected captain. They reached Fort Bridger on July 28th. After spending a few days fixing broken wagons and preparing for the next part of the journey, the wagon train left Fort Bridger intending to catch up with Lansford Hastings.
For the first week they made good progress with 10-12 miles a day. Then on August 6, they reached the Weber River where Hastings left a note advising them to take another trail that lead through the Salt Basin. James Reed and two other men rode ahead to find Hastings. Hastings then rode part way back with them to point out the new route stating that it would only take about a week. The wagon train was lucky to make two miles a day as they had to cut down trees and other obstructions along the new path. By August 25th, fear began to set in as provisions were running low, time was against them, and another member died to consumption.
The next step would be to cross the Great Salt Lake Desert where Hastings assured them that it would only take two days to cross. Unfortunately, the sand was deep and moist which bogged down the wagons. On the third day through the desert, water began to run low and several of Reed’s oxen had run away. It took the party five days to cross the desert and they stopped to rest at Pilot Peak. Thirty-two oxen were lost during those five days and a total of four wagons. At this time William McCutchen and Charles Stanton was sent ahead to Sutter’s fort to bring badly depleted supplies.
By September 26th, the train had travelled through Nevada and reached the Humboldt River. They had finally connected with Hasting’s original path after travelling an extra 125 miles through mountains and a desert. On October 5, tempers were flaring. Teamster, John Snyder began to whip his oxen James Reed ordered him to stop because he was angry at Snyder’s treatment of the oxen. Reed killed him when Snyder chose not to stop. The Donner Party voted to banish Reed as punishment for his crime. He was forced to leave his family. Later he would meet up with McCutchen at Sutter’s Fort and go back to their families.
Luck would continue to fail the wagon train. Pauites attacked and killed 21 oxen with poison tipped arrows. On October 16th they finally reached the gateway to the Sierra Nevada on the Truckee River with very little food. Charles Stanton returned from Sutter’s Fort three days later with seven mules loaded with beef and flow, two Indian guides and promising news that it was a clear path through the Sierra Nevada. The train rested for five days before the final push to the summit. Unfortunately, this delay would be one more event that would lead to their tragedy.
More tragedy awaited. George Donner’s wagon axle broke and fell behind the rest of the party. Twenty-two people stayed behind. Donner cut his hand badly further delaying the group. By the time the rest of the party reached what is now Donner’s Lake, snow began to fall. The group could not make it through the pass and was stranded. The group built two more cabins to go along with the one already built for fifty-nine people. More shelters would be built when they realized they were snowbound for the winter. The Donner party was six miles back and built their own shelters from tents, quilts, buffalo robes, and brush.
Meanwhile, rescue attempts were being made. Reed and McCutchen would try to make it back up the mountains but the snow made it impossible. They returned to Sutter’s Fort hoping to get more help but the Mexican War had drawn away many of the men. The men didn’t realize that the Donner Party had lost so much of their cattle and thought that they would have enough food.
The last of the oxen were killed on Thanksgiving. The rest of the animals would wander off into the snowstorms, lost under the snow. A few days later, their cattle were slaughtered and their hides were being boiled for food along with twigs, bones, and bark.
Out of desperation, fifteen people left on snowshoes for Sutter’s Fort. Only seven, five of them women, would survive the cold and lack of food arriving on January 19, 1847. On February 5th, the first relief party left and two days later a second would set out headed by James Reed. However, not everyone could be carried out at one time and pack animals could not bring in necessary supplies. So the first party left with 23 people, losing 2 children on the way.
On March 2nd, the second party arrived to rescue the Donner party at Alder Creek. Seventeen of the pioneers left on March 3rd but would soon hit another snowstorm. Reed would leave with three of them, the others too weak to travel. A third rescue party would arrive to rescue four more members of the party but George Donner and his wife would stay behind. Finally, a fourth rescue party would arrive to rescue the last member of the Donner Party and arrived at Sutter’s Fort on April 29th. It took two months and four rescue parties to bring the surviving members to Sutter’s Fort.
Two-thirds of the men died, while two-thirds of the women and children survived. Forty-eight survived. For a brief time, westward migration began to decline due to the tragedy of the Donner party.
3 to 5Students will learn about the Donner Party and the importance this had on westward expansion.
Students will develop higher level thinking skills to infer and analyze the difficulties the Donner Party encountered and that it wasn’t just one event that led to the disaster but a series of events.
Diary of Patrick Breen, http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/ebind2html/2/breen?cap
Picture of Independence, Missouri: http://www.legendsofamerica.com/CA-DonnerParty.html
Picture- Stumps of trees cut by Donner Party: http://loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3a28397/
Emigrants’ Guide to Oregon and California: http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/upboverbib:@field(DOCID+@lit(tr2978))
Picture-Over the Donner Summit: http://contentdm.lib.byu.edu/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/OTImages&CISOPTR=48
Map: Trail of the Donner Party: http://www.legendsofamerica.com/CA-DonnerParty.html
Picture-The Donner Party Stranded in Sierra Nevada: http://www.legendsofamerica.com/CA-DonnerParty3.html
Picture- Sutter’s Fort in Sacramento, California 1847: http://www.legendsofamerica.com/CA-DonnerParty3.html
Book: Patty Reed’s Doll by Rachel K. Laurgaard
Paper
Markers
Prior to this lesson, Patty Reed’s Doll will be read to the students as a read aloud. As a sponge activity, the students will be broken into small groups to discuss what they learned from the story. One student will be the recorder and write down what is discussed. By using the Kagan strategy, talking chips, everyone must participate and can only talk when they put a chip in the middle.Have you ever taken a long trip?
What did you take on this trip to help you?
Brainstorm the items students took on their trips and why.
Power Point describing the journey of the Donner Party. Slideshow will contain information about hardships, life on the trail, and the high casualty rate.

Gallery Walk
Using the above primary sources, students will be broken into groups and provided with an inquiry question. Students will rotate around the room spending 5-10 minutes on each source to collect data relating to their question. After students are through the rotations they will return to discuss their findings and create a response to the question.
Question 1: What resources would have been necessary for each family to survive the long journey? What was one of the most important resources the pioneers needed, why?
Question 2: What made the trail the Donner Party followed so difficult?
Question 3: If the Donner Party had begun their trip earlier in the year, would the Donner Party have encountered the hardships that they did?
Question 4: What was life like in 1846 compared to today? How does moving today compare to moving in 1847, especially for children?
wagon train
blizzard
emigrants
pioneers
slaughtered
hypothermia
disaster
In groups, students will create a poster answering the question: What factors contributed to the tragedy of the Donner Party? Students can write, draw pictures or a combination of both.Students will share posters to the class and then discuss as a group which factors were important.H1.4.4 Discuss the interactions of pioneers with the Great Basin Indians. 4, H1.4.5 Identify contributions of immigrants in Nevada., H2.4.2 Describe the experiences of pioneers moving west. , H2.4.4 Identify the diverse population of Nevada’s early settlers and discuss their unique experiences., H3.4.1 Compare and/or contrast their daily lives with children in Nevada’s past., G6.4.1 Describe the distinguishing features of historical regions in Nevada, i.e., Native American tribal territories, pioneer trails, and settlement areas. Word Analysis: 1.5.4 Comprehend, build, and extend vocabulary using context clues and structural analysis., Reading Strategies: 2.5.1 Select before reading strategies appropriate to text and purpose to preview text, access prior, knowledge, build background knowledge, set purpose for reading, make predictions, determine reading rate, and determine text type., Reading Strategies: 2.5.3 Select after reading strategies appropriate to text and purpose to recall details, restate main ideas, organize information, record information, synthesize text, evaluate text, and evaluate the effectiveness of reading strategies., Types of Writing: 6.5.4 Summarize information.3.5.6 Determine equivalent periods of time, including relationships between and among seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, and years.E.5.A.4 Students know the role of water in many phenomena related to weather (e.g., thunderstorms, snowstorms, flooding, drought).None1.5.1 Describe the relationship between health behaviors and personal health. NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneDonner PartyThe Donner Party was a group of pioneers that headed west to start a new life. The party began the trip with 87 pioneers in April of 1847. The western terrains soon began to cause the party many hardships. When the Donner Party reached the Sierra Nevada Mountains, they ran into snowstorms. Food and shelter was scarce and the pioneers had to use whatever they had. Oxen were eaten and even their hide was food. On April 29, 1847, the last member of the Donner Party arrived at Fort Sutter. Only 48 of the 87 survived.Definitely
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AnonymousList My Work AnonymouslyKey PeopleLas Vegas: Benjamin "Bugsy" Siegelhttp://www.onlinenevada.org/cms/apps/media_editor_plus/media_gallery_pop.php?id=409http://www.1st100.com/part2/siegel.htmlhttp://www.1st100.com/part2/siegel.htmlhttp://loc.gov/pictures/item/98506599/http://classiclasvegas.squarespace.com/a-brief-history-of-the-strip/2007/9/23/the-fabulous-flamingo-hotel-history-the-wilkerson-siegel-yea.htmlhttp://classiclasvegas.squarespace.com/a-brief-history-of-the-strip/2007/9/23/the-fabulous-flamingo-hotel-history-the-wilkerson-siegel-yea.htmlhttp://www.metnews.com/articles/2007/bugsy1942.jpgFlamingo HotelFlamingo under constructionBenjamin SiegelSiegel being led away by U.S. Marshalls Flamingo opening night invitationVirginia Hill and Bugsy Siegel with fedora hatBenjamin Siegel at TrialBenjamin Hymen Siegelbaum was born in Brooklyn, New York on February 28, 1906. He was one of five children born to a poor Austrian Jewish Family. As a boy, Siegel joined a street gang in the Lower East Side where he first started his life of crime. He began stealing and then devised his own protection racket where pushcart peddlers were forced to pay him five dollars or he would burn their merchandise. In 1918, he met Meyer Lansky. The two of them formed their own gang, the Bugs-Meyer Gang, whose criminal activities included car theft and gambling. This gang consisted of a band of ruthless Jewish mobsters that ran Murder, Inc a group of contract killers.
In 1930, Siegel and Lansky, joined Charles “Lucky” Luciano. He was used for bootlegging operations in New York, New Jersey, and Philidelphia. In 1937, the East Coast mob sent Siegel to California to develop Syndicate gambling rackets and bootlegging. He used Syndicate money to begin a national wire service that would help the East Coast mob quicken their returns. It is said that he used his contacts to extort movie studios after gaining entry into Hollywood’s inner circle. Thereafter, he always lived life in extravagant fashion. His tax returns showed that his living was made through legal gambling at the Santa Anita racetrack near Los Angeles. Siegel began dating actress Virginia Hill.
Siegel was arrested and tried for the murder of Harry Greenberg, a police informant, on the orders of Murder Inc. Newspapers referred to him for the first time by his nickname “Bugsy”. He was give the nickname due to his violent nature and no one dared to call him by it in front of him. Siegel was acquitted.
In 1945 Siegel and Hill moved to Las Vegas. Siegel was receiving large monthly fees from bookmakers for a wire service that transmitted the results of horse racing. He, along with other East Coast crime partners, was already investing money by buying real estate and reselling the downtown El Cortez Casino. Billy Wilkerson was the person behind the creation of the Flamingo. Bugsy, Luciano, and Lansky would help bankroll the project. At the time, gambling was concentrated in downtown casinos along Freemont Street. Construction crew workers, who were working on the Hoover Dam on the Colorado River, were the largest group of gamblers. The new hotel would be built on what is now known as the Las Vegas Strip. Siegel quickly took control of the project.
The construction of the hotel encountered many problems. First, Siegel knew very little about construction and his plans were extravagant as he insisted that each room have its own private sewer line for each bathroom. The cost of construction grew from $1 million to $6 million. It is alleged that the Del Webb company drove building materials onto the site but then drove them out the back gate to turn around and sell them again. There was a shortage of materials because of World War II, which increased costs. Bugsy was known to be a paranoid person and he built the hotel as a fortress. His suite had escape hatches with one leading to a getaway car. Gun portals and hallways that led nowhere were installed.
The East Coast mafia began to suspect Bugsy of stealing from them. At the time Hill was also making many trips to Europe and depositing money in bank accounts in Switzerland which came from the fund meant for the building of the Flamingo. Business partners and crime partners met in Havana, Cuba to discuss with Luciano on whether a hit should be placed on Siegel who wasn’t invited. Lansky asked them to give Siegel a chance by waiting until after the casino had opened. Luciano agreed.
On the night of December 26, 1946, Bugsy opened the doors to the Flamingo which had not finished construction. The Flamingo featured comedian singer Jimmy Durante as the entertainment. No one had seen the grandeur that the Flamingo represented with its trapshooting range; nine hole golf course, tennis, squash, badminton, and handball courts; extensive landscaping with imported Oriental date palm and Spanish cork trees; carpets; riding stables and the staff wore tuxedoes. He wanted to attract the wealthy clients. However, customers ran dry after two weeks due to more bad luck. Bugsy closed to complete construction after losing $300,000 to gamblers at the tables. Locals preferred the downtown casinos.
It reopened in March of 1947. Bugsy offered Bingo to attract local customers. In the end, the Syndicate ordered a hit on Siegel because they believed he was stealing and was way over budget. Even Lanskey abandoned him. On June 20, 1947 at 10:45 p.m. a mob hitman hid outside the couple’s mansion and shot Siegel several times. The assassin got away with the hit since no one was ever charged. At the same time as Siegel’s hit, three of Lansky’s group entered the Flamingo and declared a takeover.
3 to 5Students will discuss and write a reader’s theater outlining Benjamin Siegel’s life.Picture- Flamingo Hotel: http://www.onlinenevada.org/cms/apps/media_editor_plus/media_gallery_pop.php?id=409
Picture- Flamingo under construction- http://www.1st100.com/part2/siegel.html
Picture-Benjamin Siegel- http://www.1st100.com/part2/siegel.html
Picture-Siegel being led away by U.S. Marshalls http://loc.gov/pictures/item/98506599/
Flamingo opening night invitation: http://classiclasvegas.squarespace.com/a-brief-history-of-the-strip/2007/9/23/the-fabulous-flamingo-hotel-history-the-wilkerson-siegel-yea.html
Picture- Virginia Hill and Bugsy Siegel with fedora hat: http://classiclasvegas.squarespace.com/a-brief-history-of-the-strip/2007/9/23/the-fabulous-flamingo-hotel-history-the-wilkerson-siegel-yea.html
Picture- Benjamin Siegel at Trial: http://www.metnews.com/articles/2007/bugsy1942.jpg
Gambling chips
boxing glove
bugs bunny
paper
pencil
When children arrive in room have various stations set around the room that have cards, dice games and probability games such as spin the wheel; examples; yahtzee, 21, or any math games using cards. Let students play for a few minutes and then explain that gambling are games centered around the idea of probability and the “chance” at winning money. Las Vegas attracted people because gambling was legal where in most other states it was not.Show the students a picture of the Flamingo today. Ask them if they have ever gone to the casino, maybe to see the Flamingos. Ask them if they ever thought about how the casino started. How many of them knew that Las Vegas use to be by the Mafia/mob. Explain to students what the Mafia/mob is.Using “Life in a Box” created by the teacher will introduce and discuss the life of Benjamin “Bugsy” Siegel. Kit will include: Picture of the Brooklyn Bridge to represent where he was born; star of David for being Jewish; boxing glove to show that he “bullied” vendors for protection; paper money for the money paid to him; bugs bunny for his nickname; picture of horse tracks for his time in California along with a picture of Virginia Hill; handcuffs along with pictures of Siegel being led away and him at the trial for when he was arrested; gambling chips and picture of the construction for the Flamingo; opening night invitation for the Flamingo; felt fedora hats to show extravagance and style for Siegel.Teacher will give money to three groups of students. One group will have no money. That group will be constructing the “Flamingo” out of blocks. Two of the groups that will have money will be banks. One will be the “Syndicate”. One student within the building group will be designated as Wilkerson. One from the “Syndicate” will be designated “Bugsy”. Teacher will halt construction due to lack of money and Wilkerson will have to travel to the “banks” but will be denied. Finally, Wilkerson will go to the Syndicate and they will give him money but “Bugsy” will go over and “push” Wilkerson out and continue construction of the Flamingo.
2. Teacher will provide students with envelopes with dates and they must match them with the events in Siegel’s life.
racket
bootlegging
illegal
profit
reputation
immigrant
prohibition
In groups, the students will write and record a reader’s theater around the life of Benjamin “Bugsy” Siegel.Students will perform their reader’s theater to other 4th grade classrooms.H3.4.2 Recognize that communities include people who have diverse ethnic origins, customs, and traditions, and who make contributions to Nevada., E10.4.3 Discuss reasons people use banks., E11.4.1 Identify a for-profit and a not-for-profit organization in the community and a service each provides., E11.4.2 Define entrepreneur and identify those individuals in Nevada.Effective Writing: 5.5.4 Edit for correct capitalization., Effective Writing: 5.5.4 Edit punctuation for end punctuation, commas, apostrophes, quotation marks, abbreviations, and colons., Effective Writing: 5.5.5 Edit for correct use of nouns, verbs, pronouns, adjectives, subject/verb agreement, verb tenses, adverbs, clauses, phrases, pronoun/antecedent agreement, pronoun case., Effective Writing: 5.5.6 Edit sentences for complete sentences, combining sentences, compound sentences, and complex sentences., Effective Writing: 5.5.7 Prepare a legible final draft to display or share., Speaking: 8.5.3 Use public speaking techniques to deliver presentations with appropriate prosody, volume, eye contact, enunciation, posture, expressions, audience, and purpose.NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNone1.5.1 Create a script with two or more characters; a beginning, middle and end; setting; and character descriptions., 1.5.2 Work together in a group to plan, rehearse, and present a dramatized idea or story.NoneNoneBenjamin "Bugsy" SiegelStudents will learn about the life and the legend of Benjamin “Bugsy” Siegel and his connections to the Syndicate and the Flamingo Hotel. Definitely
18
KnutsonLindaLindaKnuts@aol.comYour Name, Your Email AddressKey PeopleJohn C. Fremonthttp://loc.gov/pictures/resource/cwpbh.00792/ http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=mal&fileName=mal1/122/1227800/malpage.db&recNum=0 http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=mal&fileName=mal1/113/1133900/malpage.db&recNum=0http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=mal&fileName=mal1/198/1984400/malpage.db&recNum=0 http://loc.gov/pictures/resource/pga.03112/ PortraitOrders to FremontLetter to LincolnCharacter Suppor of FremontAction Portrait of Fremont A name that is often associated with Nevada is John C. Fremont. Fremont was born January 21, 1813 in Savannah, Georgia. His life ended on July 13, 1819 in New York City. John’s mother at the age of 29 had been married to her husband who was 74 when she met Charles Fremon while in Richmond. Anne, John’s mother, decided to leave her husband and left Richmond with Charles. Charles died in John’s youth, thus John was raised by his mother. Following the death, there was a “t” added to John’s last name changing it from Fremon to Fremont. As a child, John was a great scholar but was often absent from school. Due to his lack of attendance, he was expelled from Charleston College. He was later, in 1836, given his degree and became a teacher of mathematics. This career took him to the U. S. Navy.
Fremont was commissioned to make explorations and map the West. This assignment sent him on many trips where he discovered a lot of land and met countless people.
His expeditions and life:
1837: First exploration of the Cherokee country of Georgia. This expedition taught him how to pack a mule with necessary supplies.
1838: Was a 2nd lieutenant in the U. S. topographical engineers and sent to explore the land between Missouri and the northern frontier
1840: Met Jessie Benton (16 at the time) the daughter of Senator Thomas Hart Benton and later eloped.
1842: With a party of 28 men explored the Rocky Mountain region and the Pacific Ocean
1843: With a party of 39 men traveled 1,700 miles to the Great Salt Lake followed by explorations of the Columbia River. He reached Sutter’s fort in California that November.
1844: Returned to Kansas
1845: Traveled and explored the continental divide and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. He traveled with his 64 men to Klamath Lake in Oregon. During this trip he literally put Las Vegas on the map. There was then a publishing of 20,000 maps making Las Vegas known to people living in the East.
1846: Warned by Washington D.C. to be aware of problems with Great Britain and Mexico and then headed to California. He was then elected governor of the California territory on July 4th.
1848: Lead 33 men on an independent exploration party that reached Sacramento in the spring of 1849.
1850: Was a representative for California in the U.S. Senate until 1851.
1853: Lead his last exploration expedition crossing the Rocky Mountains.
1856: Ran for president but was defeated by Buchanan 174 to 114.
1864: Nominated again for the presidency, but later withdrew his name.
1878-81: Governor of Arizona
1890: Appointed major-general on the retired list by act of Congress.
Fremont was a very skilled explorer throughout his numerous trips across the West. His journals explain many areas of Nevada that can be found on modern day maps. He traveled along the Las Vegas Wash to Duck creek and then headed into California where we now find Interstate 15. They also camped at a dry lake which can be found near Jean. Fremont had the benefit of timing and charisma to be allowed to make these travels across the United States. He also knew the right men to take along with him in his travels. After a life of countless discoveries and travels, Fremont died of peritonitis and was then buried wearing a civilian suit in a plain coffin.
3 to 5Students will be able to read all about John C. Fremont to gain an understanding of his accomplishments and how others treated him. Using that information, students will design an ad campaign for Fremont to run for president of the United States.Internet, books on John C. Fremont, paperPresident Word Search. Students will locate the last names of all of the presidents of the United States that are hidden in the word search. Who is our Current president?
How does one become president?
In their campaign, what are some of the things that you see to get to know who the candidates are?
Students will spend 30 to 45 minutes working with a partner to find out as much information as they can about John C. Fremont. Bring the class together to see what information has been found. Groups can supplement their information as other groups offer details that they don’t have.Students will use the background information of John C. Fremont and create an ad campaign for him to run for president. Pass around the different letters written by, to, and about Fremont to get an idea of what his character is like. Make enough copies of his portraits so that students can use them in their campaign. Students will have to come up with a poster, television ad, and a one or two minute speech. Groups will then have a chance to share with the rest of the class their ad campaign.Campaign,
cartographer,
explorer,
government
Students will be assessed by their three elements of the ad campaign. The message needs to be clear that John C. Fremont should be president. The ad should list at least 3 reasons why he would make a good president, and the ad needs to include at least one picture of him. Review what John C. Fremont is most known for and explain that his leadership and skills makes for a great leader. Higher leveled students could also be assigned a debate which centers on the topic of exploring the west: what are the benefits?
Struggling learners can have their assignment shortened if the tasks are too great for them.
H2.4.2 Describe the experiences of pioneers moving west. , H2.4.3 Identify explorers and settlers in pre-territorial Nevada. , C13.4.2 Explain that democracy involves voting, majority rule, and setting rules., C14.4.2 Name the current President of the United States. , C15.4.1 Describe the qualities of a leader., C15.4.3 Identify sources of information people use to form an opinion. Expository Text: 4.5.1 Evaluate information from illustrations, graphs, charts, titles, text boxes, diagrams, headings, and maps., Expository Text: 4.5.2 Identify words and phrases that reveal an author’s tone., Expository Text: 4.5.2 Explain how language clarifies ideas and concepts., Expository Text: 4.5.2 Identify language used for the purpose of persuasion and propaganda., Expository Text: 4.5.4 Explain the influence of historical events., Expository Text: 4.5.4 Explain the influence of time periods., Expository Text: 4.5.4 With assistance, compare text from the same historical period on a single topic., Expository Text: 4.5.5 Make connections to self, other text, and/or the world., Expository Text: 4.5.5 Summarize information., Expository Text: 4.8.6 Make inferences and draw conclusions based on evidence., Expository Text: 4.8.6 Distinguish between fact and opinion., Expository Text: 4.8.6 With assistance, verify information by referencing other sources., Effective Writing: 5.5.7 Select a publishing format appropriate to the audience and purpose., Speaking: 8.5.2 Use precise language to describe and elicit feelings, experiences, observations, and ideas., Speaking: 8.5.3 Use public speaking techniques to deliver presentations with appropriate prosody, volume, eye contact, enunciation, posture, expressions, audience, and purpose., Speaking: 8.5.3 Communicate information by maintaining a clear focus, following a logical sequence, and illustrating information with media aids., Speaking: 8.5.3 Defend a position using evidence.NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNone3.5.3 Select information from a variety of remote resources for a research topic or problem exploring hyperlinks., 3.5.7 Summarize and share the research process and its outcome.NoneElect a PresidentAfter studying the work that John C. Fremont has done, and examining some of his letters, students will create an ad campaign for him to run for President of the United States.Definitely
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LeiderMeganYour NameOtherTourism in Nevadahttp://www.onlinenevada.org/media/?id=353http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/05/Adams_Boulder_Dam_1942.jpghttp://www.americansouthwest.net/nevada/lake-tahoe-nevada/state-park.htmlhttp://www.americansouthwest.net/nevada/lake-tahoe-nevada/spooner-lake2.htmlhttp://www.wildnatureimages.com/Reno-Sign-Photo.htmhttp://www.visitvirginiacitynv.com/Admin/Uploads/front_of_mine2.jpghttp://www.virginiacity-nv.org/Las Vegas SignHoover DamLake Tahoe Map at Bottom of PageLake Tahoe InletReno SignVirginia City MineVirginia CityTourism/Economy
When someone begins to talk about Nevada what is the first thing that they think of? Is it the mountain ranges, the desert, or the rivers? No, it is the tourist attractions that bring people from all over the world. Not only do the casinos attract tourists, but the man made wonders and state parks bring people as well. In 1931, Hoover Dam was being constructed and many men were in Nevada to work on it. The state government decided to pass two laws. One was to make a divorce quicker to attain. The second was to legalize gambling. This began the rise of casinos in Las Vegas and Reno. Many think of Las Vegas as the main place to gamble now-a-days. In the beginning, though, it was Reno. Then the Hoover Dam was opened in 1936, and people began to travel to Nevada to marvel at this man made wonder. This caused Las Vegas to flourish. Two of the most famous symbols of Las Vegas and Reno are their signs. The morph of the Las Vegas one and the sight of Reno’s stick in peoples minds, whether seen in person or in movies. Living in Las Vegas, there are always groups of people seen taking photos in front of the famous sign. Never being to Reno, I can assume that it is the same with its famous sign.
Lake Tahoe is not only famous in Nevada, but in California as well. The state line is in the center of the lake. With its gorgeous views and amazing trails, it has become a vacation spot for many. It is also home to a celebrity golf tournament that many travel to see. Not only is Lake Tahoe busy in the summer because of its clear waters, but in the winter as well. It is known for its skiing and beautiful mountain ranges. Construction on a small dam was completed in 1924 which is where the fee station is to go into the state park. People are able to cross over to the California side as well. Lake Tahoe’s trails are loved by hikers and tourists and exemplify the beauty of Nevada’s landscape. Lake Tahoe’s breath taking views and lake make it a tourist attraction for young and old.
Virginia City is an attraction for many tourist interested in rich old west history. It was the prime mining city in the mining boom of Nevada. Gold and silver can still be found there. The old historical buildings and mines are still standing for tourists to admire. Virginia City was first incorporated into the Utah territory in 1861 but was brought into the Nevada territory by 1862 and was first inhabited when the Comstock Lode was flourishing. The amazing views and rich history attract many tourists and Nevadans to learn about its rich history.
Nevada’s tourism industry is what Nevada is known for. The name the Silver State came from the mining industry, but when it began to die out, tourism is what replaced it. All my life, I remember hearing about vacationing in Nevada, and not the mining industry. When there are recessions and tourism is on the decline, the economy in Nevada really hurts. Being a limited economy state is good during a boom time, but even worse during a down time. Tourism helps fund Nevada’s schools and is the main reason why Nevada has no state taxes. Most of this money is from the casinos, but the money would not be rolling in if not for tourists. Also locals take trips to different parts of Nevada because the state is so diverse; they can ski, gamble, hike, learn, and see beautiful sites all in one state. This is why tourism has become the staple and why it will hopefully continue to be.
3-5, 6-8Students will demonstrate knowledge of Nevada’s economy.
Students will design a tour of Nevada’s important landmarks and tourist destinations.
Students will map locations.
Primary Source Photos
Computers
Tourism Brochures for Nevada
Maps of Nevada
Crayons
Markers
Pencils
Paper.
Place photos in on board that are located in Primary Sources and ask students to name where these photos are. Some will be easy and a few will be more difficult. Then ask students to write what they believe all of these photos have in common.When the students have all answered the questions I will ask them to share their ideas. Once a few students have shared, I will introduce the lesson by asking them what Nevada is most known for. After a few answer these questions, with their ideas on the board, I will introduce that it all has to do with tourism.First I will discuss what tourism is and that Nevada’s economy is based on tourism. I will explain that we make our money based on people visiting Nevada. Living in Las Vegas, I will assume that they think that Las Vegas and Reno are what they think the main attractions are. We will then brainstorm and discuss what people visit other than go to casinos. They will be introduced to Lake Tahoe, Hoover Dam, and Virginia City.Students will be placed into groups of four. The each student is to choose and place or tourist attraction to research, and they cannot be in the same city. They will gather tourism information and put all four together to make a tour of Nevada. They will write descriptions, plan an itinerary, explain why they chose the places, and map out their tour of the state.Tourism
Mining
Economy
Itinerary
Each student will have to write a paragraph on the places that the other people in their group researched. They may also have to take parts of their project home as homework.Class will discuss where they would like to go in Nevada that they have never been.H2.4.6 Explain how United States conflicts affected life and society in Nevada., H3.4.1 Compare and/or contrast their daily lives with children in Nevada’s past., H3.4.2 Recognize that communities include people who have diverse ethnic origins, customs, and traditions, and who make contributions to Nevada., Option H3.4.4 Explain how advances in technologies have impacted Nevada, i.e., railroads, mining, and gaming., H4.4.1 Describe the economic and cultural influence other nations have on the state of Nevada., G5.4.1 Identify and use intermediate directions on a compass rose to locate places on a map of Nevada., G5.4.3 Construct a map of Nevada displaying human and physical features., G5.4.4 Utilize different types of Nevada maps, i.e., population and physical maps, to understand spatial distribution., G6.4.1 Describe the distinguishing features of historical regions in Nevada, i.e., Native American tribal territories, pioneer trails, and settlement areas. , G6.4.2 Identify regional changes in Nevada over time., G7.4.4 Describe historical and current economic issues in Nevada using geographic resources, i.e., illustrate demographic changes due to mining and gaming., G8.4.1 Describe ways physical environments affect human activity in Nevada using historical and contemporary examples., G8.4.5 Describe the distribution patterns of natural resources in Nevada., E9.4.2 Give reasons why consum-ers choose to buy more of a good or service, i.e., when prices are low, and when they choose to buy less, and when prices are high., E9.4.3 Give reasons why producers choose to sell more of a good or service, i.e., when a price is high, and when they choose to sell less, and when its price is low., E9.4.4 Identify factors within an individual’s control that can affect the likelihood of employment., E10.4.1 Discuss how the discovery of silver in Nevada affected the forms of money in circulation., C15.4.3 Identify sources of information people use to form an opinion. Word Analysis: 1.5.4 Comprehend, build, and extend vocabulary using homographs, homophones, syntax, parts of speech, synonyms, antonyms., Word Analysis: 1.5.4 Build vocabulary using pictures and symbols., Expository Text: 4.5.1 Evaluate information from illustrations, graphs, charts, titles, text boxes, diagrams, headings, and maps., Expository Text: 4.5.3 Distinguish theme from topic. , Effective Writing: 5.5.1 Use prewriting strategies to plan written work., Effective Writing: 5.5.1 Choose and narrow a topic to organize ideas., Effective Writing: 5.5.2 Draft multiple paragraph papers about a single topic that address audience, purpose, supporting details, introduction, conclusion, and transitions., Effective Writing: 5.5.3 Revise drafts for voice, organizations, focused ideas, audience, purpose, relevant details, word choice, and sentence fluency., Effective Writing: 5.5.4 Edit essays and compositions to ensure correct spelling of high frequency works and content words., Effective Writing: 5.5.4 Edit for correct capitalization., Effective Writing: 5.5.4 Edit punctuation for end punctuation, commas, apostrophes, quotation marks, abbreviations, and colons., Effective Writing: 5.5.5 Edit for correct use of nouns, verbs, pronouns, adjectives, subject/verb agreement, verb tenses, adverbs, clauses, phrases, pronoun/antecedent agreement, pronoun case., Effective Writing: 5.5.6 Edit sentences for complete sentences, combining sentences, compound sentences, and complex sentences., Effective Writing: 5.5.6 Edit sentences for the elimination of fragments and run-ons., Effective Writing: 5.5.7 Prepare a legible final draft to display or share., Types of Writing: 6.5.6 Write persuasive essays and compositions that include a thesis statement, supporting evidence, and relevant evidence., Types of Writing: 6.5.7 Write a variety of communications in appropriate formats., Types of Writing: 6.5.9 Write research papers by choosing and narrowing a research topic, locating and collecting information from primary and secondary sources, recording information, paraphrasing and summarizing information, organizing collected information, and documenting sources using a given format.3.5.6 Determine equivalent periods of time, including relationships between and among seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, and years.NoneNoneNone1.5.3 Create artworks using various media, techniques, and processes to communicate ideas., 3.5.2 Produce a work of art that demonstrates the ability to convey meaning by integrating subject matter and symbols with ideas., 3.5.3 Explain the way subject matter, symbols, and ideas are chosen to present meaning in student artwork.NoneNone3.5.1 Select a research topic or define a problem and predict outcomes using technology tools., 3.5.2 Generate keywords for a research topic or problem., 3.5.3 Select information from a variety of remote resources for a research topic or problem exploring hyperlinks., 3.5.4 Use an organizational format to arrange information for presentation or decision-making.NoneLet’s take a Tour: Tour of NevadaStudents will learn about all of the sites and attractions Nevada has to offer. They will be learning that there are other attractions other than gambling and that Nevada’s economy is based on tourism. They will then create a tour of the state, naming, describing, creating and itinerary, and mapping where their tour will stop and why.Definitely
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LeiderMeganYour NameKey PlacesLas Vegashttp://digital.library.unlv.edu/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=%2FLV_Maps&CISOPTR=471&DMSCALE=50&DMWIDTH=600&DMHEIGHT=600&DMMODE=viewer&DMFULL=0&DMX=578&DMY=300&DMTEXT=&DMTHUMB=1&REC=17&DMROTATE=0&x=306&y=365http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/lasvegas/filmmore/ps_elvis.htmlhttp://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/lasvegas/filmmore/ps_divorce.htmlhttp://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/lasvegas/filmmore/ps_naacp.htmlhttp://www.lasvegasmaps.com/stripmap.htmlOld Las Vegas StripEntertainers: ElvisDivorce in Las VegasRacism in Las VegasThe Strip NowWhere does one begin with Las Vegas? It was founded in 1905, but did not become famous until much later. In 1931, a speedy divorce law and legalization of gambling law changed Nevada and Las Vegas forever. There were men in Boulder building a dam that would come to Las Vegas on time off and gamble. There would be people that would move to Nevada to become a resident to get a quicker divorce. By the 1950’s there was a Las Vegas Strip and people were accepting the divorces that were finalized in Nevada. Eventually, Las Vegas began to build up with casinos and residents. Reno was the first city to become popular in gaming but Las Vegas overtook it by the 1950's. The first themed casinos were based on the old west, as times changed the themes became more diverse and detailed. Las Vegas Casinos began to bring in entertainment for people to enjoy when they wanted to have a break from gambling. Also if their favorite entertainer was based in Las Vegas they would travel to see them and then the casinos would make more money. Some examples of these entertainers are The Rat Pack, Elvis Presley, Celine Dion, Cher, and Elton John just to name a few. Even though some of the early entertainers were African American (example Sammy Davis Jr.) casinos were still segregated. The entertainer could perform, but then they would have to leave immediately. This meant that people gambling in casinos were also segregated. The Moulin Rouge was the first mixed casino. People started to flock to this casino because it would be where the Rat Pack would be seen after performances since Sammy was not allowed to lounge at the other casinos. Eventually, casinos saw that they were losing money, and that there was more to gain by integrating. This ended the segregation of casinos. Las Vegas may have had many small changes, but over the years Las Vegas built up to what it is today, keeping with themed casinos, entertainers, casinos, and over the top spectacles that bring in tourists every year. Nevada's tourism has become based on the gaming industry that Las Vegas has been continuing to perfect and enhance.3-5, 6-8Students will demonstrate knowledge of the Las Vegas economy.
Students will persuade parents to take their vacation to their casino.
Students will research Las Vegas advertising picture, print, and possible commercial.
Primary Source Photos,
Computers,
Advertisements,
Poster Board,
Crayons,
Markers,
Pencils,
and Paper
Have students brainstorm advertisements they have seen or heard on the radio. Then have students brainstorm advertisements that they have heard for Las Vegas.Once the brainstorm session is over the teacher will record some of the ideas on the board. Then the teacher and students will discuss who the advertisements are focused on.The teacher will first give a brief history of Las Vegas using some of the primary sources listed above. The students will see how Las Vegas has evolved and some examples of early casinos, strip, and entertainers, and the modern strip, casinos, and entertainers. Then the teacher will discuss print and picture advertising and commercials. The teacher will also address audience in advertising.Students will be placed in groups of four. They will then work to decide what their resort will include. Once they have brainstormed ideas and decided their name, theme, entertainers, restaurants, shops, attractions, etc.. Two people will begin work on a map of the resort and design on poster board, and two other students will begin working on advertising. The four can work on all, but two and two working on it constantly will help to manage time and make sure all are working. Students will be allowed to research ideas on the computer and at home. They may also tape their commercial.Advertising,
Economy,
Tourism,
Entertainers
The students will have a completed map and design of their resort. They will also have a picture/print ad and commercial for their resort. They may tape their commercial if time allows. They may also have to take parts of their project home as homework.Class will share their resorts and offer feedback on others. H3.4.1 Compare and/or contrast their daily lives with children in Nevada’s past., H3.4.3 Define social responsibility., Option H3.4.4 Explain how advances in technologies have impacted Nevada, i.e., railroads, mining, and gaming., H4.4.1 Describe the economic and cultural influence other nations have on the state of Nevada., G6.4.2 Identify regional changes in Nevada over time., G7.4.2 List examples of movements of people, goods, and ideas into and across Nevada., E9.4.1 Give examples of incentives and determine whether they are positive or negative., E9.4.2 Give reasons why consum-ers choose to buy more of a good or service, i.e., when prices are low, and when they choose to buy less, and when prices are high., E9.4.3 Give reasons why producers choose to sell more of a good or service, i.e., when a price is high, and when they choose to sell less, and when its price is low., E9.4.4 Identify factors within an individual’s control that can affect the likelihood of employment., C13.4.1 Identify and discuss examples of rules, laws, and authorities that keep people safe and property secure in the state of Nevada., C15.4.2 Define and give examples of state and local interest groups.Reading Strategies: 2.5.1 Select before reading strategies appropriate to text and purpose to preview text, access prior, knowledge, build background knowledge, set purpose for reading, make predictions, determine reading rate, and determine text type., Reading Strategies: 2.5.2 Select during reading strategies appropriate to text and purpose to use self-correcting strategies, make, confirm, and revise predictions, understand and use key vocabulary, identify main idea and supporting details, make inferences, adjust reading rate, and apply knowledge of text type., Reading Strategies: 2.5.3 Select after reading strategies appropriate to text and purpose to recall details, restate main ideas, organize information, record information, synthesize text, evaluate text, and evaluate the effectiveness of reading strategies., Expository Text: 4.5.1 Evaluate information from illustrations, graphs, charts, titles, text boxes, diagrams, headings, and maps., Expository Text: 4.5.2 Identify language used for the purpose of persuasion and propaganda., Expository Text: 4.5.3 Distinguish theme from topic. , Effective Writing: 5.5.2 Draft multiple paragraph papers about a single topic that address audience, purpose, supporting details, introduction, conclusion, and transitions., Effective Writing: 5.5.3 Revise drafts for voice, organizations, focused ideas, audience, purpose, relevant details, word choice, and sentence fluency., Effective Writing: 5.5.4 Edit essays and compositions to ensure correct spelling of high frequency works and content words., Effective Writing: 5.5.4 Edit for correct capitalization., Effective Writing: 5.5.4 Edit punctuation for end punctuation, commas, apostrophes, quotation marks, abbreviations, and colons., Effective Writing: 5.5.4 With assistance, edit punctuation for hyphens and semicolons., Effective Writing: 5.5.5 Edit for correct use of nouns, verbs, pronouns, adjectives, subject/verb agreement, verb tenses, adverbs, clauses, phrases, pronoun/antecedent agreement, pronoun case., Effective Writing: 5.5.6 Edit sentences for complete sentences, combining sentences, compound sentences, and complex sentences., Effective Writing: 5.5.6 Edit sentences for the elimination of fragments and run-ons., Effective Writing: 5.5.7 Select a publishing format appropriate to the audience and purpose., Types of Writing: 6.5.2 Write multiple-paragraph papers about experiences and/or events appropriate to audience and purpose that include logical sequence, characters, setting, plot, dialog, figurative language, and sensory details., Types of Writing: 6.5.6 Write persuasive essays and compositions that include a thesis statement, supporting evidence, and relevant evidence., Speaking: 8.5.3 Use public speaking techniques to deliver presentations with appropriate prosody, volume, eye contact, enunciation, posture, expressions, audience, and purpose.NoneNoneNoneNone1.5.2 Examine how different media, techniques, and processes cause different responses (e.g. Look at two-dimensional vs. three-dimensional works of art)., 1.5.3 Create artworks using various media, techniques, and processes to communicate ideas., 2.5.1 Describe various visual characteristics of art (e.g. sensory, formal, technical, and expressive)., 2.5.4. Select and use specific visual characteristics to communicate. , 3.5.2 Produce a work of art that demonstrates the ability to convey meaning by integrating subject matter and symbols with ideas., 4.5.3 Create works of art that demonstrate historical and cultural influence.NoneNone2.5.5 Create a multimedia document or presentation using text, graphics, and/or sound., 3.5.1 Select a research topic or define a problem and predict outcomes using technology tools., 3.5.4 Use an organizational format to arrange information for presentation or decision-making., 4.5.2 Employ tools and materials to design or develop products or projects.NoneCreate a Resort on the Las Vegas StripMost of Las Vegas’ economy is based on tourism and the casino business. As we all know, people under 21 are not allowed to gamble and be in the casinos. Have students create a resort that caters to people their age. They are to find activities, entertainers, restaurants, and even shopping to put in their resort. They also must name it and chose a theme. They will then create advertising for their casino, picture and print.Definitely
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LeiderMeganYour NameGeographyMojave Deserthttp://digital-desert.com/regions/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Solarplant-050406-04.jpghttp://www.fws.gov/nevada/desert_tortoise/documents/recovery_plan/080108_draft_rp_faq.pdfhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Basin_and_Range_Nevada.JPGhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Red_Rock_Canyon-800px.jpgClickable MapSolar Power Plant OneDesert Tortoise Recovery PlanJoshua TreeRed Rock CanyonThe Mojave Desert is located in Utah, Nevada, Arizona, and California. It contains desert areas such as Death Valley and the Mojave National Park. The Mojave has a big impact on Nevada. Our climate is desert climate, which means extreme highs and lows. In the southern part of Nevada this means extreme highs. Las Vegas is the biggest city in Nevada that is located in the Mojave Desert. To get to California, travelers must drive right through the heart of it. Some animals that make their home in the Mojave include the desert tortoise, jackrabbit, Mojave green rattlesnake, and kangaroo rat, just to name a few. There are many different types of cacti, yucca plants, and Joshua trees located in the Mojave Desert. In Boulder City, there is one of the largest solar power plants, the third largest to be exact. It was opened in June 2007, and can be seen on a drive from Boulder City to Searchlight, NV. There is also solar power plant located at Nellis Air force base. Red Rock Canyon is a park located outside of Las Vegas. It is a popular place for tourists and locals to go hiking. There is also the Valley of Fire. This is on the way to Utah and is also a popular place for hiking and field trips.3-5, 6-8Students will demonstrate knowledge of the Mojave Desert.
Students will create a speech.
Students will present a memorized speech.
Primary Source Photos and articles,
Computers,
reference books,
Poster Board,
Crayons,
Markers,
scissors,
Pencils,
and Paper.
Have students begin by naming all the climates they can think of, and then all the national parks they can think of.Once they have written these down discuss what climate has to do with how people live, then discuss what a national park is and why it is important.The teacher will begin by showing maps and pictures of the Mojave Desert. The students will learn that it is a national park and about its climate. The teacher will then discuss some of the plants and animals found in the Mojave.The students will be choosing something to research on their own. They may pick an animal, plant, people, or attraction in the Mojave Desert. They will take notes on the information. Once they have selected information that they think people should know, they will write a one-two minute speech in first person….For example, I am a Desert Tortoise, and so on. Once they have finished their speech they will take a poster board and cut a measured hole out for their head. They will then illustrate their choice so that they can put their head through and appear to be that person, animal, or thing. When that is complete they will create a button for people to push to hear their speech. They will have to practice their speech in free time and at home so that it is memorized.Mojave,
Desert,
National Park,
Climate
Students will present their speech in a wax museum. When the teacher hits their button they will begin to give their speech with only their head through the poster.Tell what the students learned from others exhibits.G5.4.2 Identify spatial patterns on a map of Nevada, i.e., deserts, mountains, population., G5.4.3 Construct a map of Nevada displaying human and physical features., G5.4.4 Utilize different types of Nevada maps, i.e., population and physical maps, to understand spatial distribution., G7.4.4 Describe historical and current economic issues in Nevada using geographic resources, i.e., illustrate demographic changes due to mining and gaming., G7.4.5 Describe why types of organizations may differ by geographic region in Nevada., G8.4.2 Describe how technologies altered the physical environment in Nevada, and the effects of those changes on its people., G8.4.3 Explore the impact of human modification of Nevada’s physical environment on the people who live there., G8.4.4 Identify natural hazards in Nevada and their impact on the population.Expository Text: 4.5.1 Evaluate information from illustrations, graphs, charts, titles, text boxes, diagrams, headings, and maps., Expository Text: 4.5.3 Describe a theme based on evidence., Expository Text: 4.5.3 Distinguish theme from topic. , Expository Text: 4.5.4 Explain the influence of historical events., Expository Text: 4.5.5 Summarize information., Types of Writing: 6.5.1 Write essays and compositions which include a topic sentence, supporting details, a concluding statement, a beginning, middle, and end, a thesis statement, and transitions., Types of Writing: 6.5.4 Summarize information., Speaking: 8.5.1 Ask questions to clarify directions., Speaking: 8.5.2 Use precise language to describe and elicit feelings, experiences, observations, and ideas., Speaking: 8.5.2 Apply Standard English to communicate ideas., Speaking: 8.5.3 Use public speaking techniques to deliver presentations with appropriate prosody, volume, eye contact, enunciation, posture, expressions, audience, and purpose., Speaking: 8.5.3 Communicate information by maintaining a clear focus, following a logical sequence, and illustrating information with media aids., Speaking: 8.5.3 Communicate statements that express and opinion., Speaking: 8.5.3 Defend a position using evidence.NoneL.5.A.5 Students know some animal behaviors are learned., L.5.B.1 Students know plants and animals have structures that enable them to grow, reproduce, and survive., L.5.C.2 Students know organisms interact with each other and with the non-living parts of their ecosystem., L.5.C.3 Students know changes to an environment can be beneficial or detrimental to different organisms., L.5.C.4 Students know all organisms, including humans, can cause changes in their environments., L.5.C.5 Students know plants and animals have adaptations allowing them to survive in specific ecosystems., L.5.D.1 Students know animals and plants can be classified according to their observable characteristics.NoneNone1.5.3 Create artworks using various media, techniques, and processes to communicate ideas., 2.5.4. Select and use specific visual characteristics to communicate. , 3.5.1 Discuss how subject matter, symbols, and ideas produce meanings in works of art., 3.5.2 Produce a work of art that demonstrates the ability to convey meaning by integrating subject matter and symbols with ideas., 4.5.3 Create works of art that demonstrate historical and cultural influence.None2.5.3. Portray a character's traits through movement, voice and/or dialogue in a dramatized idea or story. NoneNoneMojave Wax MuseumYou many need to coordinate with the art teacher on this. You will have the students pick a plant, animal, people, or landmark of the Mojave Desert. They will then research it and create a poster board with a head hole, and present a one-two minute speech as if they were what they chose. You can then open this to classroom to come learn about the Mojave.Definitely
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MannTeriYour NameKey PlacesVirginia Cityhttp://www.onlinenevada.org/cms/apps/media_editor_plus/media_gallery_pop.php?id=266http://www.onlinenevada.org/cms/apps/media_editor_plus/media_gallery_pop.php?id=60http://www.onlinenevada.org/cms/apps/media_editor_plus/media_gallery_pop.php?id=224http://www.onlinenevada.org/cms/apps/media_editor_plus/media_gallery_pop.php?id=210http://www.onlinenevada.org/cms/apps/media_editor_plus/media_gallery_pop.php?id=840http://www.legendsofamerica.com/photos-nevada/Virginia%20City%20Mansion-500.jpghttp://www.legendsofamerica.com/photos-nevada/Virginia%20City%20Fourth%20Ward%20School-500.jpghttp://www.legendsofamerica.com/photos-nevada/Virginia%20City,%20NV,%20Savage%20Works%20Mill%20Timothy%20H.%20O%20Sullivan,%201867-500.jpghttp://www.legendsofamerica.com/photos-nevada/VirginiaCityNV1866-5-500.jpghttp://www.legendsofamerica.com/photos-nevada/Pioneer%20Stage%20leaving%20Wells,%20Fargo,%20Lawrence%20and%20Houseworth.%20Virginia%20City,%20NV,%201866-500.jpgSquare Set TimberingComstock LodeTerritrial Press RoomFourth Ward SchoolVirginia & Truckee LocomotiveThe CastleFourth Ward SchoolSavage Works MillVirginia CityPioneer Stagehttp://www.onlinenevada.org/cms/apps/media_editor_plus/media_gallery_pop.php?id=69 Chinese American Worker
http://www.onlinenevada.org/cms/apps/media_editor_plus/media_gallery_pop.php?id=40 Bowers mansion
http://www.pickatrail.com/sun/v/america/topo_map/virginia_city_nevada/virginia_city_topo_map.jpg Topo Map of Virginia City
http://www.kipnotes.com/lincoln_seated.gif Abe Lincoln
Located in the northwestern part of Nevada, Virginia City is one of the oldest communities in the state. It was founded in the 1850’s as a result of the Comstock Lode mining strike of 1859. Virginia City was a mining boomtown that appeared virtually overnight as miners and merchants swarmed into the area following news of the discovery of gold and silver. Just as the California gold rush of 1849 drew people westward, so did the Comstock Lode draw people to Virginia City and Nevada. During its heyday the town grew to over 30,000 people.
In the late 1850’s, two miners – Pat McLaughlin and Peter O’Reilly - discovered traces of gold in Six-Mile Canyon near the Humboldt River. They were joined by a third miner, Henry Comstock, who convinced McLaughlin and O’Reilly that they were on his property as they followed the trail of gold up the canyon to its source – an outcropping of gold bearing quartz. Within weeks the area was overrun by prospectors with gold fever. As the miners started hunting for more gold they encountered a sticky blue mud that coated all their equipment. It turned out that this mud contained silver ore in large quantities. The find enabled Virginia City to grow from an old Western town into a thriving industrialized city.
The Virginia City area soon became a honeycomb of mines and mining sites. The extent of the valuable metals recovered was so great that the area in which the city was located was split off from the Utah Territory in the 1860’s and the new area “Nevada” became the 36th state in the United States of America on October 31st, 1864. Even though there was not enough people in Nevada to qualify it for statehood, Abraham Lincoln needed the wealth that the mines would bring to help with the cost of the Civil War and so he signed the authorization for it to become a state. Virginia City became the most important western city between San Francisco and Denver during this time. The precious metals mined from the area financed the Civil War and turned poor miners into millionaires. In addition, the wealth from the area financed a building boom in San Francisco as the wealthy miners and merchants built mansions and became respectful. People demanded importation of manufactured goods and visitors flocked to the area causing the Virginia and Truckee Railroad to be built. Mark Twain got his start in the city as Samuel Clemens accompanied his brother Orion to the city and wrote about his travels under his famous pen-name. Clemens tried his hand at mining, but was unsuccessful and so turned to writing.
Throughout the next 20-30 years, the population of Virginia City grew and declined with every subsequent mining strike. The city became the launching point as precious metals were discovered throughout Nevada. When the Comstock Lode finally played out around 1898, the city's population declined sharply, with it becoming a virtual ghost town. Soon there were less than a thousand people in the city and it never recovered. Buildings were abandoned, mine shafts were closed, and the area residents looked for other sources of income.
Over the next 100 years mining discoveries occasionally visited the city, but nothing like the original boom. By the end of the century, Virginia City had settled into a role as a tourist attraction as it drew people who wished to visit the shadow of a mining boomtown. Visitors today can see some of the historic landmarks of a bygone era, including the Gold Hill Hotel, the Delta Saloon, and a revamped Virginia and Truckee Railroad. Many of the Victorian homes that stand on the hill above town date back to the 1870s and 1880s and have been restored to their original splendor once again. Virginia City has become a tourist attraction that showcases its storied history as a mining center and faded cultural landmark.

The primary source documents included in this kit are all photographs of Virginia City, people, places, and inventions that will help students understand the importance of mining to our state.
3 to 5Students will learn about how Virginia City became a boom town.
Students will learn about the impacts on mining and why Nevada became a state.
Students will understand the importance of the railroad to Nevada.
Students will understand how the growth in Virginia City lead to the demands of goods and services.
Computer
LCD Projector
Paper
Pencils
Worksheet
Primary source documents printed out
When the students walk in the room have the web-cam from Virginia City up on the LCD projector, so students can see the actual current images from the town.
http://www.visitvirginiacitynv.com/webcam_videos.aspx
How difficult was it to be a miner?
What were the hardships people faced by journeying to Nevada?
What was the importance of the railroad to Nevada?
Why was Virginia city important to Nevada becoming a state?
Before the students begin the lesson, the students will have read all about boom towns, mining, inventions, supply and demand, and the reasons why Nevada became a state from their Nevada history textbooks. They will have completed a web-quest on Virginia City. Place students into groups of four for the activity. Provide each group with a different inquiry question.

1) Compare and contrast our modern day classroom to the one in Virginia city
2) Why was railroad transportation critical after Virginia City became a boom town?
3) How did the invention of square set timbering allow miners to access more ore?
4) Who benefited from the Comstock Lode?
5) How did the discovery of gold and silver in Virginia city influence the development of Nevada?
6) Why did the growth in Virginia city create demand for goods and services?
7) Was ethnicity a factor in determining wealth and prosperity in Virginia City?
8) How did geography play a part in the mining around Virginia City?

Have students walk around the room and complete the photo analysis worksheet to determine the answers to their question. Allow students to work collaboratively in groups to come up with a group consensus. Once a consensus is reached, have the students share their conclusions with the rest of the class. Allow students to revise and edit their conclusions once everyone has had a chance to share their findings.







Ore
Prospectors
boom town
influx
opportunist
Students will use one of the primary source photos to write a creative story about life in Virginia City.Students will discuss life in Virginia City and the impact it had on the state of Nevada. They will engage in a debate about what invention was the most important for miners to use and how it impacted the state of Nevada.Students can go online and find other primary sources that were not included in the lesson to further enhance their viewpoint. They can come up with other questions to further support their stance. The lesson can be differentiated for students with special needs by changing the amount of primary sources and providing specific questions for students to answer to guide their learning. H1.4.5 Identify contributions of immigrants in Nevada., H2.4.2 Describe the experiences of pioneers moving west. , H2.4.3 Identify explorers and settlers in pre-territorial Nevada. , H2.4.4 Identify the diverse population of Nevada’s early settlers and discuss their unique experiences., H2.4.6 Explain how United States conflicts affected life and society in Nevada., H3.4.1 Compare and/or contrast their daily lives with children in Nevada’s past., H3.4.2 Recognize that communities include people who have diverse ethnic origins, customs, and traditions, and who make contributions to Nevada., Option H3.4.4 Explain how advances in technologies have impacted Nevada, i.e., railroads, mining, and gaming., G5.4.4 Utilize different types of Nevada maps, i.e., population and physical maps, to understand spatial distribution., G7.4.2 List examples of movements of people, goods, and ideas into and across Nevada., G8.4.2 Describe how technologies altered the physical environment in Nevada, and the effects of those changes on its people.Word Analysis: 1.5.4 Comprehend, build, and extend vocabulary using context clues and structural analysis., Reading Strategies: 2.5.1 Select before reading strategies appropriate to text and purpose to preview text, access prior, knowledge, build background knowledge, set purpose for reading, make predictions, determine reading rate, and determine text type., Reading Strategies: 2.5.2 Select during reading strategies appropriate to text and purpose to use self-correcting strategies, make, confirm, and revise predictions, understand and use key vocabulary, identify main idea and supporting details, make inferences, adjust reading rate, and apply knowledge of text type., Reading Strategies: 2.5.3 Select after reading strategies appropriate to text and purpose to recall details, restate main ideas, organize information, record information, synthesize text, evaluate text, and evaluate the effectiveness of reading strategies., Literary Text: 3.5.7 Explain the influence of historical events and culture., Literary Text: 3.5.9 Make connections to self, other text, and/or the world., Expository Text: 4.5.1 Evaluate information from illustrations, graphs, charts, titles, text boxes, diagrams, headings, and maps., Expository Text: 4.5.3 Describe a theme based on evidence., Expository Text: 4.5.3 Explain a cause and its effect on events and/or relationships., Expository Text: 4.5.4 Explain the influence of historical events., Expository Text: 4.5.5 Make connections to self, other text, and/or the world., Expository Text: 4.5.5 Use information to answer specific questions., Expository Text: 4.5.5 Summarize information., Expository Text: 4.8.6 Make and revise predictions based on evidence., Expository Text: 4.8.6 Make inferences and draw conclusions based on evidence., Expository Text: 4.8.6 With assistance, verify information by referencing other sources., Expository Text: 4.5.7 Read and follow directions to complete tasks or procedures., Effective Writing: 5.5.1 Explore a topic to plan written work., Effective Writing: 5.5.2 Draft multiple paragraph papers about a single topic that address audience, purpose, supporting details, introduction, conclusion, and transitions., Listening: 7.5.1 Listen for and summarize ideas and supporting details., Listening: 7.5.2 Listen to and evaluate oral communications for content, delivery, point of view, and ideas., Listening: 7.5.5 Actively listen to oral communications., Listening: 7.5.5 Listen to and participate in conversations., Speaking: 8.5.3 Communicate information by maintaining a clear focus, following a logical sequence, and illustrating information with media aids., Speaking: 8.5.3 Communicate statements that express and opinion., Speaking: 8.5.3 Defend a position using evidence., Speaking: 8.5.4 Contribute to conversations and discussions about a given topic.NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNone2.5.2 Create a document including a graphic using basic formatting techniques that demonstrate the ability to type, edit, and print., 3.5.1 Select a research topic or define a problem and predict outcomes using technology tools., 3.5.2 Generate keywords for a research topic or problem., 3.5.7 Summarize and share the research process and its outcome., 4.5.1 Recognize that technological resources include people, information, materials, machines, energy, capital, and time., 6.5.2 Explain how physical environments are changed by technological developments.NoneThe impact of mining on a Nevada BoomtownStudents will complete a Gallery Walk with the primary source documents provided in this lesson. Students will complete a photo analysis worksheet on each photo provided. Please see the worksheet from University of Northern Colorado's Colorado Rural Partnership Analysis Tools: http://www.archives.gov/education/lessons/worksheets/photo_analysis_worksheet.pdf

How to complete a Gallery Walk (from http://www.nevada-digitallibraries.blogspot.com/) :

Find a collection of relevant primary sources including pictures, maps, and other documents. Separate students into groups and provide each group with a different inquiry question. Have students move from source to source collecting data relating to their question. Upon completing the browsing process, each group should work independently to analyze findings and prepare a response to their question. After completing the responses, allow each group to read their inquiry question and response. After all groups complete their presentations, have students discuss whether they might dispute some of the conclusions based on data uncovered by either their group or another group.
Definitely
23
MartinAmyYour NameKey PeopleDat-so-la-lee History of Basket Weavinghttp://www.onlinenevada.org/washoe_basket_weaversPages 100-101http://www.washoe.k12.nv.us/americanhistory/elementary/si_07_jpegs/stover_datsolalee.pptwww.en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dat_So_La_Leewww.youtube.com/watch?v=cz_Fe283TsQBasket WeavingHistory of Dat-so-la-leeDat-so-la-lee Power PointGeneral Information about Dat-so-la-leeVideo – Queen of the Washoe BasketmakersDat-so-la-lee a Washoe Basket Weaver
Grade Level 4th

Dat-so-la-lee was born in 1835, her given name was Dabuda. She was married twice; the first time was to a Washoe named Assu. She had two children, both died before adulthood. Her second marriage was to Charley Keyser, where she took the name of Louisa Keyser. It was in the late 1860’s that she received her nickname Dat-so-la-lee when she formed a friendship with Dr. S.L. Lee of Carson City. That name remained with her throughout her life.
The Washoe women were unable to weave baskets because of two penalties invoked by the Northern Paiutes. In 1851, the Washoe tribe was attacked by a Northern Paiute tribe. The Pauite tribe defeated the Washoe, and as a result the Washoe were forbidden to own horses, and the women could not weave baskets. The Pauites wanted to eliminate all competition of the Washoes selling their baskets. The Washoes were already living near poverty, so this was a great hardship for them. Despite the ban by the Pauites, Dat-so-la-lee continued to weave, and she took some of weaving into a clothing story in Carson City. The owners of the store Abraham and Amy Cohn were quickly impressed with the quality of Dat-so-la-lee’s work. For the next 25 years, Dat-so-la-lee worked for the Cohn’s as their maid, and in her spare time she continued to create her baskets. Dat-so-la-lee’s husband was also provided with food and lodging. Mrs. Cohn kept a log of all of the baskets Dat-so-la-lee created, with the start and finishing dates, as well as certificated of authenticity. Mrs. Cohn promoted Dat-so-la-lees work by taking pictures, and writing pamphlets. Occasionally the Cohn’s would take them to into Tahoe City, where Dat-so-la-lee’s baskets were sold to tourists. She continued living out her day with the Cohn, weaving the legends of the Washoe people into mathematically-intricate baskets to adorn the home of white people who had no true appreciation of the dying culture the baskets represented. Many believe that her hands were spiritually guided with the reed and fiber.
Dat-so-la-lee achieved fame and recognition in her lifetime. Her baskets were very well made and sought after as collector’s items. Her baskets were done with perfection, and each basket had to be planned very carefully. Dat-so-la-lee’s is most known for three types of baskets, but her best known was the degikup, where the basket begins with a small circular base, and extends up and out to a maximum circumference, then becomes smaller until the opening at the top is roughly the same diameter at the base. The baskets were woven with tiny stitches that were pulled tightly into a coil. The shapes were all geometrical designs, which were small and repetitive. It is believed that she created nearly 300 baskets in her lifetime. Blindness began in her later years, but she continued to experiment with design and colors. It was miraculous considering she was nearly blind. Many of her baskets are on display at various museums across the county.
Dat-so-la-lee died in 1925, she was 90 years old. She is buried in the Stewart Indian cemetery in Carson City. Five years after her death one of her baskets sold for $10,000.


3 to 5• TSWBAT describe the history and contributions Dat-so-la-lee made to Washoe basketry.
• TSWBAT capitalize on their talents in basket weaving.
• TSWBAT recognize the process, and the effort involved in basket making.
• TSWBAT compare their talents to others in the class
• TSWBAT create a poem about Dat-so-la-lee
• Craft store assorted natural fibers: grasses, willow, straw, corn husks, weeks, raffia, ribbon, yarn, string, newspaper, cloth strips, pipe cleaner.
• Scissors
• Tape
• Glue
• Crayons
• Construction paper
• Drawing paper
• Basket Template
• A variety of books and pictures of Indian crafts or basket weaving
Upon entering the room, a variety of baskets and photos of baskets will be displayed, where students will have a hands on session and discuss baskets and their significance. Discussion will center around how baskets are created.What do you notice when looking at these baskets?
What is your eye drawn to?
Who do you think took these photos?
Why do you think these baskets were created?
What is important about this piece?
Why is it important to us today?
What are some of the similarities of these baskets?
Students will view the video – Queen of the Washoe Basketmakers, then a brief history of Washoe will be read from “Nevada, Journey of Discovery”, page 36.Day One – Students will work in groups of four and investigate the baskets from the various pictures. Students will brainstorm to the following questions: How could you use the basket? What materials do you think were used to make the basket? How old is the basket? Where do you think the basket was made? Students will record their answers into Social Studies journal. One person from the group will be the speaker and give the group answers to the questions.

Day Two – The weaving project will be explained. Students will decorate a drawing of a paper basket with construction paper, crayons, and any of the materials supplies. They can imitate digikup designs or they can make their own. Students will continue working until baskets are completed.

Day Three – Students will display their baskets, and discuss any difficulties they might have had.

Day Four – Students will write a poem about Dat-so-la-lee, where they will include at least three facts about her life, types of poems can be Haiku, Diamante, or Cinquain. After poems are completed, students will share them in small groups.

Degikup – (pronounced day-gee-coops) A basket that looks like an urn with a top opening about the same size as the base.
gyoo leu (cooking basket)
Willows – lance shaped leaves with tough, pliable twigs or branches used for wickerwork Three-Rod technique – A process of using three willow stems to form the coils of a basket.
Weaving – A process used to create a design
Student’s journals from brainstorm session will be assessed through observation.
2. Participation in displaying of their baskets will be assessed through casual observation.
3. Student’s poems will be assessed for content and creativity.
The history of Dat-so-sa-lee will be discussed, with teacher directed questions. Baskets made by students will be on display in the school library.A Venn Diagram can be used to represent the ways in which their personal talents are the same or different from each other. A guest speaker could be brought in to discuss Da-so-la-lee’s talents, as well as demonstrate the art of basket weaving. H1.4.3 Describe the lifestyles of Nevada’s Native American cultures. 3, H1.4.5 Identify contributions of immigrants in Nevada., H2.4.6 Explain how United States conflicts affected life and society in Nevada., H3.4.2 Recognize that communities include people who have diverse ethnic origins, customs, and traditions, and who make contributions to Nevada.Word Analysis: 1.5.4 Comprehend, build, and extend vocabulary using context clues and structural analysis., Word Analysis: 1.5.4 Build vocabulary using pictures and symbols., Literary Text: 3.5.3 Describe a theme based on evidence. , Expository Text: 4.5.4 Explain the influence of cultures., Effective Writing: 5.5.1 Use prewriting strategies to plan written work., Types of Writing: 6.5.3 Write poetry., Types of Writing: 6.5.4 Write responses that demonstrate an understanding of character development and motivations.4.5.9 Represent relationships using Venn diagrams. N.5.A.6 Students know models are tools for learning about the things they are meant to resemble. , N.5.A.7 Students know observable patterns can be used to organize items and ideas. , N.5.B.1 Students know that, throughout history, people of diverse cultures have provided scientific knowledge and technologies. NoneNone1.5.3 Create artworks using various media, techniques, and processes to communicate ideas., 2.5.1 Describe various visual characteristics of art (e.g. sensory, formal, technical, and expressive)., 3.5.2 Produce a work of art that demonstrates the ability to convey meaning by integrating subject matter and symbols with ideas., 4.5.3 Create works of art that demonstrate historical and cultural influence.NoneNoneNoneNoneDat-so-la-lee a Washoe Basket WeaverStudents will be investigating baskets, working in groups where they will brainstorm answers to various questions about baskets. They will be given a brief history of the Washoe Indians, and Dat-so-la-lee. Students will be given instructions about weaving, and then they will create their own baskets. Definitely
24
MartinAmyYour NameOtherThe Geological Formation of Nevadahttp://www.google.com/search?q=geological+history+of+Nevada&hl=en&prmd=b&tbs=tl:1&tbo=u&ei=0PPqS7i_H4LOtAPkz5TfBw&sa=X&oi=timeline_result&ct=title&resnum=11&ved=0CD4Q5wIwCghttp://www.nevadaobserver.com/TNO%20Reference%20Page%20File/Nevada%201886.jpghttp://www.nature.nps.gov/geology/usgsnps/rxmin/rock.htmlhttp://sci.gallaudet.edu/Mary/Rockcycle.html (webquest)http://oneplace.vegaspbs.org/web/guest/homeGeological TimelineMap of Geological Area of NevadaRock TypesRock Cycle WebquestVideo – A segment of U.S. Geography: The West Geology Geological Formation of Nevada
Grade Level 4th
Nevada’s geology began over 2,500 million years ago during the Precambrian era, with the oldest rock in Nevada located in the East Humboldt Range. Metamorphic rocks (gneiss, schist, and marble) at least 1,700 million years old are located in southern Nevada. A shallow marine, tectonically quiet setting existed in eastern Nevada for the next 700 million years. Over one hundred thousand years ago, acidic water began to dissolve rocks far below the surface of what is now eastern Nevada. Prior to 10,000 years ago, ice ages caused glaciers to form in the higher mountains and large lakes to develop, in places. Ten thousand years ago, mountain glaciers across Nevada began to melt. Four thousand years ago, a mountain of sand began moving across central Nevada and 3000 years ago, Native Americans were documenting their history on nearby rocks. Today Nevada’s geology can best be described by sandy deserts, forested and snow covered mountains, and grassy valleys.
Prehistoric Southern Nevada was a virtual marsh of abundant water and vegetation. During glacial times the Great Basin was covered in water. As time went by, the marsh receded, and the rivers disappeared beneath the surface. What was once wetland, the area evolved into a parched, arid landscape that supported only hardy plants and animals. The geologic formations of the Las Vegas Valley trapped underground water, and created an oasis in the desert.
The key to geological formation is through the process known as the rock cycle. Three rock types can be turned into metamorphic rocks, but these three types can also be changed through the rock cycle. Rocks can be completely melted into magma and become reincarnated as igneous rock. The three rock types are igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic.
Igneous rocks are formed from beneath the earth’s crust as a molten liquid. They are formed from magma that has cooled, or from lava that cools on the earth’s surface. The magma that forms the igneous rock can take thousands of years to cool. The Sierra Nevada is an example of igneous granite rock. Nearly all of the rocks of the earth’s crust are igneous, although sedimentary rocks usually cover them.
Sedimentary rocks are formed by solidification (the cementing, compacting, and hardening) of formerly living things. The rocks are weathered and eroded into small pieces then transported and deposited with pieces of rock called sediments. Over time the weight and pressure of thousands of feet of sediment above them cause the sediment to solidify, making sedimentary rocks. Sediments usually sort out according to the size of the particles during this process, so sedimentary rocks contain similar sized sedimentary particles. Three quarters of the earth’s bedrock is sedimentary rock.
Metamorphic rocks are formed by applying pressure and temperature to existing rocks forming a new type of rock. Sedimentary rocks can become metamorphic rock if enough heat and pressure are applied to them. Metamorphic rocks are harder than other types of rock, and they are more resistant to weathering and erosion.

3 to 5• TSWBAT read a timeline of the geological formation of Nevada
• TSWBAT explain why some rocks are in layers
• TSWBAT describe the three rock forms
• TSWBAT write an explanation of what sedimentary rock is.
• TSWBAT create a mock sedimentary rock using edible material
• Pebbles
• Sand
• Twigs
• Leaves
• Epsom salts
• Clear jars
• Pencil, paper, and colored pencils
Upon entering the room, a variety of sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic rock will be displayed, where students will have hands on session and similarities and differences.What do you notice when looking at these rocks?
How old do you think these rocks are?
Where do you think these rocks came from?
Why are some of the rocks in layers?
Why are these rocks important to the geology of Nevada?
Students will view a video segment from Vegas PBS, U.S. Geography: The West Day One – After the sponge activity, students will look at the Geological Timeline for Nevada, then they will create the same timeline into their social studies journals. The video segment will be shown.

Day Two – The students will do an experiment to demonstrate how sedimentary rocks are formed. They will fill a clear jar with pebbles, sand, twigs, and leaves. They will add Epsom salts and water until there is about 2 inches of space left at the top. The lids will be placed on the jars, and then be shaken. Jars will be placed on a flat surface. As a group they will predict which sediments will settle first. The jars will be checked every hour. When sediments have settled, the water will be poured out of the jar, and the layers will be left to dry completely. Students will discover they have created sedimentary rocks.

Day Three – Students will write an explanation of what sedimentary rock is. They will draw a picture to go along with their explanation, using colored pencils to color in the different types.

Geology: is the science and study of the physical matter that constitutes the Earth.
Rock Cycle: is a group of changes. Igneous rock can change into
Sedimentary Rock: is a type of rock that is formed by sedimentation of material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water
Igneous Rock: Any of various crystalline or glassy, non-crystalline rocks formed by the cooling and solidification of molten earth material ( magma )
Metamorphic Rock: that have been altered by pressure, heat, or chemical changes affecting pre-existing rocks.
Student’s experiment will be assessed through observation.
2. Student’s journals will be checked for understanding a timeline.
3. Student’s explanation of sedimentary rock will be graded.
A field trip to Red Rock Canyon, so students can see the geology of that area.Extensions to this would be to measure the time it takes for each layer to settle. A earth sandwich could be made with edible materials. Students could start a rock collection of their own. They could identify their samples by size, shape, texture, and other important features using classification information. Students can do the rock cycle webquest.G5.4.2 Identify spatial patterns on a map of Nevada, i.e., deserts, mountains, population.Word Analysis: 1.5.4 Comprehend, build, and extend vocabulary using context clues and structural analysis., Word Analysis: 1.5.4 Build vocabulary using pictures and symbols., Reading Strategies: 2.5.1 Select before reading strategies appropriate to text and purpose to preview text, access prior, knowledge, build background knowledge, set purpose for reading, make predictions, determine reading rate, and determine text type., Expository Text: 4.5.1 Evaluate information from illustrations, graphs, charts, titles, text boxes, diagrams, headings, and maps., Expository Text: 4.5.3 Describe a theme based on evidence., Expository Text: 4.5.4 Explain the influence of historical events., Expository Text: 4.5.4 Explain the influence of time periods., Expository Text: 4.5.5 Develop hypotheses based on information., Listening: 7.5.1 Listen for a variety of purposes including gaining information, being entertained, and understanding directions., Listening: 7.5.3 Expand vocabulary through listening., Speaking: 8.5.4 Contribute to conversations and discussions about a given topic., Speaking: 8.5.4 Ask relevant questions to clarify and extend ideas.NoneN.5.A.1 Students know scientific progress is made by conducting careful investigations, recording data, and communicating the results in an accurate method. , N.8.A.3 Students know how to draw conclusions from scientific evidence. , N.5.A.5 Students know how to plan and conduct a safe and simple investigation. , L.5.D.2 Students know fossils are evidence of past life., P.5.C.3 Students know heat is often produced as a byproduct when one form of energy is converted to another form (e.g., when machines and living organisms convert stored energy to motion)., E.5.A.3 Students know most of Earth’s surface is covered with fresh or salt water., E.5.C.1 Students know fossils are evidence of past life., E.5.C.3 Students know landforms may result from slow processes (e.g., erosion and deposition) and fast processes (e.g., volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides, flood, and human activity)., E.5.C.5 Students know soil varies from place to place and has both biological and mineral components.NoneNone1.5.3 Create artworks using various media, techniques, and processes to communicate ideas.NoneNoneNoneNoneGeological Formation of NevadaThis lesson briefly reviews the rock cycle in general, then focuses on sedimentary rocks. Nevada’s geological formation will be discussed.Definitely
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AnonymousList My Work AnonymouslyWestward MigrationDonner Partyhttp://www.donnerpartydiary.com/http://sunsite.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/ebind2html/2/breen?caphttp://www.sonic.net/~laird/landmarks/counties/100-199/134.htmlhttp://www.sfmuseum.org/hist6/donner.htmlhttp://www.donnerpartydiary.com/maps.htmDonner DiaryPatrick Breen DiaryDonner MonumentDistressing NewsDonner Party MapThe spring of 1846, hundreds of people were headed for California. Among them were the Donner and Reed families. The families joined together to make their own wagon train. During this time there were no maps for their long journey and families worked together to forge onto a new frontier. This was before the Gold Rush and many of the trails were undiscovered. Yet, these families were seeking a new and better life in California. The journey began with everyone excited for the adventure that awaited them. Little did they know that many months of anguish lie ahead.
The real trouble began when they decided to leave the main trail to take a short cut. However, the short cut only delayed their progress and troubles along with tensions occurred. Soon after leaving the main trail James reed killed another man when a quarrel went too far. The group as a whole decided not to kill him for his dishonorable deed. Rather they turned him out into the desert with no weapons, food, nor shelter. It is believed that a close family member to Reed gave him some things he would need to survive on his own. Luckily he was able to survive and make it to California before the rest of the party. He was responsible for the search parties that were sent to help rescue the others.
The Donner Part along with approximately 80 others ended up becoming stranded in the month of October on the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains. By November deep snows prevented the party from travailing any further. They had lost the cattle that were helping pull the wagons and they were soon buried beneath heavy snow.
People built crude shelters made of logs, rocks, and hides. They ran out of food and the weather to hunting out of the equation. They took to eating whatever they could find to survive. Some accounts have told of cannibalism but have not been fully proven. They cannibalism happened only after people perished it was not the cause of anyone’s death. People pulled together to help form their own rescue party. Fourteen men left the make shift village seeking help out of California. Only seven made it to California.
The first relief crew arrived in February and brought some to safety. The second relief crew came back to rescue the rest of the original wagon train with the Donner’s being amongst them. Although, many speculations have been made about what really happened on the long journey, there are primary sources available to help tell the real story.
3 to 5Students will examine contributing factors to the Donner Party tragedy. Students will imagine being a part of this terrible tragedy by writing their own journal entries. computers
journals
construction paper
writing utensils
Students will enter in to a classroom with the lights out and windows closed to shade the room of light. Explain that there has been a power outage at school but we have to continue learning. What can we still use in the classroom that does not need an energy source?
How can we gain more light in the class?
What if the power doesn't work all day?
All year?
Are there supplies that we could bring into the classroom that would help assist in their learning?
Teacher will explain that there have not always been modern day conviences of power for lights, gorgery stores with over excess food, air-conditioners, heaters, maps,automobiles, planes,cell-phones, ect... Review Westward Expansion with the students and the reasons for it. Show pictures of wagon trains and dirt roads with pioneers looking to start a new life. Finally, students will watch a video from PBS: American Experience-The Donner Party. Students will explore some of the digital/online primary resources available about the Donner Party. In their jounals they will write from the perspective of pioneer children that experienced the harsh journey. Their journal enteries must include facts and opinions of the real events. They must incorporate cause and effects of the Donner Parties decisions. Students will use higher order thinking by appling some of their own solutions to help with starvation and the deadly cold. Pioneers
Survive
Cannibalism
Wagon train
Crude shelter
Settlement
In small groups, students will explore other mordern day scenarios in which humans have had to face problems without immediate help. They will then compare how their lives are different from the children in the 1840's? Students will share their journal writings to each other. Students may take a side on what the Donner Party members did to survive. They can then have a classroom debate, backing up their thoughts asto what is right and wrong. H2.4.2 Describe the experiences of pioneers moving west. , H2.4.3 Identify explorers and settlers in pre-territorial Nevada. , H2.4.4 Identify the diverse population of Nevada’s early settlers and discuss their unique experiences., H3.4.1 Compare and/or contrast their daily lives with children in Nevada’s past., H3.4.5 Discuss major news events on the local and state levels., G7.4.2 List examples of movements of people, goods, and ideas into and across Nevada., G8.4.1 Describe ways physical environments affect human activity in Nevada using historical and contemporary examples.Word Analysis: 1.5.4 Comprehend, build, and extend vocabulary using context clues and structural analysis., Word Analysis: 1.5.4 Use resources to find and/or confirm meaning of unknown words and word origins. , Word Analysis: 1.5.4 Build vocabulary using pictures and symbols., Word Analysis: 1.5.5 Apply knowledge of high frequency words in text to build fluency and comprehension. , Word Analysis: 1.5.5 Apply knowledge of content-specific vocabulary in text to build comprehension. , Literary Text: 3.5.7 Explain the influence of time periods., Literary Text: 3.5.7 With assistance, compare texts from the same historical period on a single topic., Expository Text: 4.5.3 Explain a cause and its effect on events and/or relationships., Expository Text: 4.5.3 Compare events., Expository Text: 4.5.5 Make connections to self, other text, and/or the world., Expository Text: 4.5.5 Use information to answer specific questions., Expository Text: 4.8.6 Make inferences and draw conclusions based on evidence., Effective Writing: 5.5.7 Prepare a legible final draft to display or share., Effective Writing: 5.5.7 Select a publishing format appropriate to the audience and purpose., Types of Writing: 6.5.4 Summarize information., Types of Writing: 6.5.7 Write a variety of communications in appropriate formats., Listening: 7.5.1 Listen for and identify main idea, mood, purpose, messages, and tone., Listening: 7.5.1 Listen for and distinguish fact from opinion., Listening: 7.5.5 Listen to and participate in conversations.NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneExploring the Donner Party This lesson will have students research and then imagine what it would have been like to be part of the Donner party. They will put themselves in the place of real people who lived through the horrible ordeal. Definitely
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AnonymousList My Work AnonymouslyMiningComstock Lodehttp://www.onlinenevada.org/henry_comstockhttp://www.onlinenevada.org/cms/apps/media_editor_plus/media_gallery_pop.php?id=266http://www.onlinenevada.org/cms/apps/media_editor_plus/media_gallery_pop.php?id=264http://www.onlinenevada.org/cms/apps/media_editor_plus/media_gallery_pop.php?id=109http://www.onlinenevada.org/cms/apps/media_editor_plus/media_gallery_pop.php?id=19Henry ComstockSquare Set TimbersDescending the ShaftFlumeMining WorkersComstock Lode not only led to population growth, financial wealth but multiple new inventions such as the square set timbers and the v-shaped flumes. The Comstock Lode brought thousands of settlers to Nevada. Prospectors searching for their fortunes settled in Virginia City. The first settlers were men and eventually their wives and children followed. Soon the frontier settlement was a prospering town with schools, churches, banks, and hotels. Eventually the city’s population had wealth and with it followed culture for example, Piper’s Opera House was a popular place to enjoy entertainment. The growth in Virginia City proved to help the Pony Express. Family members wanted a way to reach their loved ones living in the mining city which lead to the Pony Express traveling into Nevada territory. The Pony Express eventually was run out of business by a much faster way of transmitting messages, the telegraph. Eventually the Comstock ran dry and with this another opportunity of wealth was born, the Bank Crowd was born. The lack of finances affected the new technology which was needed to dig deeper for more ore. The Bank of California was more than happy to fund a new branch in Nevada. William Sharon was the branch manager and a man of foresight. Miners were used to paying 5 percent interest on their loans so Sharon approved 2 percent interest. Sharon also had the idea of expanding his and the Bank Crowds wealth with related industries to mining. For example, they bought mills that processed the ore, water and lumber companies that supplied the miners and eventually the railroad. These investments lead to the Bank Crowds increasing wealth on all levels of the mining industry.
“…over their heads towered a vast web of interlocking timbers that held the walls of the gutted Comstock apart. These timbers were as large as a man’s body and the framework stretched upward so far that no eye could pierce to its top through the closing gloom. It was like peering up through the clean-picked ribs and bones of some colossal skeleton.” –Mark Twain
This quote helps one understand the importance that square set timbering had on mining. It was created by Phillip Deidesheimer a German engineer working in the California mines. The problem that miners were facing in Nevada was there was so much silver but its veins ran deeper into the ground than was safe for digging. Men were losing their lives because of the unsafe digging happing. The mines became weaker the further they dug which lead to cave-ins and more lives lost. Deidesheimer was recruited to help solve the problems the Comstock miners were facing. He was a brilliant man with a life changing idea, square set timbers. Timbers were to be framed into rectangles measuring five feet by six feet. Then they were stacked on one another as high as was necessary. The empty spaces were then filled with extra waste rock from the mining process. These created strong support columns that made the mines much safer to work in. this idea was so impressive that not only the mining city in Nevada adopted the invention but other places around the world began to use it. Deidesheimer was known as a brilliant engineer that help change the way mines were built however he didn’t have the foresight to patent his ideas. It is said that he died in poverty.
3 to 5Students will explore square set timber as a new invention.
Students will illustarte how square set timbers are constructed.
Students will research and report on the inventor of the square set timbers.
Hopkins E. (2001). Tarnished Legacy: The Story of the Comstock Lode. Logan, IA: Perfect Learning Corporation.

James R. M. & Reid J.B. (2004). Uncovering Nevada’s Past: A Primary Source of the Silver State. Reno, NV: University of Nevada Press

Computers
computer paper
glue
brown construction paper cut into strips
popsicle sticks
Life in a Box activity: Teacher will have a variety of objects for students to look at. items: pick, shovel, gold, silver, mining pan.
Students will share their thoughts on what those items are used for.
How could all of these objects be used together?
Who do you think uses these?
If you were a miner do you think these objects would be useful?
What do you think some dangers were for mining?
Students will read from the following books: Uncovering Nevada’s Past: A Primary Source of the Silver State & Tarnished Legacy: The Story of the Comstock Lode. Pictures will be available for students to look at from books as well as using the primary sources links.
Students will begin to learn about mining life in Nevada. They will also be introduced to square set timbering and the creator, Philipp Deidesheimer. It is important that students uinderstand the importance of the invention and how it changed mning in not only Nevada but all over the world.
Students will do research on Philipp Deidesheimer. The end product should be a research report with 3 paragraphs including information:
Who was he?
Why is he important to Nevada's history?
What did he invent and how did it change peoples lives?
Students will present their research to small groups within class.
Students will also use 16 strips of the brown construction paper to build their own square set timber model. They will also use popsicle sticks to build a ladder.
Comstock Lode
prospector
placer mining
muckers
shaft
ore
miners
Students will work together to build a large scale mining scene with square set timbers being the focus. It can be used as a bulletin board. Students will use their individual construction paper square set timber models. Next, they will add their small scale models of ladders to the large scale model of the mining shaft. Last, students will hang their reports next to the bulletin board. If time and school allows a great follow up activity is to take a field trip to: McCaw School of Mines. H2.4.6 Explain how United States conflicts affected life and society in Nevada., Option H3.4.4 Explain how advances in technologies have impacted Nevada, i.e., railroads, mining, and gaming., G5.4.4 Utilize different types of Nevada maps, i.e., population and physical maps, to understand spatial distribution., G8.4.2 Describe how technologies altered the physical environment in Nevada, and the effects of those changes on its people.Word Analysis: 1.5.4 Build vocabulary using pictures and symbols., Word Analysis: 1.5.5 Apply knowledge of high frequency words in text to build fluency and comprehension. , Word Analysis: 1.5.5 Apply knowledge of content-specific vocabulary in text to build comprehension. , Word Analysis: 1.5.5 Read fluently aloud and/or silently with a focus on prosody, accuracy, automaticity, and reading rate., Reading Strategies: 2.5.1 Select before reading strategies appropriate to text and purpose to preview text, access prior, knowledge, build background knowledge, set purpose for reading, make predictions, determine reading rate, and determine text type., Reading Strategies: 2.5.2 Select during reading strategies appropriate to text and purpose to use self-correcting strategies, make, confirm, and revise predictions, understand and use key vocabulary, identify main idea and supporting details, make inferences, adjust reading rate, and apply knowledge of text type., Reading Strategies: 2.5.3 Select after reading strategies appropriate to text and purpose to recall details, restate main ideas, organize information, record information, synthesize text, evaluate text, and evaluate the effectiveness of reading strategies., Effective Writing: 5.5.4 Edit essays and compositions to ensure correct spelling of high frequency works and content words., Effective Writing: 5.5.4 Edit for correct capitalization., Effective Writing: 5.5.4 Edit punctuation for end punctuation, commas, apostrophes, quotation marks, abbreviations, and colons., Types of Writing: 6.5.1 Write essays and compositions which include a topic sentence, supporting details, a concluding statement, a beginning, middle, and end, a thesis statement, and transitions., Types of Writing: 6.5.5 Write responses that analyze the elements of exposition., Listening: 7.5.3 Expand vocabulary through listening., Listening: 7.5.5 Actively listen to oral communications., Listening: 7.5.5 Listen to and participate in conversations., Speaking: 8.5.2 Apply Standard English to communicate ideas., Speaking: 8.5.3 Use public speaking techniques to deliver presentations with appropriate prosody, volume, eye contact, enunciation, posture, expressions, audience, and purpose., Speaking: 8.5.4 Contribute to conversations and discussions about a given topic.4.5.2 Represent concepts of congruency, similarity, and/or symmetry using a variety of methods including dilation (enlargement/reduction) and transformational motions.NoneNoneNone3.5.2 Produce a work of art that demonstrates the ability to convey meaning by integrating subject matter and symbols with ideas.NoneNone2.5.2 Create a document including a graphic using basic formatting techniques that demonstrate the ability to type, edit, and print., 3.5.3 Select information from a variety of remote resources for a research topic or problem exploring hyperlinks.NoneSquare Set TimbersStudents will learn about mining that was done in Nevada. Along with mining came a new invention known as Square Set Timbering. Students will learn about the importance of this invention as well as how invented it. Definitely
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AnonymousList My Work AnonymouslyKey PlacesHoover Dam http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/lasvegas/filmmore/ps_dam.htmlhttp://www.bcmha.org/history.html#damnamehttp://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/films/hoover/http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/hoover-workers-strike/http://hoover.archives.gov/http://pbs.org/wgbh/buildingbig/dam/basics.htmlTimes Article How Hoover Dam was namedPBS VideoWorkers' Strike at Hoover DamPresident Hoover Museum & LibraryDam BasicsThe Great Depression led to many changes in the country as well as Nevada. As the name states it was a time of great despair, sadness, and hopelessness. Nevadans did not feel the initial effects of the depression but it was not long before they were hit with the doom. The Depression came after a decade of prosperity and positive change in America. Women were granted the right to vote which meant liberation. This liberation showed in new fashion statements, hair do’s, music and dance. Although Prohibition was raging through the country it was unable to stop the celebration of change. Nevadans were seeing prosperity in two avenues, farming/ranching and mining. Production was moving along smoothly even at the start of the Depression. It wasn’t until two years into the Depression era that the state and its population felt the blow. Suddenly mining production dropped and the price for silver plummeted. Now the state was feeling the effects of the depression, miners lost jobs while ranchers were losing their land and were unable to feed their game. The question on all Americans mind were how are we going to survive and when will we see the light at the end of the tunnel. Interestingly enough the state of Nevada was on the forefront of the positive change. This change would be felt with new jobs created by the Boulder Dam project. Not only would the loss of hope begin to be tamed but the Colorado River would as well.
“When the bill was passed, that’s when the excitement was…We got the fire truck out and …everybody that could hooked on to it! In carts and baby buggies and everything else-just like they were nuts. - Las Vegas resident Leon Rockwell
This quote is a sentiment to the excitement of building the Boulder Dam which later would be called Hoover Dam. The construction of the dam came during the time of the Great Depression when all of America was feeling the gloom that stemmed from “Black Tuesday”. On October 29, 1929 the New York Stock Exchange began a depression this country had never seen, with hundreds of thousands losing their livelihood and savings game great despair. Although, it took Nevada longer to feel the pain it eventually feel to the Great Depression as well. Whether it was luck or good timing, the Colorado River Compact helped give hope to many men desperate for work. The dam is one of the country’s largest and most magnificent architectural designs. The structure itself is a National Monument because of its size but also the exceptional engineering foresight that helped an idea turn into reality. It provides electricity for three states as well as drinking water, and irrigation for farms. Its exceptional design also created Lake Mead. Lake Mead offers tourists and local’s entertainment through boating, water skiing, swimming and fishing. This provides uniqueness to a desert oasis which not many other popular desert tourist attractions offer. The Boulder Dam officially changed names in 1947 in honor of the United States thirty-first president, Herbert Hoover. Some basic facts about Hoover Dam are: it is 725 feet high, it creates electricity for 1.3 million people, and Lake Mead is 8 miles wide at its largest part.
3 to 5Students will explore how the Great depression brought industry as well as employment into Nevada.
Students will explore the positive contributions Hoover Dam contributes to Nevada and Arizona.
Students will create their own working waterwheels demonstrating how water can lift a load.
Mann E. (2006). Hoover Dam: A Wonder of the World Book. New York, NY: Mikaya Press.
O’Conner R.K. & Myers D. (2004). Uniquely Nevada. Chicago, IL: Heinemann Library Reed Elsevier Inc.
Zuehlke J. (2010). The Hoover Dam. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publications Company.
Science Journals
Computers
5-Large plastic disks
1-basin
1-Dowel 30cm long
1-string 1m long
1-Half Liter container
Using the Zoom -In strategy using a picture of the Hoover Dam. Slowly reveal parts of the structure giving the students a chance to guess what it is. What kinds of devices do you use everyday that must have electrcity to work?
Where does electricity come from?
What do the Hoover Dam, water and a light bulb have in commom?
Teacher will read the short book: (Zuehlke J. (2010). The Hoover Dam. Minneapolis, MN: Lerner Publications Company:) to the entire class. Next students will watch the PBS video using video streaming: An American Experience-on Hoover Dam. Students will be placed into groups of 4. Their challenge is to create a waterwheel that can lift a load. Give students an opportunity to explore their materials to create a working waterwheel. Remind students that Hoover Dam is not only supplies drinking water to Nevada and Arizona but it does generate energy that supplies electricity as well. Once students have a working waterwheel they must draw a diagram of their creation. These can be kept in their science journals. cofferdam
concrete
dam
electricity
generator
hdroelectric power
irrigation
waterwheel
Students may make a Hoover Dam fact book.
Students may make a paper mache` model of the Hoover Dam.
Students may do independent research of other popular dams around the world and compare how they contribute to their surrondings like Hoover Dam does.
To close the activity the teacher will go back and review how the Hoover Dam uses generators to produce hydroelectricity. Students should compare and contrast dams to waterwheels. Discuss with students how technology has help to advance the way electricity is produced. G8.4.2 Describe how technologies altered the physical environment in Nevada, and the effects of those changes on its people., G8.4.3 Explore the impact of human modification of Nevada’s physical environment on the people who live there.NoneNoneN.8.A.3 Students know how to draw conclusions from scientific evidence. , N.5.B.2 Students know technologies impact society, both positively and negatively. , N.5.B.3 Students know the benefits of working with a team and sharing findings.NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneDams & WaterwheelsStudents will be learning about the Hoover Dam and its important contributions to the states of Nevada and Arizona. They will also explore some of those contributions, like how water produces electricity. Definitely
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AnonymousList My Work AnonymouslyKey PeopleWhite Explorers That Helped Settle Nevadahttp://darinnevada.org/images/P1010101.JPGhttp://tucsoncitizen.com/community/files/2010/01/Padre-Francisco-Garces.jpghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/e/ef/Wpdms_shdrlfi020l_lake_lahontan_b.jpghttp://www.oregonencyclopedia.org/entry_images/cache/DNF1271045058preview.jpghttp://www.mountainsofstone.com/images/Jedediah%20Smith%201826.jpghttp://www.legendsofamerica.com/photos-oldwest/Jedediah_Smith.jpghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eUY-aqtdqIohttp://www.washoe.k12.nv.us/americanhistory/elementary/si_07_jpegs/Angie_Hodge_explorer_map.jpghttp://www.1st100.com/part1/photos/john-fremont-carson.jpghttp://wpcontent.answers.com/wikipedia/en/thumb/e/e3/JohnCharlesFr%C3%A9mont.png/245px-JohnCharlesFr%C3%A9mont.pngPadre Francisco Garcés – plaque at Lorenzi Park, Las Vegas, NevadaPadre Francisco Garces Topography map of the Great Basin Range (northwest)Peter Skene Ogden – portraitJedediah Smith Map of 1826 – 1827Jedediah Smith – PortraitA short story about Jedediah Smith for Utah 4th graders (YouTube).Map of J. C. Fremont’s RouteJohn C. Fremont, seated and Kit Carson, standing - pictureJohn C. Fremont – Portrait (1852)(Kit Carson statue in Carson City, NV)http://farm1.static.flickr.com/33/91508916_1ee3253b59.jpg

(Unrestored Mormon Station in Genoa, Nevada)http://nevadaoutbackturquoise.com/images/mormans_station.jpg

(Restored Mormon Station in Genoa, Nevada)http://activerain.com/image_store/uploads/2/8/7/9/8/ar125129352789782.JPG
What is now Nevada, was first inhabited by man about 12,000 years ago. Fishermen, hunters, and food gatherers came when the glacial lakes of the ancient Great Basin began to recede.
Nevada was the last state to be explored by the white man. These white explorers were missionaries and trappers. The first white explorer to enter the state was a European Spanish priest, Francisco Garces. He came through southern Nevada in 1776 on his way to set up Spanish missions in California.
During the 1800s more white explorers began to discover Nevada. Englishman, Peter Skene Ogden, employed by the British Hudson Bay Company, entered the northeast part of Nevada in 1826. He brought a trapping expedition down the Humboldt River. Rival American trapper Jedediah Smith crossed the southern tip of the state in 1826-27 on his way to California. The trail he used was the Old Spanish trail, the oldest in Nevada.
Trail blazing continued to be active during the 1940s. In 1942, Kit Carson was sent to guide Lt. John C. Fremont on a mission to map California for the Army Corps of Engineers. It was during this trip that they happened upon unchartered portions of Northern Nevada. They mapped this unchartered territory with references to “Carson Pass” that would later guide settlers coming west.
In 1849 Nevada’s first permanent white settlement was established by a group of Mormons at Mormon Station in what is now western Nevada. Later it was called Reese’s Station until it was renamed in 1856 to Genoa, a name is still retains.

3 to 5Social Studies
- History-Nation Building and Development
H2.4.3 - identify explorers and settlers in pre-territorial Nevada

Geography-The World in Spatial Terms
G5.4.3 - construct a map of Nevada displaying human and physical features
G6.4.1 - describe the distinguishing features of historical regions in Nevada—pioneer trails

Technology
- Research Tools
3.5 - use technology to organize data—collect data
- Productivity Tools
2.5 - use a variety of media and technology resources for directed and independent learning activities
2.9 - create a document that demonstrates simple typing and editing skills
Computers, Internet access, copy paper, PowerPoint software, I-Movie capability, flip or digital camera, blank CDs, projector, screen (SMART Board), poster board or bulletin board paper, colored markers.Call on students to name famous explorers in American history (i.e., Lewis and Clark, Columbus, David Crocket, or Daniel Boone).Teacher will state to students that our nation was mainly settled from east to west. As settlers came west, explorers came first. Explain to students that they are gong to research some famous white explorers who helped settle Nevada and identify their significance to our state’s history.Introduce vocabulary.
Introduce white explorers to be researched following a time-line:
• 1776 – Spanish priest Francisco Garces
• 1826 – Peter Skene Ogden
• 1826-27 – Jedediah Smith
• 1842 – Kit Carson and John C. Fremont
• 1849 – Mormon settlers
Students will be assigned to small groups of 4-5 students. Each group will vote on a leader. The leader will then come forward and pick a explorer’s name on who their group will have to research. The same explorer can be assigned to two groups.

Small groups will use the internet and primary resources to research their assigned explorer. The small group will create a presentation using technology: PowerPoint, I-movie, or video tape it using a flip or digital camera. Presentations must include a picture, a map of Nevada showing the trail the explorer used when in Nevada, and three to four points about that person/s role or contribution to the exploration or settlement of Nevada.

Students can chose how they want to do their presentation, e.g, as new reporters interviewing a famous person, news broadcasters reporting the news, etc.
explorer
expedition
mission
station
unchartered
settlement
topography
All members of the small group contributed to the project.
Students worked collaboratively.
Data gathered included three to four points about that person/s role or contribution to the exploration or settlement of Nevada.
Presentation included a map and picture.
Technology used for the presentation.
Students will present their technology project to the class. Students will provide feedback to the groups with “I” statements: I like how, I wish you would have, etc.

Presentations can be viewed by the grade level or school-wide.

H2.4.3 Identify explorers and settlers in pre-territorial Nevada. , G5.4.3 Construct a map of Nevada displaying human and physical features., G6.4.1 Describe the distinguishing features of historical regions in Nevada, i.e., Native American tribal territories, pioneer trails, and settlement areas. Speaking: 8.5.3 Use public speaking techniques to deliver presentations with appropriate prosody, volume, eye contact, enunciation, posture, expressions, audience, and purpose.NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNone2.5.2 Create a document including a graphic using basic formatting techniques that demonstrate the ability to type, edit, and print., 2.5.5 Create a multimedia document or presentation using text, graphics, and/or sound., 3.5.4 Use an organizational format to arrange information for presentation or decision-making.NoneEarly White Explorers in NevadaThe first inhabitants of what is now Nevada was inhabited by Paleo-Indians and migrants—the first peoples to inhabit North America. In modern times, the four principal Indian groups inhabiting Nevada were the Southern and Northern Paiute, the Shoshoni, and the Washoe. It wasn’t until the 1770s that the first white explorers began to explore Nevada. Definitely
29
AnonymousList My Work AnonymouslySymbolsRoad Map of Nevada’s State Symbolshttp://www.deserttortoise.org/image/2004cat2-1.jpghttp://www.modelspecimens.com/HomePage_files/ichthyosaur%20replica%20detail.jpghttp://www.rockhoundstation1.com/6opal-nevada-fire-opal1.jpghttp://www.mendosa.com/fitnessblog/wp-content/uploads/2009/03/virgin-valley-1.jpghttp://www.fws.gov/pacific/ecoservices/envicon/pim/Investigation/Images/cutthroat.jpghttp://www.sunsetcities.com/Valley-of-Fire/Photos/DSCF0012-sevensisters-01.jpghttp://www.blm.gov/pgdata/etc/medialib/blm/national/Tools/take_it_outside/nevada.Par.10365.Image.-1.-1.1.gifhttp://en.wikivisual.com/images/1/1f/SilverOreUSGOV.jpghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ynShZJTLRYc&feature=relatedhttp://www.desertusa.com/roadtripblog/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/bighorn10-230x300.jpgDesert TortoiseFossil - ichthyosaurBlack Fire Opal found in the Virgin Valley of NevadaVirgin Valley, NevadaLahontan cutthroat trout Sandstone – Valley of Fire, NevadaSandstone – Red Rock Canyon, NevadaSilver OreUnderground gold/silver mine in Nevada – ExplorationDesert Big Horn Sheep spotted near Beatty, Nevada(Flock of Desert Big Horn Sheep spotted near Beatty, Nevada)http://www.desertusa.com/roadtripblog/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/Bighorn30.JPG

(Desert Big Horn Sheep spotted in Boulder City, Nevada)http://www.shltrip.com/sitebuilder/images/male_and_female_big_horn_sheeps_at_Hemeningway_Park-IMG_9814_3_-989x750.jpg

(Bristlecone Pine)http://photos.travelblog.org/Photos/25374/326486/t/2878014-Great-Basin-NP-Nevada-Bristle-Cone-Pine-2.jpg

(single leaf pinion pine)http://www.nazflora.org/Pinus%20monophylla%20habit%2017Oct04%201024a.jpg

(Sagebrush)http://www.statesymbolsusa.org/IMAGES/Nevada/Sagebrush-web.jpg

(Indian rice grass)http://www.e-referencedesk.com/resources/state-symbols/nevada/images/indian-rye-grass.jpg

(mountain bluebird)http://www.nazflora.org/Pinus%20monophylla%20habit%2017Oct04%201024a.jpg
All states in the United States have State Symbols. Each state wants to recognize their natural treasures and cultural heritage. To encourage fourth grade students in Nevada to learn more about the state they live in, many elementary schools offer the Nevada Citizenship Award. Students earn this award by fulfilling different requirements
One of the requirements is to recall all 15 Nevada State Symbols and tell what they represent. This lesson focuses on 11 State Symbols that you can travel to parts of Nevada to discover in person: the state trees, flower, bird, animal, fossil, grass, metal, fish, rock, gemstone, and reptile.
3 to 5Language Arts
- Cultures and Time Periods
3.7b – explain the influence of historical events with assistance

- Research
6.9a – write research papers; 2. identifying and collecting information; 3. recording information from sources; 4. paraphrasing and summarizing information; 5. organizing collected information

- Responding to Text
3.9c – summarize information
3.9h – organize information
Math
- Measurement
3.3 – measure, compare, and convert length in inches, feet, yards,and miles to the nearest fractional part
3.4 – measure compare, and convert length in metric units(kilometer)

Science
-Earth and Space Science
3.4 – investigate the describe how fossils are evidence of past life

-Life Science
4.9 – investigate and describe how plants and animals have adaptations allowing them to survive in specific ecosystems

Social Studies
-Nation Building and Development
H2.4.5 – explain the symbols, mottos, ads slogans related to Nevada

- The World in Spatial Terms
G5.5.1 – identify and locate major geographic features in Nevada and the United States using maps and map elements

- Places & Regions
G6.5.2 - identify U.S. regions in which historical events occurred

Technology
- Research Tools
3.5 - use technology to organize data—collect data

- Productivity Tools
2.5 - use a variety of media and technology resources for directed and independent learning activities
2.9 - create a document that demonstrates simple typing and editing skills
Computers, Internet access, copy paper, pencils, notebook paper, Nevada state maps (1 for each student), and rulers (1 for each student).The teacher will give each student a Nevada State map to explore for 5 minutes.Present to students the challenge of achieving the Nevada Citizenship Award explaining rules and expectations. Then ask students why states have State Symbols. Give each student a worksheet that he/she has to identify all 15 of the State Symbols. Review all 15 with students. Students will correct answers as needed. Introduce vocabulary.
Introduce the research project. Identify the 11 state symbols the students will be researching: the state trees, flower, bird, animal, fossil, grass, metal, fish, rock, gemstone, and reptile. Model to students how they will be choosing four State Symbols from their research to create a travel brochure (a road trip of discovery) using the Microsoft Windows travel brochure template: http://office.microsoft.com/en-us/templates/TC010517211033.aspx?CategoryID=CT101043031033.

The brochure will include four pictures (primary resources), one for each of the State Symbols, a brief description summarized from research notes, and mileage from the school (in miles and kilometers) where you can find that State Symbol. Along with the mileage, the area/city in Nevada must be stated. The teacher will model how to use the legend on the Nevada State map for mileage and a ruler to calculate the mileage from the school (Las Vegas) to a specific area/city on the map

The teacher will have students practice a few times by having him/her locate a specific area/city on the Nevada State map and calculate the mileage.
Students will take the worksheet from the anticipatory set activity and begin his/her research on the eleven State Symbols identified by the teacher. Research must include enough details to write a summary. Students’ research can be from the Internet of from other sources (i.e., library books). Students will then calculate the mileage for each. When his/her research is complete, students will pick four State Symbols to recreate the travel brochure for their road trip of discovery.symbol
research
ichthyosaur
Research complete for all 11 State Symbols identified by teacher for project: the state trees, flower, bird, animal, fossil, grass, metal, fish, rock, gemstone, and reptile.
Research includes mileage in both customary and metric measurements and the area/city where you might locate one that State Symbol.
Travel brochure completed and proofed.
Students will present his/her brochure to the class. Students will provide feedback to the individual with “I” statements: I like how, I wish you would have, etc.Display brochures on a bulletin board in the school.

H2.4.5 Explain the symbols, mottoes, and slogans related to Nevada, i.e., “Battle Born,” the state seal, and “Silver State.”, G5.4.4 Utilize different types of Nevada maps, i.e., population and physical maps, to understand spatial distribution.Effective Writing: 5.5.7 Select a publishing format appropriate to the audience and purpose., Types of Writing: 6.5.4 Summarize information., Types of Writing: 6.5.9 Write research papers by choosing and narrowing a research topic, locating and collecting information from primary and secondary sources, recording information, paraphrasing and summarizing information, organizing collected information, and documenting sources using a given format., Listening: 7.5.5 Actively listen to oral communications., Listening: 7.5.5 Listen to and participate in conversations., Speaking: 8.5.4 Contribute to conversations and discussions about a given topic.NoneL.5.C.5 Students know plants and animals have adaptations allowing them to survive in specific ecosystems., L.5.D.2 Students know fossils are evidence of past life., E.5.C.1 Students know fossils are evidence of past life.NoneNoneNoneNoneNone3.5.4 Use an organizational format to arrange information for presentation or decision-making., 3.5.7 Summarize and share the research process and its outcome.NoneTake a road trip to investigate some of Nevada’s State SymbolsNevada has 15 State Symbols posted on the Nevada Citizenship Award requirements. Students will research 11 of the 15 State Symbols. The 11 chosen are ones that you can find in specific locations in Nevada.Definitely
30
AnonymousList My Work AnonymouslyGeographyHistorical Regions of Nevada in the 1800shttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/us_2001/nevada_ref_2001.jpghttp://www.utahhistorictrails.com/images/CalTrail/CalTrailOverview.jpghttp://hem.passagen.se/psof/west-usa.jpghttp://www.bodes.com/images/mapSpanishTrail.jpghttp://www.aaanativearts.com/Native_American_map.jpghttp://www.manataka.org/images/Washoe%20Trade%20Route%20Map.jpghttp://www.umich.edu/~snre492/kend2.gifhttp://www.reno.gov/Modules/ShowImage.aspx?imageid=4088http://www.kaibabpaiute-nsn.gov/spc/SPC2temp_Paiute_Map.jpghttp://www.nevadaobserver.com/Carson%20Valley.jpgMap – Nevada Mountain Rangeshttp://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/us_2001/nevada_ref_2001.jpgMap – Trails WestMap – Old Spanish TrailMap - Tribes of the Indian NationMap – Washoe TribeMap – Western Shoshone TribeMap –Northern Paiute Tribe (Pyramid Lake)Map – Southern Paiute TribeMap – Carson Valley (mines)(Map – Mojave Desert)http://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2006/3007/fig1.jpg

(Map- Great Basin)http://www.cabrillo.edu/~crsmith/basin.gif
Nevada is a unique state where deserts meet the mountains. It was inhabited by five Native American Tribes: Northern Paiute Tribe, Southern Paiute Tribe, Walapai Tribe, Washoe Tribe, and the Western Shoshone Tribe.
During the 1800s before Nevada became a territory and then a state, mountain men led brave settlers across the state towards California. They traveled along the California Trail to the north and the Old Spanish Trail to the south.
During the Mexican-American War, 1846 to 1848, the United States gained a large section of land that included present-day Nevada. Beginning in 1951, the first European-American settlement in Nevada was in Genoa, south of Carson City. More settlers came in 1859 when silver was discovered in Virginia City, the Comstock Lode. When gold was discovered nearby, people flocked to the state setting up mining camps in a rush to make it rich. In 1864, President Lincoln requested Nevada become a state.
After statehood, Nevada’s population followed up and downs. Ghost towns appeared as mining dried up. Cattle ranchers suffered through difficult winter up north. Nevada’s population began to decline until the Central Pacific Railroad was built across the state.
Today, Nevada’s population is still low with three-fourths of its population leaving in two cities, Las Vegas and Reno. Throughout
3 to 5Language Arts
- Research
6.9a – write research papers; 2. identifying and collecting information; 3. recording information from sources;
4. paraphrasing and summarizing information; 5. organizing collected information

- Responding to Text
3.9c – summarize information
3.9h – organize information

Science
-Life Science
4.2 – observe and describe variations among individuals within the human population

Social Studies
- Geography-Places & Regions
G6.4.1 – describe the distinguishing features of historical regions in Nevada, i.e., Native Americans, tribal territories, pioneer trails, and settlement areas

Technology
- Research Tools
3.5 - use technology to organize data—collect data

Computers, Internet access, copy paper, pencils, notebook paper, Nevada state maps (1 for each small group), 4-5 chocolate sheet cakes (9 x 12), butter knives, icing (blue, green, yellow, white), icing bags, scissors, coconut, rock candy, M & Ms, toothpicks, sticky notes, plates, napkins, plastic forks.Teacher will have students brainstorm landforms that make up the topography of Nevada.Teacher will have students visualize that they are a pioneer traveling across Nevada in the 1800s to California. The teacher will ask students to question: What would you carry with you in order to survive? Then the teacher states that you don’t make it to California, but will settle in Nevada. What does this new territory need to provide to sustain life? Where would you locate a possible settlement and why? What conditions will work against your survival?Introduce vocabulary.
The teacher give a brief history of what brought settlers to Nevada and how geography plays an important part in any culture settling in all parts of the world.
Students will pull a slip of paper from a box. On the slip of paper will be a number and a topic for research. Individually students will research one of the following topics: Native American tribal territories, pioneer trails going West, settlement areas in Nevada, lakes and rivers in Nevada, mountain ranges in Nevada, desert areas in Nevada, and mining areas during the 1800s.

Students will research their topic on the Internet and using the primary sources “maps” to identify those regions in Nevada during the 1800s and how people came to cross those regions or settle in those regions. Students will then match up to other students in the class who have the same number on their slip of paper.

Each small group will have a student each of the six topics that were on the slips. Students will work together to make a topographical map of Nevada during the 1800s using their research. The map should include all the mountain ranges, lakes, rivers, pioneer trails, settlements, and mine locations.

Students will use edible food to create the map. They will cut out the shape of Nevada from a 9 x 12 chocolate sheet cake. Rock candy will be used for the mountain ranges. They will then use different colored icing to identify the lakes, rivers, forests, snow clad mountain, and deserts. Pioneer trails will be created with M & Ms. They will make flags from toothpicks and sticky notes to write settlement names on and place them in the appropriate area.
regions
settlement
topography
landforms
Student will hand in the research on their topic for assessment.
Small groups will be monitored by the teacher for working collaboratively.
Teacher will assess the edible maps for accuracy.
Students will present their edible maps and compare how they are similar or different to the other group’s edible maps. After discussion, students will then get the chance to eat their creation. This activity can be done individually. Instead of a whole sheet cake, students would be given a large brownie.G6.4.1 Describe the distinguishing features of historical regions in Nevada, i.e., Native American tribal territories, pioneer trails, and settlement areas. Expository Text: 4.5.5 Make connections to self, other text, and/or the world., Expository Text: 4.5.5 Develop hypotheses based on information., Listening: 7.5.5 Listen to and participate in conversations., Listening: 7.5.5 Listen to and evaluate constructive feedback.NoneE.5.C.3 Students know landforms may result from slow processes (e.g., erosion and deposition) and fast processes (e.g., volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides, flood, and human activity).NoneNoneNoneNoneNone3.5.1 Select a research topic or define a problem and predict outcomes using technology tools., 3.5.7 Summarize and share the research process and its outcome.NoneEdible GeographyStudents will research historical regions in Nevada in the 1800s. Regions include pioneer trails, water sources, mountain ranges, deserts, and settlements. Students will create a topographical map using edible geography.Definitely
31
MrozMariamamroz@interact.ccsd.netYour Name, Your Email AddressOtherNevada's Architecture and Mininghttp://digital.library.unlv.edu/u?/snv,1423http://digital.library.unlv.edu/boomtown/dm.php/snv/1154http://digital.library.unlv.edu/u?/snv,1423http://digital.library.unlv.edu/boomtown/dm.php/snv/1362http://digital.library.unlv.edu/u?/snv,1112(initial settlement/tents)(boarding house/initial settlement)(1st boom towns beginning to form)(boarding house/1st Boom)( town of Pioche/1st boom)HousingNevada’s architecture was subject to the whole idea behind the actual growth and development of Nevada and the southwest. The people were either coming through to California, or staying just long enough to make their money and head out. This was the climate from the very beginning. The history is a clear cut example of true functionality. Every stage of its growth and design were all based on the fact that many people coming to Nevada would ultimately not stay.
The initial settlement was of course the very embryo of Nevada at the time of the arrival of the first minors. Canvas tents served as places to sleep and many times you were not alone. These settlements were made up mostly of men and they usually had one purpose for being there, mining! Actual tent sites were erected right in the sides of mountains so that the miners could stay close to where they were working. There was very little socialization the men were there for one reason and their focus seldom waivered.
As Nevada moves through its first boom and the Comstock Lode, tents were being replaced with wood and brick structures and the first arrival of lodging houses started to spring up. The commercial side of lodging house created a whole new economy for Nevada and brought with more revenue for families as the women of were running these lodging house and still managing their domestic duties. Many took in laundry and sewing to help bring money into the household. One of Nevada’s best kept economic secrets was boarding and lodging houses. Women were able to stay home take care of their families and still manage to take in minors and contribute to the family’s income.
As the Town phase too shape, vernacular houses were the first true style of architecture and varied little in design, but when more productively was evident, they would use the same style, but build with more permanent materials, creating a more structured community atmosphere. As the gold and silver mining booms continued, people transplanted from other parts of the United States, Europe and China along with them they brought their architectural influence and in the true sense of vernacular architecture the towns that grew reflected the people who lived there and their everyday life. Boarding houses were squeezed in between public building and as the towns grew the quality of the boarding houses improved. Public buildings were reflections of European culture styles, and were often considered to be high-style architecture. Enterprising women took advantage of this development and made sure that lodging would improve as well so as to not lose revenue.
The development of Nevada’s architecture continues to this day and the vernacular style still rings true as residential and business architecture still reflects the multitude of mixed cultures throughout Nevada’s history.

3 to 5Students will use primary sources to investigate how individuals contributed to the growth and development of Nevada.
Observe and describe examples of Nevada's architecture during the first stages the movement west.
Compare and contrast Nevada's first two major economic periods in relationship to their housing and lodging.
primary source pictures (5)
graphic organizers/double bubble map/ venn diagram
writing paper
magnifying glasses
photo analysis worksheet
construction paper/11x14(poster) 8x11(brochure)
colored markers,pencils,crayons
Students will have each have primary source/initial settlement/tents, a photo analysis worksheet and a magnifying glass. Students will have 2=5 minutes to study the photo and complete as much of the worksheet as possible. What did you see you didn't expect?
What powerful idea or image is expressed?
What questions does it raise?
Students will receive a condensed historical overview to be read aloud and discussed. Students will also share their analysis of their primary source whole group as classmates take notes and add additional information to their own worksheets. Each student will choose either a venn diagram or a double bubble map.The class divided into two groups. Group 1 will receive primary source #1423(towns beginning to form) and #1112(town of Pioche late in 1st boom). Students will compare and contrast both the similarities and differences they observe in the photos. Group 2 will receive primary source #1154(boarding house initial settlement) and #1362 (boarding house built during 1st boom).
Students will have 15-20 minutes to observe and reflect their findings on their graphic organizer. Part 2 : students will switch primary sources and use another graphic organizer
to compare and contrast the second set of images.
vernacular
settlement
mining
architecture
community
tents
lodging
economy
Students will create a visual display(poster,brochure) using the data they gathered to either advertise the benefits of coming west or showing the disadvantages of making the journey at all.
Students will present their ideas whole group.
Students will review the observations made and orally share their thoughts whole group. Students will then use their graphic organizers.to construct a lesson summary writing journal entry. Conduct a class discussion on what and where the students would like to explore using this lesson as a starting point. Record all ideas and create a class list of "Next Step" activities students will have access to as topic expands .Students with special needs:
*reduce # of items to show compare and contrast on graphic organizer
*condense photo analysis worksheet
On level:
*predict what was going to happen in the photo one minute later. Explain your reasoning.
Advanced:
*put yourself in the photo and explain what you are feeling, thinking,hearing,and seeing
H1.4.5 Identify contributions of immigrants in Nevada., H2.4.2 Describe the experiences of pioneers moving west. , H2.4.3 Identify explorers and settlers in pre-territorial Nevada. , H3.4.2 Recognize that communities include people who have diverse ethnic origins, customs, and traditions, and who make contributions to Nevada., G8.4.1 Describe ways physical environments affect human activity in Nevada using historical and contemporary examples., G8.4.3 Explore the impact of human modification of Nevada’s physical environment on the people who live there.Word Analysis: 1.5.4 Comprehend, build, and extend vocabulary using context clues and structural analysis., Expository Text: 4.5.1 Evaluate information from illustrations, graphs, charts, titles, text boxes, diagrams, headings, and maps., Expository Text: 4.5.1 Identify and explain the use of bold-faced words, underlined words, highlighted words, and italicized words., Expository Text: 4.5.3 Compare events., Expository Text: 4.5.5 Use information to answer specific questions., Expository Text: 4.5.5 Summarize information., Expository Text: 4.8.6 With assistance, determine accuracy of evidence., Expository Text: 4.8.6 With assistance, verify information by referencing other sources., Effective Writing: 5.5.1 Choose and narrow a topic to organize ideas., Effective Writing: 5.5.7 Prepare a legible final draft to display or share., Types of Writing: 6.5.4 Summarize information., Listening: 7.5.2 Listen to and evaluate oral communications for content, delivery, point of view, and ideas., Speaking: 8.5.3 Defend a position using evidence.NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNevada's Housing HistoryStudents will be able to use primary sources to compare and contrast architecture and housing in Nevada during the initial settlement through the 1st Boom of the Comstock Lode.Definitely
32
MrozMariamamroz@interact.ccsd.netYour Name, Your Email AddressOtherNevada’s Railroads to Airwayshttp://www.onlinenevada.org/media/?id=155http://www.onlinenevada.org/media/?id=132http://www.onlinenevada.org/media/?id=4http://www.onlinenevada.org/media/?id=13http://digital.library.unlv.edu/u?/snv,1490Virginia and Truckee RailroadV & T RailroadBonanza AirlinesWestern Air ExpressBi-plane/Air MailtransportationNevada Railroads to the Airway!
As Nevada continued to thrive with the mines of the Comstock Lode, the rest of the Untied States was
moving forward to make their way out West. The railways stretching from the eastern seaboard were
slowly making their way , however there were short lines being built that were linking Virginia City and
Carson City designed to better serve the mines of the Comstock Lode.

The Virginia and Truckee Railroad was one such line. It was incorporated in March of 1868 and because
of the difficult terrain it was meant to service, the construction engineer, Issac James, was proved to
have accomplished a “remarkable achievement.” The first 21 miles were finished in November of 1869
and the additional 31 miles were finally connected to the Central Pacific Railroad August 1872.

The Big Bonanza in Virginia City was extremely successful from 1873, working 24 locomotives and
having as many as 40 trains a day. This continued until 1878 when the mining production collapsed.
The railroad kept operating on a much smaller scale and tried and failed several attempts to generate
interest and railway travel, up to about 1900. Eventually the railroad was converted to an agriculture
carrier until about 1910. The railroad changed ownership several more times struggling financially
along the way for the next 25-30 years and then finally in May of 1950 the Virginia and Truckee took its
last run.

While the end of one railroad was transpiring the San Pedro, Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad was
being completed(1905) and was the first direct route from Salt Lake City to Los Angeles . Although this
railroad’s contribution to linking two major cities of the southwest, the true significance lies in how it
would be a substantial factor in the development of Las Vegas.


For the next 17 years William Clark saw the railroads potential and fought hard to create an effective
and quick way to get from Salt Lake City to Los Angeles in one day. Clark also provided an economic
security and at one point in time the railroad employed 1/3 of the town’s population of 1500. The
railroad stopped service in Las Vegas in 1917 due to loss of money and finally in 1918 the rails and ties
were removed.

Aviation was the direction that Nevada and Las Vegas took in having the first and largest commercial
airline to serve Las Vegas, Western Air Express, an airmail service utilizing Las Vegas’s natural air route
between Los Angeles and Salt Lake City . The year was 1926 and for four years Western Air Express was
very successful until the Postmaster General forced a merger with a larger commercial airline, TWA.

Another extremely important airline to make a place in Las Vegas’ history is Bonanza Airlines, the first all-jet powered airline in the United States. When Bonanz-Air was first founded in 1945 it began as a small charter operation. As the airline grew into an intrastate airline in 1947, its name changed to Bonanza Airlines, and it ran service from Las Vegas to Reno. Bonanza was one of the first four airlines serving McCarran Field, another major aviation contributor to Las Vegas. In 1949 Bonanza’s territory was limited to travel in the southwest, Las Vegas, Salt Lake City, Phoenix, San Diego, Los Angeles, and Reno. The airline wanted to expand its routes, and they did 1950, acquiring the right to fly through other locales including direct flight to Death Valley.

In 1958 the airline began buying turbo jet powered aircraft and within two years Bonanza Airline became the nations first all-jet powered airline. Their success continued and they provided two services both airmail and passenger flight as well. The company began talks to merge with tow other airlines and in 1967 they did to form a new regional airline, Air West. Within a year Howard Hughes bought and renamed the airline, Hughes Air West. In 1980, Republic Airlines purchased Hughes Air West and was later merged with Northwest Airlines.



Nevada Railroads to the Airway!
As Nevada continued to thrive with the mines of the Comstock Lode, the rest of the Untied States was
moving forward to make their way out West. The railways stretching from the eastern seaboard were
slowly making their way , however there were short lines being built that were linking Virginia City and
Carson City designed to better serve the mines of the Comstock Lode.

The Virginia and Truckee Railroad was one such line. It was incorporated in March of 1868 and because
of the difficult terrain it was meant to service, the construction engineer, Issac James, was proved to
have accomplished a “remarkable achievement.” The first 21 miles were finished in November of 1869
and the additional 31 miles were finally connected to the Central Pacific Railroad August 1872.

The Big Bonanza in Virginia City was extremely successful from 1873, working 24 locomotives and
having as many as 40 trains a day. This continued until 1878 when the mining production collapsed.
The railroad kept operating on a much smaller scale and tried and failed several attempts to generate
interest and railway travel, up to about 1900. Eventually the railroad was converted to an agriculture
carrier until about 1910. The railroad changed ownership several more times struggling financially
along the way for the next 25-30 years and then finally in May of 1950 the Virginia and Truckee took its
last run.

While the end of one railroad was transpiring the San Pedro, Los Angeles and Salt Lake Railroad was
being completed(1905) and was the first direct route from Salt Lake City to Los Angeles . Although this
railroad’s contribution to linking two major cities of the southwest, the true significance lies in how it
would be a substantial factor in the development of Las Vegas.


For the next 17 years William Clark saw the railroads potential and fought hard to create an effective
and quick way to get from Salt Lake City to Los Angeles in one day. Clark also provided an economic
security and at one point in time the railroad employed 1/3 of the town’s population of 1500. The
railroad stopped service in Las Vegas in 1917 due to loss of money and finally in 1918 the rails and ties
were removed.

Aviation was the direction that Nevada and Las Vegas took in having the first and largest commercial
airline to serve Las Vegas, Western Air Express, an airmail service utilizing Las Vegas’s natural air route
between Los Angeles and Salt Lake City . The year was 1926 and for four years Western Air Express was
very successful until the Postmaster General forced a merger with a larger commercial airline, TWA.

Another extremely important airline to make a place in Las Vegas’ history is Bonanza Airlines, the first all-jet powered airline in the United States. When Bonanz-Air was first founded in 1945 it began as a small charter operation. As the airline grew into an intrastate airline in 1947, its name changed to Bonanza Airlines, and it ran service from Las Vegas to Reno. Bonanza was one of the first four airlines serving McCarran Field, another major aviation contributor to Las Vegas. In 1949 Bonanza’s territory was limited to travel in the southwest, Las Vegas, Salt Lake City, Phoenix, San Diego, Los Angeles, and Reno. The airline wanted to expand its routes, and they did 1950, acquiring the right to fly through other locales including direct flight to Death Valley.

In 1958 the airline began buying turbo jet powered aircraft and within two years Bonanza Airline became the nations first all-jet powered airline. Their success continued and they provided two services both airmail and passenger flight as well. The company began talks to merge with tow other airlines and in 1967 they did to form a new regional airline, Air West. Within a year Howard Hughes bought and renamed the airline, Hughes Air West. In 1980, Republic Airlines purchased Hughes Air West and was later merged with Northwest Airlines.
















3 to 5Students will use primary sources to create a timeline. The timeline will represent Nevada’s railroad industry (1868) to the aviation industry, (1968).Historic overview
Examples of primary sources
Large index cards
Highlighters
Large construction paper
Break students into small groups. Pass out  size examples of primary source photos. Direct students to put photos in time order. Photos will have no captions to indicate the date.What did you see to help you put the photos in time order?
Where does your eye go first?
What feelings and thoughts does the image trigger in you?
Students get a historical overview and the 5 primary sources. Each student will also use the social studies textbook timelines as examples.Each student will have a version of the historical overview, highlighter,primary sources, blank rough draft paper,a glue stick,large index cards and a final draft large piece of construction paper. Students will use all materials to create a timeline gluing the sources into the areas on the timeline they relate to. Once the timeline is completed students will move into small groups(4-6 students) and create a human timeline. Each person in the group will take a place on the timeline. They will choose a fact or facts and represent the facts in order orally to the class. The visual timeline is used as an aid in their prsentation.railroad
Comstock Lode
Virginia City
Truckee Railroad
Locomotive
Bonanza Airlines
airmail
passenger

Students will summarize the presentation using listeningand notetaking skills to identifyimportant facts during the students' presentations.The important dates and relevant accomplishments during that time in Nevada's history will be review and all timelines will be displayed in the class for future reference. the written summary will be graded using a standard writing rubric.below grade level:
create captions for each primary source photgraph
grade level:
Select an image and predict what is happening in the photo.
Above grade level:
Students will expand printed expanations by using internet resources and creating an extention to share with the class.
H2.4.4 Identify the diverse population of Nevada’s early settlers and discuss their unique experiences., Option H3.4.4 Explain how advances in technologies have impacted Nevada, i.e., railroads, mining, and gaming.Word Analysis: 1.5.4 Comprehend, build, and extend vocabulary using context clues and structural analysis., Reading Strategies: 2.5.1 Select before reading strategies appropriate to text and purpose to preview text, access prior, knowledge, build background knowledge, set purpose for reading, make predictions, determine reading rate, and determine text type., Expository Text: 4.5.1 Identify and explain the use of bold-faced words, underlined words, highlighted words, and italicized words., Expository Text: 4.5.3 Describe a main idea based on evidence. , Expository Text: 4.5.5 Summarize information., Listening: 7.5.1 Listen for a variety of purposes including gaining information, being entertained, and understanding directions., Listening: 7.5.1 Listen for and identify main idea, mood, purpose, messages, and tone., Listening: 7.5.1 Listen for and distinguish fact from opinion., Speaking: 8.5.1 Ask questions to clarify directions., Speaking: 8.5.2 Use precise language to describe and elicit feelings, experiences, observations, and ideas.NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNevada’s Railroads to AirwaysStudent will be able to use Primary sources and data to create a timeline representing the history of transportation in Nevada from 1868-1968, from railroad transportation to airway travel.Definitely
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AnonymousYour Name, Your Email Address, List My Work AnonymouslyGamingEl Rancho Vegas and its Place in Historyhttp://gaming.unlv.edu/centennial/web/0100_0081_ElRanchoVegas.jpghttp://gaming.unlv.edu/centennial/web/0100_0076_ElRancho2.jpghttp://www.oldvegaschips.com/elranchovegas100.jpghttp://gaming.unlv.edu/ElRanchoVegas/Artifacts/soap3.jpghttp://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://gaming.unlv.edu/ElRanchoVegas/Artifacts/soap3.jpg&imgrefurl=http://gaming.unlv.edu/ElRanchoVegas/artifacts.html&usg=__idGTTMMTolX75p36z4XOC-kj6eE=&h=432&w=576&sz=95&hl=en&start=57&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=2HPUmTYSekhBsM:&tbnh=101&tbnw=134&prev=/images%3Fq%3DEl%2BRancho%2BVegas%26start%3D40%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26ndsp%3D20%26tbs%3Disch:1http://cache.vegas.com/lounge/images/implosions/implosionrancho.jpgEl Rancho Vegas Picture # 1El Rancho Vegas Picture # 2El Rancho Vegas Poker ChipEl Rancho Vegas SoapEl Rancho Vegas ArtifactsEl Rancho Vegas ImplosionThe state of Nevada legalized wide-open casino gambling on March 19, 1931, and that decision would forever alter the dynamics of the state. The first clubs and casinos in Las Vegas were opened in the downtown corridor on Fremont Street. During the late thirties several more casinos, hotels, and clubs would open, but they would all be located in the city’s downtown. That all changed when a man named Thomas Hull, along with two partners Las Vegas businessmen Robert Griffith and James Cashman decided to build a casino hotel a little off the beaten path. The story of the strip begins oddly enough with a flat tire. Hull and a friend were driving down highway 91 when he got a flat tire. While walking down the highway in search of assistance he dreamed of swimming in a pool. He began to elaborate on the idea and imagined that where he currently was would be a perfect spot to open a casino hotel resort. It would be perfect, Hull thought, because of all the out-of-state traffic that passed through on highway 91. If he could find a way to entice travelers he would make history. Hull knew his hotel would have to be different to draw individual away from downtown, so he decided to make it start of the art with the finest accommodations. Hull also thought that war in Europe would play a role in the development of Southern Nevada. He thought the escalation of the conflict would lead to a military base in the area, which meant in overall population increase. Hull was right which meant that there were far more customers now for his venture. Hull bought land outside the city for a couple of other reasons too; the taxes were low and the land was inexpensive. He hired the architectural firm McAllister and McAllister to design the Spanish and cowboy styled resort.
“The resort's low-rise buildings housed a showroom, a cocktail lounge, casino, steakhouse, and a few stores. For late nighters, its Chuck Wagon buffet service included a free breakfast and coffee from 4:15 to 6:30 a.m. Its dining room, with 250 seats, was the largest in Las Vegas. Most of the sixty-three guest rooms were bungalows. Outside, patrons could walk to stables for horse riding. Its rear swimming pool prompted locals and tourists to regard the El Rancho as the first authentic resort in Las Vegas, which was practically transformed overnight (Online Nevada Encyclopedia, 2009).”
On April3, 1941 the El Rancho Vegas opened to immediate success. Its success would forever change Las Vegas and would make the “Strip” the beacon for gambling worldwide in the years that followed. Over the next few years the El Rancho Vegas would attain ultimate success, but trouble began to surround the hotel. First, it had difficulty retaining ownership, and had several owners during its existence. Then on June 17th, 1960 a fire destroyed a majority of the resort. The owner at the time of the fire, Beldon Katleman, swore he would rebuild the El Rancho Vegas, but never did. ”Billionaire Howard Hughes later bought the empty site, but the land, across from the Sahara Hotel, would remain vacant for more than forty years. In 2004, Hilton used part of the site to build a 1,200-room timeshare tower (Online Nevada Encyclopedia, 2009).”
References
O.N.E. Online Nevada Encyclopedia. (2009). El Rancho Vegas, Retrieved May 15th, 2010, from The Online Nevada Encyclopedia Website: http://www.onlinenevada.org/el_rancho_vegas
3 to 5(4)1.13_ work cooperatively in groups

(4)3.36 _describe the physical setting of an historical event

(4)2.14 _discuss types of industry in Nevada

(4)4.8 _describe important historical people, events, and places in Nevada
Computer
Projector
Brochures (various)
Encyclopedias
Books about Early Vegas
Paper
Pencils
Inquiry Question: Ask students to think about how Nevada and primarily Las Vegas would be different today if gambling would not have been legalized? Have students write down their ideas in their journals and then have them share their ideas with a partner. Take about 5 minutes to write down the different responses on the board. How would Las Vegas be different without gambling?

What are the major industries in Nevada?

How did the Las Vegas Strip start?
Teacher will explain in approximately 10 minutes what the El Rancho Vegas was using the historical context provided. The teacher will incorporate in the primary source pictures to the discussion.Explain to the students that they have been selected as the individuals in charge of promotions for the brand new El Rancho Vegas Hotel and Casino and that over the next few days they will be creating brochure for the company. Their brochure must be enticing enough to bring people to the middle of the desert. Show students some sample brochures to give them an idea of what type of information should be included. Teacher will begin by using the computer and a projector to show students how to create a brochure using Microsoft Word, complete with pictures, maps, and exciting font. Students will be placed in groups of 3-4 and asked to create a brochure for the El Rancho Vegas that will bring in the crowds. Students must first research about the El Rancho Vegas using the materials provided. Once they have completed some research students will create a rough draft of their brochure on white paper. Students will then create their brochures using the computer and Microsoft Word.resemblance
prohibited
legalized
Students will be assessed on the content and quality of their El Rancho Vegas brochures. Each group will present their brochure to the class in attempt to draw in business. Students will secretly vote for the group that did the overall best job on their brochure and presentation. That group will receive decks of playing cards. (typically casinos will donate these to teachers via request)Students will review inquiry questions, vocabulary, and the overall lesson.NoneOption H3.4.4 Explain how advances in technologies have impacted Nevada, i.e., railroads, mining, and gaming., H3.4.5 Discuss major news events on the local and state levels., E11.4.2 Define entrepreneur and identify those individuals in Nevada.Word Analysis: 1.5.4 Comprehend, build, and extend vocabulary using context clues and structural analysis., Types of Writing: 6.5.7 Write a variety of communications in appropriate formats., Types of Writing: 6.5.9 Write research papers by choosing and narrowing a research topic, locating and collecting information from primary and secondary sources, recording information, paraphrasing and summarizing information, organizing collected information, and documenting sources using a given format., Types of Writing: 6.5.9 Demonstrate an understanding of the difference between original works and plagiarized works.NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNone2.5.1 Apply correct finger placement for basic keyboarding skills., 2.5.2 Create a document including a graphic using basic formatting techniques that demonstrate the ability to type, edit, and print.NoneThe Beginning of the StripStudents will learn about the beginnings of the Las Vegas Strip. Students will analyzed brochures. Students will then create a brochure for the El Rancho Vegas.Definitely
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AnonymousYour Name, Your Email Address, List My Work AnonymouslyKey PeopleJedediah Smith Artifactshttp://www.legendsofamerica.com/photos-oldwest/Jedediah_Smith.jpghttp://xroads.virginia.edu/~hyper/hns/mtmen/images/basintrmp.jpghttp://www.owensvalleyhistory.com/el_camino_sierra/jedediah_smith_trips.jpghttp://www.parks.ca.gov/pages/25085/images/JedediahSmithRedwoodsSP.jpghttp://www.thefurtrapper.com/images/Ashley%20Advertisement.jpgDrawing of Jedediah SmithMap of Mountain Men Trails Map of Rocky Mountain Fur Company Travels Map of Jedediah Smith State Park Ad that Inspired Smith to come WestOne of the reasons that the United States grew west was economic resources, and one of those resources was fur. The lifestyle of fur trapping led individuals west in pursuit of financial success. One of the most famous trappers was Jedediah “Strong” Smith who worked for the Rocky Mountain Fur Company. Smith traveled all over the western United States and several times came through Nevada. “Jedediah Smith was born in upstate New York, a devout Methodist whose family regularly studied the Bible. As a fur trader, Smith always carried his Bible into the wilderness (Green, 2005, p. 52).” The life of a fur trader was dangerous work. Often times the traders would unsure if they would encounter angered Natives upset over the depletion of resources due to the fur trade. Because of this reason and others, fur traders traveled in companies or small groups. The fur traders believed that they were simply businessmen out to make an honest living. The Rocky Mountain Fur Company was Jedediah Smith first experience with fur trading. Smith was well respected amongst the group of men. According to Green (2005), “He quickly established a reputation as being careful, intelligent, hardworking, and fearless. He kept records and won the confidence of the trappers who went with him (p. 52)” A famous story of Jedediah Smith involves an unfortunate run-in he had with a grizzly bear. According to accounts, when Smith was passing through South Dakota he was attacked by a grizzly bear. In the midst of the struggle Smith’s ear and a portion of his scalp were ripped off by the bear. One of the other men in the group reattached the ear for Smith by sewing it on. Some rumors persist that the ear was sewed on upside down. Smith was not like the other trappers who were boisterous and rowdy. He was humble and quiet. Smith was not an outcast, just different. While others were away sinning, Smith kept to himself, and he was respected for this. In 1827 Smith was met with trials and tribulations. He and 14 men rode through Utah and into Nevada on route towards the Colorado River. While on route the men were attack by the Mohave Indians, but they managed to survive. That same year Smith and his group rode into California in search of furs. At the time California was part of Mexico. The Mexican government did not appreciate Smith’s party entering the country without permission, and they threw the men in jail for two months. Upon release Smith and his party nearly died crossing the Nevada and Utah deserts during the late spring and early summer months. Smith was a successful trapper and had done well enough to quit trapping by the time he was 30 years old. From there Smith became a scout for other trappers, as he could not breakaway from the wandering side he possessed. At the age of 32, while out wandering the untamed country, Smith was killed by some Native Americans who disliked white men.
References
Green, M. (2005). Nevada: Journey discovery, Layton, UT. Gibbs Smith, Publisher.

3 to 5(4)1.13_ work cooperatively in groups

(4)3.36 _describe the physical setting of an historical event

(4)4.10 _recognize famous people in Nevada’s history (e.g., Joseph Walker, Jedediah Strong Smith, Peter Skene Ogden, Dat-So-La-Li, Sara Winnemucca)
Computer

Projector

IPod

ITalk

Encyclopedias

Books about Jedediah Smith

Paper

Pencils
Life in a Box For this activity the instructor will place six items in a bag related to the life of Jedediah Smith. The items will be revealed one at a time from the most obscure to the most related. After each item is revealed the students should guess in the journals as to who they believe the items are attempting to identify. The items should be carefully passed around the class. The items should include a teddy bear, a Bible, a picture of a fur trap, an early map of the west, a representative Rocky Mountain piece such as the Colorado Flag or the Rocky Mountain Chocolate Company Logo, and a toy horse. Who was Jedediah Smith?

How did fur trading help to expand America?

What impact did fur trading have on the relationship between whites and Native Americans?
Teacher will explain in approximately 15 minutes who Jedediah Smith was using the historical context provided. The teacher will incorporate in the primary source pictures and maps, but explain that the pictures were not actual photographs as photography had not yet been invented during the time of Jedediah Smith.Explain to the students that over the next few days they will be creating a historical narrative using the story of Jedediah Smith and the power of the internet. Play for students an example of a historical narrative that you have created, about something you have recently studied in social studies, to show them how they will be using both dialogue, music, and specific sound clips to tell a tale. Students will create their own historical narrative using the life of Jedediah Smith, sound clips from the web; music clips less than 30 seconds, Audacity, and their own imaginations. Audacity (http://audacity.sourceforge.net/) is a program that allows multiple sounds to be overlapped at once, such as a spoken word play and a song. Students will be placed in groups of 3-4 depending upon the size of the class. Students will then research about Jedediah Smith using the web, encyclopedias, books, and other resources. The groups will then compose a script or play about Jedediah Smith. The students should be instructed to focus on a major event in his life rather than his life as a whole. Once the groups have completed their scripts then they will one by one attempt to record it using the IPod and the IPod talk component. From there the groups will use the web and audacity to add sound effects. The teacher will need to take 15-30 minutes to explain to the class using a computer and a projector how to use ITunes, Audacity, the ITalk, and internet searches previous to any group recording with the ITalk, so that confusion is minimized. This time should be determined by the instructor on a class by class basis. The narratives should be 5 -10 minutes in length.reputation
devout
hostile
rendezvous
Students will be assessed on the content and quality of their historical narrative. Students will be asked to listen to another group's narrative and provide specific feedback.Have students place their stories onto your class blog. If you do not have a class blog, then you should check out http://edublogs.org/ to get one for free.Teacher will review the vocabulary and inquiry questions with the class.This lesson is technology laden, so you may not be able to complete it as is, but the school’s library may possess recording devices of some kind that can be substituted for the ITalk. I would also advise the instructor to complete this assignment themselves previous to teaching it to truly be able to explain the functions of the ITalk and Audacity.
Audacity has to be downloaded onto the computer. It can be for free at this address http://download.cnet.com/Audacity/3000-2170_4-10058117.html

H2.4.3 Identify explorers and settlers in pre-territorial Nevada. , H3.4.5 Discuss major news events on the local and state levels., E9.4.5 Explain why all those who trade must benefit from the trade, using an example such as trading lunch items. None, Listening: 7.5.5 Actively listen to oral communications., Listening: 7.5.5 Listen to and participate in conversations., Listening: 7.5.5 Listen to and evaluate constructive feedback., Listening: 7.5.5 Provide constructive feedback., Speaking: 8.5.2 Use precise language to describe and elicit feelings, experiences, observations, and ideas., Speaking: 8.5.2 Apply Standard English to communicate ideas., Speaking: 8.5.3 Communicate information by maintaining a clear focus, following a logical sequence, and illustrating information with media aids.NoneNoneNoneNoneNoneNone1.5.1 Create a script with two or more characters; a beginning, middle and end; setting; and character descriptions., 1.5.2 Work together in a group to plan, rehearse, and present a dramatized idea or story., 2.5.3. Portray a character's traits through movement, voice and/or dialogue in a dramatized idea or story. 2.5.1 Apply correct finger placement for basic keyboarding skills., 2.5.5 Create a multimedia document or presentation using text, graphics, and/or sound.NoneThe Life and Times of Jedediah SmithStudents will learn above Jedediah Smith and his role in Nevada’s history. Students will create a historical narrative based on an event from his life. Students will digitally record their narratives adding media clips and sound effects.Definitely
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PackerLindsaylkpacker@interact.ccsd.netYour Name, Your Email AddressNative PeoplesThe Paiute Tribeshttp://www.orww.org/Harney_Cattle/Student_Reports/Images/06-Paiute_1915.jpg http://digital.library.unlv.edu/boomtown/dm.php/snv/1029 http://digital.library.unlv.edu/boomtown/dm.php/snv/1409 http://digital.library.unlv.edu/boomtown/dm.php/snv/1410 http://digital.library.unlv.edu/boomtown/dm.php/snv/1411 http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/91481781/resource/cph.3c04705/?sid=02a027d283705f23c9b233a92f439c75 http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2006675083/resource/stereo.1s00827/?sid=f49ea20c4e51bc327c2c3ba36a41008f http://www.loc.gov/pictures/item/2006679025/resource/cph.3a51111/?sid=02a027d283705f23c9b233a92f439c75 Paiute Family with Teepee WickiupPaiute Women at WorkPaiute ChildrenPaiute Women doing LaundryBasket MakerPaiute Men in Full DressMud and Grass HutGeneral Information
No one is sure the exact origin of the name Paiute, some anthropologists have interpreted it as "Water Ute" or "True Ute." The Paiute tribes are broken into two major groups: the Northern Paiutes and the Southern Paiutes. The Southern Paiutes refer to themsleves as the “NUMU” as the Northern Paiutes refer to themselves as the “NUWUVI” both meaning “the people.” Although both groups have similar languages and cultures it should not be mistaken that both have the same political views or even have gentic relationships.
Northern Paiutes
This particular group of Paiutes lived in the Great Basin, which placed them mostly in northern Nevada. Their territory spaned from Walker Lake to Winnemucca. Paiutes were peaceful with other tribes including the Shoshones, however they did have some difficulty with the Washoes due to their differences in language and cultural beliefs. Due to the desert environment many tribes would build there homes around lakes or wetlands, so they could have a source for water during the hot, dry summers. A major food source was the Pinyon Nut, which is found in the Single-leaf Pinyon Pine. Another important food source for this group was grass seeds and roots.
The first recorded meeting between the Northern Paiutes and Euro-Americans was sometime in the early 1800s. However, sustained contact did not occur until the 1840s. From that point on there were many violent incidents including but not limited to; The Pyramid Lake War 1860, The Owens Valley Indian War 1861-64, The Snake War 1864-1868, and the Bannock War of 1878. Most often these incidents occurred over the right of property. Sarah Winnemucca wrote a book, “Life Among the Piutes,” which retells her life as a Paiute.
Southern Paiutes
The Southern Paiutes lived mostly in the southern part of the Nevada near the Colorado River and Mojave Desert. This group mostly traded with coastal tribes. The first recorded contact with Euro-Americans was in 1776, much earlier than the Northern tribe. In 1851, Mormon settlers began to occupy the Colardo River, which was the main water supply, therefore the relationship between the Mormons and the Paiutes became that of dependancy and lead to a peaceful relationship.
The Southern Paiutes were mostly hunters and gathers. They often created snare nets to catch rabbits and used bows and arrows to catch larger animals. The pinecone nut was a very important food supply for the southern tribes because it was ground down into a fine powder using large rocks to use as flour. The Southern Paiutes often used rabbit skin blankets and robes to keep warm in the cold winters and wore leather skirts and the inner bark of sagebrush to create cool summer clothing. Birdbones, deer hooves and seashells were often used to make jewlery. Their homes were known as wicki-ups which were constructed of tall saplings driven into the ground, bent over, and tied together near the top. This dome-shaped framework was covered with large overlapping mats of woven rushes or of bark that were tied to the saplings. Relatively easy to construct and maintain, a typical wickiup was some 15–20 feet in diameter. In addition to wickiups many choose to create teepees because they were easy to move if needed.
Overall both groups lived under similar circumstances. Most Paiutes traveled in family groups, consisting of parents, children, aunts, uncles, and grandparents. They worked together to fish and gather food and create a moral, non-aggressive kind of life.
3 to 5Students will compare and contrast the life the Paiutes lead in the 1800s to the life they lead today.
Students will journal about how basic needs were fulfilled before the inventions we have today.
Students will learn the meaning of a folktale and relate it to the life of the Paiutes.
Nevada Book one per student to use as a reference
string
turquoise beads, brown wooden beads and any others you see fit
sticks (thick) enough for students to work in groups of 4
flowers (plastic) enough for each student to make a head piece
twine enough for students to work in groups of 4
large rocks (8 at least)
pine nuts (enough for students to each have at least 5 nuts)
buckets of water
dirty white cloths one per student
clothes pins for students to hang cloth one per student
seashells (small for jewelry)
http://www.indigenouspeople.net/northsta.htm
read aloud the folktale found at the above website (you may choose to display it through the projector and read it with students) written by the Paiutes describing the North Star. Ask students to think about what this folktale means and why they believe it was significant to the Paiutes?
Ask students to think about how life was back in the 1800s.
How is your life different today?
Do you think it was easier to live back then or now and why?
Think about our everyday needs. How did native people get the things they needed?
What do you think they did for fun?
Using a PowerPoint presentation share with students the different things that were used back in the 1800s by the Paiutes and what we use today. Use a compare and contrast method. For example, show a slide displaying the Primary source titled wickiup and then another slide with a picture of a modern day house. Next display a picture of a pine nut, which was used to make flour and then a picture of the modern day flour. Next, show the primary source of the jewelry worn by the Paiutes and a picture of modern day jewelry. Show a picture of a Paiute child wearing a flower head piece, which was worn as a symbol of her name, and a modern day headpiece worn, by young children. Show a slide of Paiute women doing laundry and a modern woman doing laundry. Continue through this using as many examples as possible. Then as a class make a Venn diagram comparing and contrasting the life students lead today and the life a Paiute lived long ago. Students will be traveling to different stations in the room to experience life as a Paiute. The stations will be created as follows:
Ø Grinding Pine Nuts: at this station students will take two large rocks to grind the pine nuts into a fine powder. This is what Paiutes did to make flour.
Ø Making Jewelry: students will create a piece of jewelry (bracelet, necklace, etc) similar to the jewelry samples displayed at the station.
Ø Teepees: Working in partners students will create a teepee using the large stick and twine
Ø Laundry: students will be given a bucket of water and a dirty cloth. They will need to soak and scrub the cloth until clean. Hang to dry
Ø Flower headpiece: students will create a flower head piece using string and plastic flowers (use may also use a strip of thick construction paper and paper flowers)
After each child has completed each station they will journal about the experience.
The stations should be approx 15-20 minute blocks and it is essential to model each activity whole group before beginning.
Numu
Nuwuvi
wickiup
territory
For homework students will create a new Venn diagram comparing and contrasting their life to the life of a Paiute. Then they will need to take the information from the Venn diagram to a complete a paragraph describing what they put on the diagram. This paragraph should be written in an expository format and should adhere to all grammar and spelling requirements. Students will share their paragraphs with the class and see if their first impressions were accurate or if they were able to add more information to the Venn diagram after completing the stations.The most important part is to model the station expectations. Make sure to have a sample item at each station for students to use as a guide. This is also a great day to involve parent volunteers to help at the stations. You may want to mix your groups with various levels so that all students can aid in the success of others.

H1.4.1 Describe the lifestyles of Nevada’s Desert Archaic people., H1.4.2 Define hunter-gatherer., H1.4.3 Describe the lifestyles of Nevada’s Native American cultures. 3, H2.4.4 Identify the diverse population of Nevada’s early settlers and discuss their unique experiences.Word Analysis: 1.5.4 Comprehend, build, and extend vocabulary using homographs, homophones, syntax, parts of speech, synonyms, antonyms., Expository Text: 4.5.3 Compare events., Expository Text: 4.5.4 Explain the influence of time periods., Expository Text: 4.5.5 Make connections to self, other text, and/or the world., Expository Text: 4.5.5 Use information to answer specific questions., Effective Writing: 5.5.4 Edit essays and compositions to ensure correct spelling of high frequency works and content words., Effective Writing: 5.5.5 Edit for correct use of nouns, verbs, pronouns, adjectives, subject/verb agreement, verb tenses, adverbs, clauses, phrases, pronoun/antecedent agreement, pronoun case., Effective Writing: 5.5.6 Edit sentences for complete sentences, combining sentences, compound sentences, and complex sentences., Effective Writing: 5.5.6 Edit sentences for the elimination of fragments and run-ons., Effective Writing: 5.5.7 Prepare a legible final draft to display or share., Types of Writing: 6.5.1 With assistance, write essays and compositions using patterns of organization including compare and contrast and cause and effect., Types of Writing: 6.5.4 Summarize information., Listening: 7.5.3 Expand vocabulary through listening., Listening: 7.5.5 Actively listen to oral communications.NoneNoneNoneNone4.5.2 Associate a variety of artworks with cultures, times, and places., 4.5.3 Create works of art that demonstrate historical and cultural influence.NoneNone6.5.2 Explain how physical environments are changed by technological developments.Become aware of the effects of important people, holidays, geography, and history on the lives of the people of the culture studied., Demonstrate an awareness of the different patterns of daily life within the culture studied and the pupil's culture.A day in the Life of a Paiute In this lesson students will view primary source documents to compare and contrast the life they lead today with the life that the Paiutes lived back in the 1800s. They will explore the life of Paiutes by recreating Paiute life experiences in the classroom. Then students will take all of the information into a formal writing piece. Definitely
36
PackerLindsaylkpacker@interact.ccsd.netYour Name, Your Email AddressKey PlacesFormation of the Lehman Caveshttp://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=pphhdatapage&fileName=nv/nv0000/nv0053/data/hhdatapage.db&title2=Rhodes%20Cabin,%20Lehman%20Caves%20National%20Monument%20entrance%20vicinity,%20Baker%20vicinity,%20White%20Pine,%20NV&recNum=0http://content.lib.utah.edu/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/GBA_Photos&CISOPTR=48&CISOBOX=1&REC=7 http://content.lib.utah.edu/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/GBA_Photos&CISOPTR=13&CISOBOX=1&REC=17 http://content.lib.utah.edu/cdm4/item_viewer.php?CISOROOT=/GBA_Photos&CISOPTR=42&CISOBOX=1&REC=16 http://www.nps.gov/pwr/customcf/apps/pgallery/display-slideshow.cfm?aid=149&gid=149&park=grba&sort=title&aTitle=Lehman%20Caves http://www.nps.gov/pwr/customcf/apps/pgallery/display-slideshow.cfm?aid=623&gid=623&park=grba&sort=title&aTitle=Cave%20LifeDocument on the Rhodes CabinInside the Lehman CavesSunken Garden RoomNatural Entrance to the CavesSlideshow of Cave FormationsSlideshow of Cave LifeLehman Caves
Introduction
The caves we see to today actually began hundreds of thousands of years ago. The Lehman Caves are actually a single cavern despite its name being plural. It was discovered around 1885, by Absalom Lehman, a rancher and miner. Little attention is made of how the caves were discovered, but many legends pass around, including one that found Lehman's horse as the true discover. One version states that while Lehman was riding the horse across the land, the horse broke through the terrain covering the cave's natural entrance. The Lehman Caves is the most decorated cave found in the Great Basin.
How the Lehman Caves were Formed
According to geologists, the creation of the Lehman Caves can be traced back nearly 600 million years ago, dating back to the Cambrian period. During that time Nevada and part of Utah was covered with a warm, shallow inland sea. Thick layers of sediment formed on the sea bottom. These layers were made of silt, sand, and a limy substance. The limy substance was created from the decomposed bodies of shell creatures. One of the limy layers became the limestone in which the Lehman Caves were formed.
As time went on the pressure beating down from the various layers transformed the limy layer into limestone. As the pressure and heat increased, some of the limestone turned into a low-grade marble. Many years later, forces under the earth’s crust caused the layers to rock and buckle. The buckle created a mountain range that rose gradually until its peaks were thousands of feet above the valley. As the mountain range raised the rocks began to crack and fracture and over time the pattern created by the cracks lead to the floor plan of the cave.
Pure water cannot dissolve limestone and marble. As the water from melting snow and rain absorbed carbon dioxide from the air and decaying vegetation in the soil it generated carbonic acid. This weak acidic acid dissolved out cavities in the bedrock. As the water level dropped it left air-filled passageways making way for the next stage of cave development.
Acidic water continued to seep in through the passageways at a slow rate. As time went on the acidic water dissolved some of the bedrock above the cave and re-deposits the calcite (minerals) on the floors, ceiling and the walls of the Lehman Caves creating cave decorations. Many of these exquisite formations are still growing in the caves today, which makes them still very fragile.
The Lehman caves are considered to be a solution cave. That means that the rock was being dissolved by acidic water. Although some parts of the cave contain low-grade marble the majority of the cave is made from limestone. The Lehman caves were mainly developed by chemical means. In other words, the cave formed from weak carbonic acid (the same acid found in soda pop) dissolving away the bedrock.
Cave Dimensions
The Lehman Caves has over a 2-mile passageway, making it the largest cave in Nevada. The Biggest room by area is the Talus Room at 21,511 square feet. The tallest room is also the Talus Room at 113 feet from floor to ceiling. The second tallest room is the Sunken Garden at 32 feet from floor to ceiling. On the guided tour you will see many rooms and climb a total of 70 stairs.
Cave Formations
The Lehman Caves are known for their beautiful speleothems (cave formations). The Lehman Caves has a huge variety of cave formations stemming from the most common to some of the most rare formations found on planet earth. A speleothem is any formation that formed in the cave after the cave finished forming. All cave formations are formed from water saturated with dissolved calcium. There is only a slight variation to the formation process between the different types of speleothems. Visit the following website to get a description of the different formations, as well as pictures to go with them. http://www.nps.gov/grba/naturescience/speleothems-cave-formations.htm

Important Dates for the caves provided by the Great Basin National Park Website
· 1826 - Jedediah Smith crosses Snake Range at Sacramento Pass.
· 1843 - 1844-John Fremont passes through eastern Nevada.
· 1859 - Mormons establish a settlement in Snake Valley.
· 1871 - Gold discovered at Osceola.
· 1873 - 1877-Osceola at its mining peak.
· 1885 - Ab Lehman discovers cave in the spring and had installed ladders and stairs throughout the cave by the fall, tours begin. (Discovery date is questionable.)
· 1891 - Ab Lehman dies in Salt Lake City, October 11.
· 1892 - C. W. Rowland buys Lehman's ranch.
· 1909 - Nevada Forest Service established in the area surrounding the cave.
· 1912 - The cave is added to the Forest Service.
· 1920 - Clarence Rhodes takes control of the management of the cave.
.
· 1922 - President Harding proclaims Lehman Caves a National Monument. Rhodes continues operation of the cave for the National Forest Service.
· 1933 - Lehman Caves National Monument is transferred to the National Park Service jurisdiction on June 10th.
· 1937 - Entrance tunnel was started and finished in 1939.
· 1941 - Electric lights installed in the cave.
· 1963 - New Visitor Center/Administration/Café Building is dedicated.
· 1970 - Exit tunnel was completed.
· 1974 - Concrete trails installed in cave.
· 1981 - Talus Room was deleted from the regular tour route.
· 1986 - Great Basin National Park is established and Lehman Caves National Monument is incorporated into the Park on October 27th.
· 1997 - Algae is cleaned from the cave

3 to 5Students will learn about the cave and cavern ecosystem.
Students will learn the process of how caves are formed and how cave formations are made.
They will understand key vocabulary to extend their knowledge of the Lehman Caves.
Pencil or crayons
Old shoe box minus the lid
Aluminum foil
2 glasses
2 pieces of cotton string
Hot water
Spoon
Washing soda (available at your grocery store)
Computer connected to a projector
Access to the internet
Read aloud Cave Life by Barbara Park. As you move through the pages of the book discuss why these particular lifeforms reside inside of caves and why other life does not. Have students begin to understand the background atmosphere of a cave.Has anyone been inside of a cave?
If yes, what did you notice?
What types of things would you see inside of caves?
Does anyone know how caves form?
Introduce students to the cave ecosystem by explaing how caves are formed. Discuss with students the process that takes place between acidic water and bedrock. Introduce key vocabulary words listed above and have students record these onto notecards. Using a projector display the following website http://www.nps.gov/grba/naturescience/the-formation-of-lehman-caves.htm and walk students through the cave formation process. Next, introduce speleothems by using primary source: slideshow of Cave formations. Talk about each formation and what type it is. You may go to http://www.nps.gov/grba/naturescience/speleothems-cave-formations.htm for definitions and pictures of the different types of formations inside of the Lehman Caves.1. Draw a cave background on the inside bottom of the shoe box. Be creative.

2. Line the outside and inside walls of the box with aluminum foil.

3. Turn the box on one long side. Make sure that you picture on the side bottom is facing the correct way.

4. Poke two holes close together near each end of the top of the box.

5. Place a glass outside the box at each short end.

6. Thread each string in through one hole and out the other end, from one end of the box to the other. The strings should be long enough to hang down slightly from the inside top of the box and reach the bottom of each glass. Do not set the string down in the glasses yet.

7. Fill the glasses with hot water.

8. Stir washing soda into the glasses until no more soda will dissolve.

9. Now you can place the strings into the glasses.

10. Leave the box for a few days in a dry place where it will not be disturbed.

What happens? The string acts like a wick (the string part of a candle) and draws the washing soda and water mixture. The mixture drips down the string and hardens as the water evaporates. These crystal formations look like stalagmites and stalagtites in caves.
speleothems
carbonic acid
calcite
sediment
cambrian
After the cave formations have developed inside of the shoebox have students classify what type of speleothems have formed inside of their cave. You may invite other classes and parents to come and view the formations. have students present to students and parents the process that took place inside to create the formations. Come together as a class and randonly select students to describe the process that takes place in order for a cave to form. Then call on another student to explain the process of creating speleothems. As an extension you may want to assign groups of students a different Cave life creature and have them develop a PowerPoint presentation on the creatures life cycle. H1.4.5 Identify contributions of immigrants in Nevada., G5.4.2 Identify spatial patterns on a map of Nevada, i.e., deserts, mountains, population., G6.4.1 Describe the distinguishing features of historical regions in Nevada, i.e., Native American tribal territories, pioneer trails, and settlement areas. , G8.4.5 Describe the distribution patterns of natural resources in Nevada.Word Analysis: 1.5.4 Comprehend, build, and extend vocabulary using context clues and structural analysis., Expository Text: 4.5.1 Evaluate information from table of contents, glossaries, and indices., Expository Text: 4.5.1 Identify and explain the use of bold-faced words, underlined words, highlighted words, and italicized words., Expository Text: 4.5.5 Use information to answer specific questions., Expository Text: 4.5.5 Summarize information., Expository Text: 4.5.7 Read and follow directions to complete tasks or procedures., Types of Writing: 6.5.4 Summarize information., Listening: 7.5.1 Listen for a variety of purposes including gaining information, being entertained, and understanding directions., Listening: 7.5.1 Listen for and summarize ideas and supporting details., Listening: 7.5.2 Listen to and evaluate oral communications for content, delivery, point of view, and ideas., Listening: 7.5.3 Expand vocabulary through listening., Speaking: 8.5.1 Ask questions to clarify directions., Speaking: 8.5.3 Use public speaking techniques to deliver presentations with appropriate prosody, volume, eye contact, enunciation, posture, expressions, audience, and purpose., Speaking: 8.5.3 Communicate information by maintaining a clear focus, following a logical sequence, and illustrating information with media aids.NoneN.8.A.3 Students know how to draw conclusions from scientific evidence. , L.5.B.1 Students know plants and animals have structures that enable them to grow, reproduce, and survive., L.5.B.2 Students know living things have predictable life cycles., L.5.C.2 Students know organisms interact with each other and with the non-living parts of their ecosystem., L.5.C.3 Students know changes to an environment can be beneficial or detrimental to different organisms., L.5.C.5 Students know plants and animals have adaptations allowing them to survive in specific ecosystems., P.5.A.1 Students know matter exists in different states (i.e., solid, liquid, gas) which have distinct physical properties., P.5.A.2 Students know heating or cooling can change some common materials, such as water, from one state to another., P.5.C.4 Students know heat can move from one object to another by conduction, and some materials conduct heat better than others., E.5.A.4 Students know the role of water in many phenomena related to weather (e.g., thunderstorms, snowstorms, flooding, drought)., E.5.C.2 Students know water, wind, and ice constantly change the Earth's land surface by eroding rock and soil in some places and depositing them in other areas., E.5.C.3 Students know landforms may result from slow processes (e.g., erosion and deposition) and fast processes (e.g., volcanoes, earthquakes, landslides, flood, and human activity)., E.5.C.5 Students know soil varies from place to place and has both biological and mineral components.NoneNone1.5.3 Create artworks using various media, techniques, and processes to communicate ideas.NoneNone2.5.2 Create a document including a graphic using basic formatting techniques that demonstrate the ability to type, edit, and print.NoneCreating a CaveStudents will learn how the Lehman Caves were formed and the time it takes for a cave to be created. They will also get to explore different cave formations and cave life. Last but not least, students will create a cave of their very own. Definitely
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PinkMindieYour NameKey PeopleSarah Winnemuccahttp://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c5/Sarah_Winnemucca_Hopkins.jpg&imgrefurl=http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sarah_Winnemucca_Hopkins.jpg&usg=__q1VLUmI071j68755R4fyoH4f5-s=&h=1288&w=683&sz=316&hl=en&start=7&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=f_ACwzSZRBAMuM:&tbnh=150&tbnw=80&prev=/images%3Fq%3DSarah%2BWinnemucca%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DX%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox%26tbs%3Disch:1http://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.yosemite.ca.us/library/life_among_the_piutes/images/map.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.yosemite.ca.us/library/life_among_the_piutes/&usg=__4VkZD3jJfiOvNVHj4rxXHlpdk2E=&h=615&w=390&sz=71&hl=en&start=17&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=cFSEddPo2h_81M:&tbnh=136&tbnw=86&prev=/images%3Fq%3DSarah%2BWinnemucca%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DX%26rls%3Dcom.microsoft:en-us:IE-SearchBox%26tbs%3Disch:1http://nsla.nevadaculture.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1780:exploring-nevada-sarah-winnemucca&catid=231:exploring-nevadahttp://www.circleofexistence.com/quotes/winnemucca.phphttp://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/map_item.pl?data=/home/www/data/gmd/gmd370/g3701/g3701g/ct002649.jp2&itemLink=D?gmd:3:./temp/~ammem_jvIL::@@@mdb&title=Map+showing+Indian+reservations+with+the+limits+of+the+United+States+:+1883+/+compiled+under+the+direction+of+the+Hon.+Hiram+Price,+Commissioner,+by+Paul+Brodie,+Draughtsman.&style=gmd&legend=Photo of Sarah Winnemucca HopkinsSarah Winnemucca's book about the Piute Indiansvideo of prominent places in Sarah Winnemucca's lifeQuote and picture of Sarah Winnemucca1883 map of Indian ReservationsSarah Winnemucca was an influential Native American and activist who worked hard during her life to gain rights for Indians. She was born about 1844 in western Nevada near the Humboldt River. Her name was Thocmentony, meaning “shell flower” in Paiute.
Sarah’s father, Chief Winnemucca, was leader of a band of Northern Paiute Indians. Her grandfather was Chief Truckee. Chief Truckee made friends with many white men and was helpful in guiding John C. Fremont in his expedition to survey and map his way to California. On a trip to Sacramento, Chief Truckee took Sarah with him which helped alleviate her fear of the white man and allowed her to learn white man’s ways. Later he made it possible for Sarah to be educated in reading and writing English. In the 1850’s she lived with the families of Hiram Scott and William Ormsby . Sarah was one of the few Paiutes to accomplish the feat of learning to read and write English. She also learned to speak Spanish as well as two other Indian dialects in addition to her native language and all by the age of 14.
Sarah worked at Camp McDermit as an interpreter for the Army starting in the late 1860s. She married Lt. E.C. Bartlett in 1871 but when the marriage broke up several years later, she returned to the Malheur Reservation where she worked as an assistant teacher. In 1878, the Bannock War broke out. This conflict between the Bannock Indians and her Paiute Indian tribe led to the enslavement of her father and brother by the Bannock tribe. Sarah was a scout, interpreter, and close companion to Army General Oliver Howard and her position allowed her to help free her father and brother and lead her father’s band to safety. Her well-known rescue of her family would help her later on when she became an activist for Native American rights.
After the war, Sarah’s tribe was exiled from the Malheur Reservation to the Yakima Reservation where they were treated poorly and many died of disease. They longed to return to Nevada. Sarah began speaking about their plight in public to arouse support. In 1880, Sarah went with her father, brother, and another tribesman to Washington D.C. Sarah begged Secretary of the Interior, Carl Schurz, and President Rutherford B. Hayes to allow her people to move back to Nevada and told of the treatment they received living on the reservation. She was given permission for the tribe to move back to Nevada but Schurz changed his mind, breaking his promise. Sarah counseled her tribe to passively resist by refusing to farm or build houses. Eventually the tribe members who didn’t die from disease escaped in small groups from Yakima. Sarah continued to speak about the plight of her people. She acted as a go-between between her people and the white world. She would eventually give over 300 speeches, sponsored in these endeavors by several people including Elizabeth Peabody and Mary Peabody Mann, wife of educator Horace Mann.
Sarah met and remarried Lewis H. Hopkins while traveling in California giving her speeches. He was an Indian Department employee.
In 1883, Sarah wrote her book Life Among the Piutes: Their Wrongs and Claims. This book is partly Sarah’s autobiography and partly a book about the Paiute Indian culture and advocacy on their behalf. It was the first book written by a Native American woman.
In 1885, Sarah’s two most prominent sponsors, Mann and Peabody, helped Sarah in establishing a school on her brother’s land near Lovelock, Nevada for Paiute children. The school, named the Peabody Institute, taught children in both Paiute and English languages. For four years the school was successful but was eventually closed because of lack of funding and the enactment of the Dawes Severalty Act of 1887. This Act required that all Native American children be taught English and the customs and religion of the white world. Often this assimilation took place at boarding schools without consent of the parents. Sarah’s husband died of tuberculosis in 1887. His illness and gambling debts left her with little money to contribute to keeping her school going and that also contributed to its closing.
After the closing of Sarah’s school, she moved back with her family and lived with her younger sister Elma until her death in 1891. Her death remains mysterious as it is unknown what caused her death.

3 to 5SWBAT identify Native American tribes of Nevada
SWBAT learn about the culture of the Paiute Indian tribe
SWBAT compare and contrast Paiute culture, beliefs and experiences with those of whites.
copies of modern and historical maps of Indian Reservations in Nevada
copies of chapter 1 of Sarah Winnemucca's book
other books about Paiute Indian life
computer lab access or classroom laptops for researching Paiute Indians on the internet
colored construction paper or butcher paper
markers
If the teacher can borrow Native American clothing and/or artifacts from somewhere, it could be on display when students enter the room. What does it feel like to be singled out from a group because of differences?
What feelings might you feel if you speak a different language than the people around you and can't understand what they're saying?
Read aloud chapter 1 and other relevant parts of Sarah Winnemucca's book.
Discussion of Native American history and their exile to reservations
Students will work in small groups of 4 and be given copies of chapter 1 of Sarah Winnemucca's book, other books about Paiute Indians, and maps of Nevada's Indian tribes. Using all their materials as well as computers with internet access, students will read and research the Paiute culture. Each student in the team will partner up and take notes about what they find in the books and on the internet. Students will then get together to share their information with the rest of their team and fill in a Venn diagram about Paiutes and whites. Students will decide on whether they want to make a poster or foldable to present their research to the class. Using the information on the Venn diagram and their notes, students will make a foldable or a poster showing what they learned about Paiute Indian culture and how it compares and contrasts to white culture. reservation
culture
interpreter
Students will decide on whether they want to make a poster or foldable to present their research to the class. Using the information on the Venn diagram and their notes, students will make a foldable or a poster showing what they learned about Paiute Indian culture and how it compares and contrasts to white culture. They will present their foldable/poster to the rest of the class. A rubric will be given to students at the start of the assignment so they will know what is expected of the finished product. Students can be asked how the experiences of Native Americans compare to those of African Americans who were discriminated against. How can these lessons help them in their own lives now and as they grow up and meet people who share their culture and people who are different because of skin color, religion, language spoken, country of birth, etc.?Students work in groups so that struggling students can be teamed with more proficient students who can help them with some aspects of the assignment that might be difficult such as taking notes.
H1.4.3 Describe the lifestyles of Nevada’s Native American cultures. 3, H1.4.4 Discuss the interactions of pioneers with the Great Basin Indians. 4, H2.4.4 Identify the diverse population of Nevada’s early settlers and discuss their unique experiences., H2.4.6 Explain how United States conflicts affected life and society in Nevada., H3.4.1 Compare and/or contrast their daily lives with children in Nevada’s past., H3.4.2 Recognize that communities include people who have diverse ethnic origins, customs, and traditions, and who make contributions to Nevada., G5.4.4 Utilize different types of Nevada maps, i.e., population and physical maps, to understand spatial distribution., G6.4.1 Describe the distinguishing features of historical regions in Nevada, i.e., Native American tribal territories, pioneer trails, and settlement areas. , G6.4.3 Identify and describe the diversity and cultural traditions of Nevada’s people, i.e., Native Americans, Basque communities.Expository Text: 4.5.1 Evaluate information from illustrations, graphs, charts, titles, text boxes, diagrams, headings, and maps., Expository Text: 4.5.4 Explain the influence of cultures., Expository Text: 4.5.5 Make connections to self, other text, and/or the world., Expository Text: 4.5.5 Develop hypotheses based on information., Expository Text: 4.5.5 Summarize information., Expository Text: 4.8.6 Make inferences and draw conclusions based on evidence., Effective Writing: 5.5.1 Explore a topic to plan written work., Effective Writing: 5.5.4 Edit for correct capitalization., Effective Writing: 5.5.4 Edit punctuation for end punctuation, commas, apostrophes, quotation marks, abbreviations, and colons., Effective Writing: 5.5.5 Edit for correct use of nouns, verbs, pronouns, adjectives, subject/verb agreement, verb tenses, adverbs, clauses, phrases, pronoun/antecedent agreement, pronoun case., Effective Writing: 5.5.6 Edit sentences for complete sentences, combining sentences, compound sentences, and complex sentences., Effective Writing: 5.5.7 Select a publishing format appropriate to the audience and purpose., Types of Writing: 6.5.1 With assistance, write essays and compositions using patterns of organization including compare and contrast and cause and effect., Types of Writing: 6.5.4 Summarize information., Listening: 7.5.1 Listen for a variety of purposes including gaining information, being entertained, and understanding directions., Listening: 7.5.2 Listen to and evaluate oral communications for content, delivery, point of view, and ideas., Listening: 7.5.2 With assistance, listen to and evaluate the purpose and value of oral communications., Listening: 7.5.3 Expand vocabulary through listening., Listening: 7.5.5 Actively listen to oral communications., Listening: 7.5.5 Listen to and participate in conversations., Listening: 7.5.5 Listen to and evaluate constructive feedback., Listening: 7.5.5 Provide constructive feedback., Speaking: 8.5.2 Apply Standard English to communicate ideas., Speaking: 8.5.3 Use public speaking techniques to deliver presentations with appropriate prosody, volume, eye contact, enunciation, posture, expressions, audience, and purpose., Speaking: 8.5.3 Communicate information by maintaining a clear focus, following a logical sequence, and illustrating information with media aids., Speaking: 8.5.4 Contribute to conversations and discussions about a given topic., Speaking: 8.5.4 Respond to questions to clarify and extend ideas., Speaking: 8.5.4 Ask relevant questions to clarify and extend ideas., Speaking: 8.5.4 Take a leadership role in conversations and discussions.NoneNoneNoneNone1.5.3 Create artworks using various media, techniques, and processes to communicate ideas., 2.5.4. Select and use specific visual characteristics to communicate. NoneNone3.5.2 Generate keywords for a research topic or problem., 3.5.3 Select information from a variety of remote resources for a research topic or problem exploring hyperlinks., 3.5.7 Summarize and share the research process and its outcome.NoneLife as a Native AmericanIn this lesson students will research Native American Paiute life. They will read about how Sarah Winnemucca was afraid of white people before the intervention of her grandfather. They will compare and contrast what they learn about Native American culture with white culture. Definitely
38
AnonymousList My Work AnonymouslyNative PeoplesQueho: Nevada's Native American Renegadehttp://www.quehoposse.org/images/tenyear/CRW_7056.jpghttp://www.legendsofamerica.com/photos-nevada/Queho.jpghttp://digital.library.unlv.edu/boomtown/dm.php/snv/2705http://digital.library.unlv.edu/boomtown/dm.php/snv/1166http://digital.library.unlv.edu/boomtown/dm.php/snv/1159Queho’s CaveQueho’s RemainsEldorado CanyonRock jutting out in Eldorado CanyonMining CampQueho, the savage Indian better known as the bogeyman of his time is legendary in stature. This Indian of unknown origin was held responsible for just about any murder within the vicinity of the Eldorado Canyons. Known for his limp as a result of an accident, this solitary figure managed odd jobs for various mining outfits. However, as brutal as the Nevada landscape was Queho became infamously associated with countless murders throughout the territory. This included women, miners, law enforcement officials, and old men. Queho remained elusive to the end as evidenced by his final resting place. A cave located not far from Hoover Dam that contained his remains and the various bounties he collected along the way. Interesting enough the remains provided a hodgepodge of goodies that only strengthened the lore of this savage. In the end, Queho met his fate by the unforgiving fangs of a native rattler, which was apropos for the story, given the circumstances that surrounded this man. One mean vermin meets another in the fabled canyons surrounding Hoover Dam. Interestingly enough, the officials involved with the finality of his death eventually squabbled over the ownership of his ill gotten booty. Apparently the Indians familiar with his plight only came to revere his stance against the white man. 3 to 5Students will describe the relationship among Queho and residents of Nelson, Nevada.
Students will create wanted posters to replicate the 1890s posters.
Students will share their posters with other students.
Various posters of wanted individuals during the 1890s.
Cream or Tan colored Construction paper
Crayons
Black Markers
The teacher will play Native American music while students come into the room.The teacher will show wanted posters from the 1890s. Teacher will discuss how the wanted posters came about during the 1800s and why they were posted around the towns.The teacher will present a short lecture about Queho and explain why Wanted Posters were relevant.After discussing the criteria for being a wanted person during the 1890s, the students will create a wanted poster of themselves. outlaw
posse
renegade
outcast
suspect
elusive
capture
dispute
To create a encouraging atmosphere, each wanted poster could be based on positive criteria such as, Student wanted for Outstanding Work, Students wanted for Reading with Fluency, Student wanted for knowing multiplication facts to 12s. Students will share posters and describe why they were wanted.
The teacher will post all of the wanted posters onto a bulletin board.
H2.4.4 Identify the diverse population of Nevada’s early settlers and discuss their unique experiences., H3.4.2 Recognize that communities include people who have diverse ethnic origins, customs, and traditions, and who make contributions to Nevada., H3.4.3 Define social responsibility., H3.4.5 Discuss major news events on the local and state levels., H4.4.1 Describe the economic and cultural influence other nations have on the state of Nevada., G6.4.1 Describe the distinguishing features of historical regions in Nevada, i.e., Native American tribal territories, pioneer trails, and settlement areas. , G8.4.1 Describe ways physical environments affect human activity in Nevada using historical and contemporary examples.Word Analysis: 1.5.4 Comprehend, build, and extend vocabulary using context clues and structural analysis., Word Analysis: 1.5.4 Use resources to find and/or confirm meaning of unknown words and word origins. , Literary Text: 3.5.4 Identify third-person limited point of view., Literary Text: 3.5.5 Explain how words and phrases create mood., Literary Text: 3.5.7 Explain the influence of historical events and culture., Expository Text: 4.5.1 Identify and explain the use of bold-faced words, underlined words, highlighted words, and italicized words., Effective Writing: 5.5.4 Edit for correct capitalization., Effective Writing: 5.5.4 Edit punctuation for end punctuation, commas, apostrophes, quotation marks, abbreviations, and colons., Effective Writing: 5.5.5 Edit for correct use of nouns, verbs, pronouns, adjectives, subject/verb agreement, verb tenses, adverbs, clauses, phrases, pronoun/antecedent agreement, pronoun case., Listening: 7.5.1 Listen for a variety of purposes including gaining information, being entertained, and understanding directions., Listening: 7.5.5 Listen to and evaluate constructive feedback.3.5.4 Determine totals, differences, and change due for monetary amounts in practical situations., 3.5.6 Determine equivalent periods of time, including relationships between and among seconds, minutes, hours, days, months, and years.N.5.B.1 Students know that, throughout history, people of diverse cultures have provided scientific knowledge and technologies. NoneNone1.5.3 Create artworks using various media, techniques, and processes to communicate ideas., 4.5.3 Create works of art that demonstrate historical and cultural influence.NoneNoneNoneNoneQuehoStudents will create wanted posters that replicate posters from the 1890s.Definitely
39
VillafuerteDawndlvillafuerte@interact.ccsd.netYour Name, Your Email AddressGeographySpringing to Las Vegashttp://www.lasvegasnevada.gov/images/BigSprings3.jpghttp://www.lasvegasnevada.gov/images/BigSprings4.jpghttp://3.bp.blogspot.com/_1quDwI_7A38/SsuJMCQ5jQI/AAAAAAAAAa4/aVH5erTJs0g/s400/Las+Vegas+Springs+Preserve+desert+plants.jpg http://matadornetwork.cachefly.net/thetravelersnotebook.com/docs//wp-content/images/posts/las%20vegas%20header.jpg http://img.infibeam.com/img/d9f07eb6/536/3/9781932173536.jpghttp://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1e/Springs_Preserve_garden_path.jpghttp://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http://www.accessclarkcounty.com/100/PublishingImages/rj-weekly-history-photos/47-indiansprings.jpg&imgrefurl=http://www.accessclarkcounty.com/100/Pages/rj-weekly-history-photos.aspx&usg=__rXtvVm6J1o6e8tDP2L0ltnSnCeA=&h=334&w=500&sz=31&hl=en&start=222&um=1&itbs=1&tbnid=FdWsJqIO71j1pM:&tbnh=87&tbnw=130&prev=/images%3Fq%3Dlas%2Bvegas%2Bsprings%26start%3D220%26um%3D1%26hl%3Den%26sa%3DN%26ndsp%3D20%26tbs%3Disch:1Black and white image of Las Vegas Springs (1)Black and white image of Las Vegas Springs (2)Plant life at Las Vegas SpringsThe "True Heart of Las Vegas"Student text bookWalking Path in Las Vegas SpringsBlack and white image swimming in Las Vegas SpringsIn December of 1829, a Mexican scout, Rafael Rivera, set off for the search of water in an unexplored desert. Within the two weeks, Rivera became “known as the first known non-Indian in the oasis-like Las Vegas Valley,” (Charleston Communications, 2010, ¶4-6).

The discovery of the artesian spring water meant that the Spanish Trail to Los Angles could be shortened, because weary travelers could rest for there was now a plethora of water. In turn, this also caused an increase in those traveling west for the California Gold Rush.

A Step Back in Time:

“For more than 15,000 years, springs broke through the desert floor, creating grassy meadows (called las vegas by Spanish explorers). The bubbling springs were a source of water for Patayan and Numa Tribes living here at least 5,000 years ago,” (Wikipedia, 2009, ¶1). They would gather at this site because natural springs have long been considered holy and sacred ground (Eytons, 2004, ¶1).

Known as The Birthplace of Las Vegas the springs sustained travelers of the Old Spanish Trail and Mormons who came to settle the West,” (Wikipedia, 2009, ¶1). As the population of Las Vegas grew, the water table of the springs dropped, and in 1962, the springs stopped flowing to the surface (Wikipedia, 2009, ¶2).

Springs Preserve Today:
When the transportation department planned to pave over The Springs in the 1970’s, Dr. Claude Warren, a UNLV professor conducted an excavation on the site. In 1972, he found evidence of “long-term human occupation of the site,” and the transportation department rerouted US95 around The Springs.

In 1978, The Springs Preserve was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. In June of 2007, the Preserve opened its doors to the community and now “features museums, galleries, outdoor events, colorful botanical gardens and an interpretive trail system through a scenic wetland habitat,” (Springs Preserve, n.d., ¶1-2).


References:

http://www.lvol.com/lvoleg/hist/lvhist.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Las_Vegas_Springs

http://www.eytonsearth.org/sacred-land.php

http://www.springspreserve.org/about/history.html
3 to 51. Students will use a grid to map objects in a Jello mold.

2. Students will look at three layers of Jello to understand stratigraphy in archeology.

3. Students will excavate objects in Jello mold.
3 sheets of grid paper for each group

1 clear bowl of Jello for each group with three different colored layers with fruit embedded in it- A good idea for fruit may be to have fresh grapes on the top layer, older grapes in the middle layer, and raisins in the bottom layer to show that older objects are often found deeper in the ground.

extra bowls

spoons

Camera
Students will view a slide show of the Springs Preserve which will include photos that are not typical of Las Vegas agriculture.Where do you think these photos were taken?

What about these photos would make you decide that the plants are not native to Las Vegas?

When you think of Las Vegas, what do you think of?
When the transportation department planned to pave over The Springs in the 1970’s, Dr. Claude Warren, a UNLV professor conducted an excavation on the site. In 1972, he found evidence of “long-term human occupation of the site."Step 1: Teacher will prepare the three-layer Jello before the class

Step 2: Split students into groups of three, 1 recorder, 1 person to excavate, and 1 mapper.

Step 3: Hand out 3 sheets of the grid paper to each group.

Step 4: Have students map the three layers of Jello. Draw in each grape, raisin, or other object on the grid paper layer by layer. Students must carefully remove each layer after they have finished mapping so they can access the next layer.

Step 5: Students will remove the items (grapes, etc.) from each layer of Jello and write down their findings at the bottom of the grid paper.

Step 6: Each group will share a portion of their finding with the class.
Excavate

Archeologist

Patayan

Numa
Students will turn in their grid paper and take photographs of their excavation process. Grid paper and photographs will be turned in for a grade at the end of the assignment.Have students create Double-Bubble Maps on the similarities and differences between this exercise and a real archeology excavation, such as the one Dr. Warren led at The Springs. When Double-Bubble Maps are completed, students will discuss their ideas with their face partners.If students complete work early, they may work on the online computer game MotherLoad http://www.miniclip.com/games/motherload/en/. At this site students will put their excavating skills to work!H1.4.1 Describe the lifestyles of Nevada’s Desert Archaic people., H1.4.3 Describe the lifestyles of Nevada’s Native American cultures. 3None4.5.3 Graph coordinates representing geometric shapes in the first quadrant., 4.5.6 Identify, draw, label, and describe planes, parallel lines, intersecting lines, and perpendicular lines., 5.5.1 Pose questions that can be used to guide the collection of categorical and numerical data. & Organize and represent data using a variety of graphical representations including stem and leaf plots and histograms.N.5.A.1 Students know scientific progress is made by conducting careful investigations, recording data, and communicating the results in an accurate method. , N.5.A.2 Students know how to compare the results of their experiments to what scientists already know about the world. , N.8.A.3 Students know how to draw conclusions from scientific evidence. , N.5.A.4 Students know graphic representations of recorded data can be used to make predictions. , N.5.A.5 Students know how to plan and conduct a safe and simple investigation. , N.5.B.1 Students know that, throughout history, people of diverse cultures have provided scientific knowledge and technologies. , E.5.C.1 Students know fossils are evidence of past life.NoneNoneNoneNoneNone4.5.3 Demonstrate the importance of safety and ease of use in selecting appropriate tools.NoneExcavating to Learn the PastTo gain insight on archeology and how one can determine the past with evidence from the future.Definitely
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