Affordability analysis
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Owner (WMF)ThingStanceActionsOrganization(s)links
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JorgeA4AI - Jorge
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JorgeISOC - Jorge
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JorgeITU - Jorge
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AnneA2K movementThe Access to Knowledge (A2K) movement is a loose collection of civil society groups, governments, and individuals converging on the idea that access to knowledge should be linked to fundamental principles of justice, freedom, and economic development. the umbrella term for a movement that aims to create more equitable public access to the products of human culture and learning. The ultimate objective of the movement is to create a world in which educational and cultural works are accessible to all, and in which consumers and creators alike participate in a vibrant ecosystem of innovation and creativity.

These goals are of interest to a broad coalition of consumer groups, NGOs, activists, Internet users and others. However for many of them, coming to grips with the issues involved in the A2K movement can be daunting. These issues, including copyright and patent law reform, open content licensing, and communications rights, often involve legal and technological concepts that even specialists find difficult.
Large focus on copyright and patent law reform, open licensing, communication rights. World International Property Organization, Knowledge Economy International, Consumers International, https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Access_to_Knowledge_movementhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berlin_Declaration_on_Open_Access_to_Knowledge_in_the_Sciences_and_Humanitieshttp://www.cptech.org/a2k/a2k_treaty_may9.pdfhttp://a2knetwork.org (not updated since 2014)
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AnneUNESCO (education)The Education for All (EFA) movement is a global commitment to provide quality basic education for all children, youth and adults. At the World Education Forum (Dakar, 2000), 164 governments pledged to achieve EFA and identified six goals to be met by 2015. Governments, development agencies, civil society and the private sector are working together to reach the EFA goals.
(i) expanding and improving comprehensive early childhood care and education, especially for the most vulnerable and disadvantaged children;
(ii) ensuring that by 2015 all children, particularly girls, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have access to and complete, free and compulsory primary education of good quality;
(iii) ensuring that the learning needs of all young people and adults are met through equitable access to appropriate learning and life-skills programmes;
(iv) achieving a 50 per cent improvement in levels of adult literacy by 2015, especially for women, and equitable access to basic and continuing education for all adults;
(v) eliminating gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls’ full and equal access to and achievement in basic education of good quality;
(vi) improving all aspects of the quality of education and ensuring excellence of all so that recognized and measurable learning outcomes are achieved by all, especially in literacy, numeracy and essential life skills
(i) mobilize strong national and international political commitment for education for all, develop national
action plans and enhance significantly investment in basic education;
(ii) promote EFA policies within a sustainable and wellintegrated sector framework clearly linked to poverty elimination and development strategies;
(iii) ensure the engagement and participation of civil society in the formulation, implementation and monitoring of strategies for educational development;
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The Dakar Framework for Action
(iv) develop responsive, participatory and accountable systems of educational governance and management;
(v) meet the needs of education systems affected by conflict, natural calamities and instability and conduct educational programmes in ways that promote mutual understanding, peace and tolerance, and that help to prevent violence and conflict;
(vi) implement integrated strategies for gender equality in education which recognize the need for changes in attitudes, values and practices;
(vii) implement as a matter of urgency education programmes and actions to combat the HIV/AIDS pandemic;
(viii) create safe, healthy, inclusive and equitably resourced educational environments conducive to excellence in learning, with clearly defined levels of achievement for all;
(ix) enhance the status, morale and professionalism of teachers;
(x) harness new information and communication technologies to help achieve EFA goals;
(xi) systematically monitor progress towards EFA goals and strategies at the national, regional and international levels; and
(xii) build on existing mechanisms to accelerate progress towards education for all.
UNESCO, World Education Forum, http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001211/121147e.pdf
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US AidEducation serves as a driver for development and the elimination of extreme poverty. Education is transformational for individuals and societies--it creates pathways to better health, economic growth, a sustainable environment, and peaceful, democratic societies. A person’s earnings increase by 10 percent with each year of school they complete. Women with higher levels of education have healthier children. And increasing the average level of higher education in a country by just one year can add half a percentage point of growth to GDP.

Despite unprecedented increases in school enrollment over the last decade, there is still a global learning crisis—worldwide, 250 million children are not acquiring basic literacy and numeracy skills, 130 million of whom have attended at least four years of school. 121 million children are not in school, and the number of out-of-school children living in crisis and conflict-affected countries is growing. Some 114 million youth aged 15 to 24 cannot read or write a simple sentence; nearly two thirds are women.
Resolving the global learning crisis--ensuring all children and youth are in school and learning-- requires political will at the highest levels and strong collaboration in the countries where we work. USAID partners with other U.S. government agencies, donors, country governments, multilateral agencies, civil society, and the private sector to ensure equitable access to inclusive, quality education for all – especially the most marginalized and vulnerable. We do this by working to achieve the goals of the USAID Education Strategy, including:

Improving the reading skills of students in the primary grades to increase school success and completion;
Increasing employment opportunities for youth, and strengthening higher education systems, so youth can find good jobs and contribute to the economic growth of their countries; and
Increasing equitable access to education in crisis and conflict environments.
Learning, effectiveness, accountability, and transparency are central to the success of our strategy. To most effectively reach our goals, and the goals of our host country partners, USAID collaborates with partners globally to generate and use evidence as the basis for continuous learning and program improvement.
US Government, let girls learnhttps://www.usaid.gov/educationhttps://letgirlslearn.gov/
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World BankEducation is a powerful driver of development and one of the strongest instruments for reducing poverty and improving health, gender equality, peace, and stability. Although there has been great progress in the last decade, some 121 million children are still out of primary and lower secondary school, and 250 million children cannot read or write although many have been to school.

Education has large, consistent returns in terms of income and counters widening inequality, but this potential is too often unrealized due to alarmingly low learning levels. Providing all children with a quality education that teaches them skills for work is critical to end poverty by 2030.
Programs that pursue:
- Ramping up early childhood development investments to enable a lifetime of learning and raise future productivity;
- Ensuring that children who are in school are actually learning foundational skills;
- Lowering barriers to quality education for girls and children from disadvantaged communities;
- Fixing the wide disconnect between skills development higher education and the labor market;
- Increasing innovative results-based financing in responding to country demand.
World Bank, UNICEF, Teach for All, Arab World Initiative, Early Childhood Consultative Group, Global Reading Network, etc.http://www.worldbank.org/en/topic/education/overview#1
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Anne?Zero ratingWorking with telcos to make some web content free allows people for whom the cost of the internet is too high to have some access. This is contested by advocates for net-neutrality, particularly when commercial/for-profit companies gate what content is available.Providing reduced cost access for certain web properties. FreeBee Data allows for content providers to pay that cost (Verizon + AT&T US). There is an app-centric version that allows all content within an app to be free (this is less contested wrt net neutrality).FB Free basics, Wikipedia Zero, Facebook Zero, T-Mobile US (music streaming), FreeBee Datahttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zero-rating
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Individual connectivity (free or reduced cost)Giving connectivity to the internet (through grants, partnerships, etc.) to individuals for access.Google
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AnneUnited Nations General Assembly70 countries signed together a resolution. The resolution is a significant political commitment by states, based on their existing obligations under international human rights law, to:

Address security concerns on the Internet in accordance with their obligations to protect freedom of expression, privacy and other human rights online;
Ensure accountability for all human rights violations and abuses committed against persons for exercising their human rights, including for extrajudicial killings and arbitrary detention. This encompasses ensuring the release of those imprisoned for legitimate exercise of their freedom of expression rights, and ensuring that any attack against bloggers or other Internet users is effectively investigated and perpetrators held to account.
Desist and refrain from “measures to intentionally prevent or disrupt access to or dissemination of information online”. This includes measures to shut down the Internet or part of the Internet at any time, in particular at times where access to information is critical, such as during an election, or in the aftermath of a terrorist attack.
Adopt a “human rights based approach” to provide and expand access to the Internet, with particular regard to addressing the gender digital divide, and to promote Internet access for persons with disabilities. The importance of civil society and technical community participation in related processes is also recognised.

“the Internet has become a key means by which individuals can exercise their right to freedom and expression.”
none really, this is a set of recommendations and guidance for countries as they enact their own laws. It requests the High Commissioner to prepare a report on “ways to bridge the gender digital divide from a human rights perspective”, with input from states, relevant HRC special procedures, civil society, the technical community and industry. The report will be presented to the HRC in June 2017 at its 35th Session.United Nationshttps://www.article19.org/data/files/Internet_Statement_Adopted.pdfhttps://www.article19.org/resources.php/resource/38429/en/unhrc:-significant-resolution-reaffirming-human-rights-online-adopted
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AnneThe Internet societydataglobal survey of 10,000 internet users in 20 countries in 2012https://www.internetsociety.org/sites/default/files/GIUS2012-GlobalData-Table-20121120_0.pdf
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AnneCountries adopting strong stances about internet accessvaries per country. See linkhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Right_to_Internet_access#Ensuring_that_access_is_broadly_available_and.2For_preventing_unreasonable_restrictions
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AnneA Human RightA Human Right is a nonprofit organization dedicated to providing free basic internet and phone access to developing countries, and to citizens of countries whose government has cut off or restricted internet access.A Human Righthttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A_Human_Right
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SubsidiesExample: Subsidies given by the state. State should provide incentives for rural areas. Etc
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Philanthropy/Foundations
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ORGWho are they? What are we doing with them? Endorse? Fund? Partner?
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LEVERS/TOOLSTaxation?
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Subsidies? Incentives?
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And then... what are the options around this? Do we call for a change on this? Sign on for things? Workarounds?
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BEING VOCALEven if no one is doing something, talk more about it? Have a public stance.
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