|Bates, A. W., & Poole, G. (2003). Effective Teaching with Technology in Higher Education: Foundations for Success. Jossey-Bass, An Imprint of Wiley. 10475 Crosspoint Blvd, Indianapolis, IN 46256.|
|The SECTIONS framework is based on an acronym representing the criteria that should be considered when selecting instructional technologies. It may be used for analyzing the relative merits of a particular form of rich media:|
|Students:||Is it appropriate for your student population?||Consider:||student demographics, student accessibility, and student learning styles.||• Are transferrable skills being developed? |
• Does the technology allow for an appropriate degree of openness to the community beyond registered course participants?
• Can students show their work via web link (url)?
|Ease of Use:||Is the interface and design reliable and intuitive to the learner?||Consider:||Free plug-ins, navigation panels, help and instructions on use.||• Will students need to make a major investment in time to learn how to use the technology? |
• Will I need to make a major investment in time to learn this technology?
• Am I comfortable enough with the technology to guide students?
|Cost Structure:||Is the production cost reasonable?||Consider:||Cost of software, development time, skilled development staff, and cost of maintenance and updates.||• Are the time costs relatively low to design a learning environment using this technology (or at least cost/benefit ratio is favorable)? |
• Will students incur additional costs as a result of incorporating this new technology/approach?
• Are there licensing costs associated with the hosting/archivingof materials beyond the life of the course?
|Teaching & Learning:||Will it enhance learning?||Consider:||Student engagement, learning styles, and active learning.||• Does this technology support the learning goals that I have identified?|
• Will students be engaged in authentic, real-world learning as a result of implementing this technology?
• Does this technology support peer/self assessment as well as instructor assessment?
|Interactivity:||Does it move the learner beyond just reading, viewing and listening?||Consider:||End-user experience, interaction and feedback.||• Does this technology support interactions with peers, instructors and others associated or contributing to the learning tasks? |
• Does this technology allow for sharing/collaboration with learning communities beyond registered course participants?
• Can people easily interact with the products/resources developed in the course?
|Organization:||Is an effective organizational system in place to ensure that a particular media or technology is both feasible and practical?||Consider:||Campus resources, skilled development and support staff for instructors and students, and server/hosting technologies.||• Are the support structures in place to maintain and update this technology?|
• Is there help available for me or my students if we need it?
• Is there a way for me to retrieve my material if this technology fails or is replaced?
• Does this technology work with the SIS?
• Will students need to manage their own accounts?
• Will I need to add students manually into the online environment?
|Novelty:||Does it offer a welcome relief from instruction that relies heavily on text?||Consider:||Students as digital natives, and their engagement/motivation.||• Will this represent a new approach to teaching for me? |
• Will this provide a new and (novel) learning experience for students?
• Are there examples of use in an educational context?
|Speed:||Is it quick to implement and update?||Consider:||Time to produce and modify, and design templates.||• Can I make changes to content and learning activities on the fly? |
• Is this a new (beta) technology or “tried and true”?
• Can I (ultimately) be independent in my development with the use of this technology?