Y-DNA Haplogroup K and its Subclades - 2018
Downloading this spreadsheet as Excel retains format better than copying. Links to other sites may not copy
The entire work is identified by the Version Number and date given on the
Directions for citing the document are listed on the
Last revision date for this specific page: 1 January 2018
|Because of continuing research, the structure of the Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree changes, and ISOGG does its best to keep the tree updated.|
If the differences need clarification or if you find any broken links on this page, then please:
Email Ray Banks
|Listing Criteria||SNP Index|
Y-DNA Tree Trunk
Newly confirmed in 2018 within subclade
Confirmed within subclade
^ Indicates a next-generation sequencing entry which does not yet meet quality guidelines for minimum number of reads.
^^ Indicates an entry which does not meet quality guidelines but may be helpful.
~ Indicates only an approximate location on the tree.
|The criteria for a representative SNP printed in bold for a subclade is: traditional usage, testing done in multiple labs, and/or found in the area of the chromosome used in recent research studies.|
|SNPs listed below in italics (colored black or red) are quality variants from next-generation sequencing reports consistently showing as representing that subgroup.|
|DID YOU NOTICE that the items in gray sometimes have a long name preceding their listing that is the same as just above? In this situation, evidence seems to indicate they also seem to belong to the same subgroup, but some confirmatory evidence is not yet available.|
Contact Person for Haplogroup K
P128/PF5504, P131/PF5493, P132/PF5480
|LT or K1|
|L or K1a||M20/PF5570|
|T or K1b|
<--This was previously classified as K(xLT), etc.
|NO or K2a|
|NO1 or K2a1|
|N or K2a1a|
|O or K2a1b||M175|
|K2b1||P399, P397^^, PR2099/Y25867, Z31091, Z31092, Z31109|
|S or K2b1a||B254, Z33335|
|M or K2b1b||P256, etc|
|P or K2b2|
MUTATION INFORMATION AT VERY BOTTOM HERE
Identical SNPs that were discovered separately are listed in alphabetical order, not necessarily in the order of discovery,
and separated by "/". Examples: M74/N12, M184/USP9Y+3178.
The Karafet et al (2008) paper made a major change to Haplogroup K. The subgroups formerly known as K1 and K7
was moved to M2 and M3, respectively, and K2 and K5 became Haplogroups S and T, respectively.
The 50f2(C) deletion in the AZFc region of the human Y chromosome has been observed in several different haplogroups
and is not a unique event polymorphism. It is notable, however, that it has been detected at relatively high
levels in subgroups of K in Melanesia - K* (21%), and K3 (14%).
P299 appeared in earlier K trees, but was omitted in 2014 Karafet study so its placement is uncertain.
The chromosome location for M-P256 shown in Karafet (2008) seems off by one chromosome position. All M samples
from next-generation sequencing show the same mutation at adjacent chromosome position
8685231. So this is the position tentatively listed in the ISOGG index. Listed 31 August 2016.
Y-DNA haplogroup K
is an old lineage established approximately 40,000 thousand years ago whose origins were probably in
southwestern Asia. K's structure is interwoven with other haplogroups downstream (refer to the main tree at
Y-DNA Haplogroup Tree)
The subclades restricted to K itself are found at low frequencies in
various parts of Africa, Eurasia, Australia and the South Pacific.
Geographical Distribution of ancestry of men in Haplogroup K (not complete):
K2c P261 Balinese Indonesia
K2d P402 Javanese Indonesia
K2e M147 India, Pakistan
Alonso et al, The Place of the Basques in the European Y-chromosome Diversity Landscape. European Journal of Human Genetics, 13:1293-1302, 2005.
Behar et al, Genome-Wide Structure of the Jewish People. Nature, 446:238-42, 2010.
Bergstrom, et al, Deep Roots for Aboriginal Australian Y Chromosomes. (pdf) Current Biology, 26:809-813, (2016).
Biro et al, A Y-Chromosomal Comparison of the Madjars (Kazakhstan) and the Magyars (Hungary), American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 139(3): 305-10, 2009. (abstract)
Bortolini et al, Y-Chromosome Evidence for Differing Ancient Demographic Histories in the Americas. American Journal of Human Genetics, 73:524–539, (2003).
Bosch et al, Paternal and Maternal Lineages in the Balkans Show a Homogeneous Landscape over Linguistis Barriers except for the Isolated Aromuns. Annals of Human Genetics, 70:459-87, (2006).
Cinnioglu et al, Excavating Y-chromosome Haplotype Strata in Anatolia. (pdf) Human Genetics. 114:127-148, 2004.
Cox M P & Lahr M M, Y-Chromosome Diversity Is Inversely Associated with Language Affiliation in Paired Austronesian- and Papuan-Speaking Communities from Solomon Islands. (pdf) American Journal of Human Biology, 18:35-50, 2006.
Cruciani et al, A Back Migration from Asia to Sub-Saharan Africa Is Supported by High-Resolution Analysis of Human Y-Chromosome Haplotypes. American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:1197-1214, 2002.
Delfin et al, The Y Chromosome Landscape of the Philippines: Extensive Heterogeneity and Varying Genetic Affinities of Negrito and Non-Negrito Groups. (abstract) European Journal of Human Genetics, 19:224-30, 2011.
Deng et al, Evolution and Migration History of the Chinese Population Inferred from the Chinese Y-chromosome Evidence. (pdf) Journal of Human Genetics, 49:339-348, 2004.
Eaaswarkhanth et al, Traces of Sub-Saharan and Middle Eastern Lineages in Indian Muslim Populations. European Journal of Human Genetics, 18, 354-363, 2010.
Flores et al, Reduced Genetic Structure of the Iberian Peninsula Revealed by Y-chromosome Analysis: Implications for Population Demography. (pdf) European Journal of Human Genetics, 12:855-863, 2004.
Karafet et al, New Binary Polymorphisms Reshape and Increase Resolution of the Human Y-Chromosomal Haplogroup Tree. Abstract. Genome Research, published online April 2, 2008. Supplementary Material.
Karafet et al, Improved Phylogenetic Resolution and Rapid Diversification of Y-chromosome Haplogroup K-M526 in Southeast Asia. European Journal of Human Genetics, 1-5, 2014.
Karmin et al, A Recent Bottleneck of Y chromosome Diversity Coincides with a Global Change in Culture. Genome Research, doi: 10.1101/gr.186684.114, published online March 13, 2015.
Kayser et al, The Impact of the Austronesian Expansion: Evidence from mtDNa and Y Chromosome Diversity in the Admiralty Islands of Melanesia. Molecular Biology Evolution, 25(7):1362-1374, 2008.
Kayser et al, Independent Histories of Human Y Chromosomes from Melanesia and Australia. American Journal of Human Genetics, 68:173-190, 2001.
Kayser et al, Melanesian and Asian Origins of Polynesians: mtDNA and Y-Chromosome Gradients across the Pacific. MBE Advance Access published August 21, 2006.
Kayser et al. Reduced Y-Chromosome, but Not Mitochondrial DNA, Diversity in Human Populations from West New Guinea. American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:281-302, 2003.
Kivisild et al, The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists in Both Indian Tribal and Caste Populations. (pdf) American Journal of Human Genetics, 72:313-332, 2003.
Li et al, Paternal Genetic Affinity between Western Austronesians and Daic Populations BMC Evolutionary Biology, Vo. 15(8), p. 146, 2008.
Mona et al, Patterns of Y-chromosome Diversity Intersect with the Trans-New Guinea Hypothesis. Mol Biol Evol. 2007 Sep 10; [Epub ahead of print]
Regueiro et al, Iran: Tricontinental Nexus for Y-Chromosome Driven Migration. (abstract) Human Heredity, Vol. 61, No 3, 132-143, 2006.
Scheinfeldt et al, Unexpected NRY Chromosome Variation in Northern Island Melanesia. Society for Molecular Biology, 2006.