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ABCDEF
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ART
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Prehistoric (33000 - 10000 BCE)
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Venus of WillendorfAustria25000 BCMobiliary Art
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Spotted Horses and Human HandsPech-Merle16000+15000 BC
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Lascaux Cave ArtFrance15000-10000 BC
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Bison from La MadeleineFrance15000-10000 BC
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Hand Dots in Brunel ChamberChauvet15000 BC
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StonehengeEngland2000 BCPost-Lintel
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Cave paintings made of polychrome and Earth minerals on cave walls such as Altamira,
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Lascaux, and Chauvet. Consisted of animals in motion, body-side with head facing viewer.
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Megalith- Large stones
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Menhir- Large stones in rows, grave markers
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Henge- Circle
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Cromlech- Arrangements of menhirs, circular pattern
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Register- Division of space
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Egyptian (3150 - 1069 BCE)
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Palette of King NarmerEgyptian3150 BC
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Great SphinxEgyptian2575-2465 BC
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Ti on a Hippopotamus HuntEgyptian2510-2460 BC
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Menakure (Mycerinus) and his WifeEgyptian2500 BC
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NofreteteAmarna1360 BC
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Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV)Amarna1360 BC
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Tutankhamen Coffin CoverAmarna1340 BC
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King Narmer unites Upper and Lower Egypt in 3150 BC. The pyramids built in the Old
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Kingdom to house spirits of pharoahs. In the Middle Kingdom, funerary temples built into
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mountains for security replaced pyramids. Hatshepsut's funerary complex is built in the New
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Kingdom. In 1365, New Kingdom, Akhenaten or Amenhotep IV, began Amarna period. Faces
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were elongated, and curves. Statues were all bound to a wall in back. Man has left foot forward.
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Art was formulaic that supported the cultural need for stability that allowed it to last long.
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Sculptures are very cubic, and Greeks copied that. Shoulders are broad and fists clenched.
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Hair is wig-like. Clothing is very tight. Figures are rigid. Height=status. Full frontal.
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Ankh is a symbol of life, a cross or person, or a sandal for walking in the desert.
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Greek (800 - 100 BCE)
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Discus ThrowerMyronHigh Classic450 BC
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The ParthenonIktinos + KallikaratesDoric / Classic430 BC
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Dying GaulHellenistic220 BC
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Winged Victory of SamothraceHellenistic200 BC
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Statues were painted over white marble. Romans copied Greek statues (marble + bronze). Red/Black
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Greek fresco (wall paintings) used perspective and 3D effects. They made furniture, vases, clothes,
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jewelery, tapestry, and metalwork. They were humanist. They personified their Gods with
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perfect proportions. Greeks had the first free standing statues. Copy Egyptian sculpture as well.
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I. Doric: This style is classic,includes fluting and entasis.
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II. Ionic: This style has two small curls at both ends of the top.
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III. Corinthian: This is probably the most complicated style. It’s helllenistic and is decorative, leafy.
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Relief: sculptural carving (usually bronze or stone)
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Frieze: band of reliefs decorating a structure
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Pediment: Triangle topping structure
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Triglyph: 3 notches above the column
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Metope: Design above frieze
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Capital: Frieze and metope
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Key design:
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I. Archaic: (800-480 BCE) Monumental arch + stone sculptures.
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Ceramic Black figure vases on red clay, statues were stiff, column-like, smiling and clothed.
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Archaic smile showed that figures were alive. (Doric)
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II. Classical: (480-300 BCE) In classical sculptures, there is contrapposto (natural stance). (Ionic)
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III. Hellenistic: (300-100 BCE) There’s emotion, unbalance, and imperfection in sculptures. (Corinthian)
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Roman (100 BC- 450 AD)
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The ColosseumRoman80 ADAll 3 columns
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The Pantheon (Corinthian)Marcus AgrippaRoman25 BC + 125 ADDome / oculus
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Pont du GardMarcus AgrippaRoman19 BCAqueduct
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Trajan's ColumnTrajanRoman106-113 AD
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The Romans copied the Greeks in many aspects. Their statues also included wet drapery. They had
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fresco watercolor paint in Pompeii, which were large wall paintings. They invented the arch, which required
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the keystone to lock in place. A series of arches created a dome. The oculus was a hole in the top. Art
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was used as propoganda to gain power. Statues were made of emperors on horseback and victory
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arches were made. Portraits were more realistic. And quite grotesque. Trompe'lioeil tricks the eye.
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Medieval (450 - 1300 AD)
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Lindisfarne Gospel pageMedieval700 AD
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Notre Dame de ParisGothic1200s AD
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Romanesque architecture had rounded arches from 800-1100 AD. Walls were thick with little windows
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for defense. Gothic architecture had pointed arches. There was more height and light. They used
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ribbed arches, flying buttresses, sometimes on the exterior. Created by Suger, seen at Chartres.
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Cathedrals were in the shape of a cross. Most art at this time was religious and portable. Monks made
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books by hand They were very expensive, made of gold, and contained intertwining lines and fantastic
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creatures. Students made art exhibited at the annual Salon. Gargoyles spew water atop cathedrals.
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There was stained glass windows in Romanesque churches. Took about 70 years to build a cathedral.
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Rennaisance (1300-1527)
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The LamentationGiottoItalian1306
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The Gates of ParadiseLorenzo GhibertiItalian1435
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DavidDonatelloItalian1440
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The Birth of VenusBotticelliItalian1480
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The Last SupperLeonardo DaVinci1497
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DavidMichelangeloHigh1504
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