Apple II Video Display Theory
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ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZAAABACADAEAFAGAHAIAJAKALAMANAOAPAQARASATAUAVAWAXAYAZBABBBCBDBEBFBGBHBIBJBKBLBMBNBOBPBQBRBSBTBUBVBWBXBYBZCACBCCCDCECFCGCHCICJCKCLCMCNCOCPCQCRCSCTCUCV
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Apple II Video Display Theory
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40-Column Text
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Column 0Column 1Column 2Column 3Column 4Column 5...Column 38
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...
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Standard Lo-Res Graphics
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Column 0Column 1Column 2Column 3Even ColumnsOdd Columns...Column 38
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012301230123012301230123012301230123012301230123012301230123012301230123012301230123...01
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012301230123012301230123012301230123012301230123012301230123012301230123012301230123...01
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012301230123012301230123012301230123012301230123012301230123012301230123012301230123...01
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012301230123012301230123012301230123012301230123012301230123012301230123012301230123...01
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456745674567456745674567456745674567456745674567456745674567456745674567456745674567...45
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456745674567456745674567456745674567456745674567456745674567456745674567456745674567...45
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456745674567456745674567456745674567456745674567456745674567456745674567456745674567...45
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456745674567456745674567456745674567456745674567456745674567456745674567456745674567...45
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Standard Hi-Res Graphics
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Column 0Column 1Column 2Column 3Column 4Column 5...Column 38
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Bit 7 Clear001122334455660011223344556600112233445566001122334455660011223344556600112233445566C = Bit 6 of00
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Bit 7 SetC0011223344556C0011223344556C0011223344556C0011223344556C0011223344556C0011223344556Previous ByteC0
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Video Display
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Bit PatternBit Pattern
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ColorBlackRedD BlueVioletD GreenGrayBlueL BlueBrownOrangePinkGreenYellowAquaRedD BlueVioletD GreenBlueL BlueBrownColorOrange
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COLOR=0123456789111213141234678COLOR=9
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Y00.250.250.50.250.50.50.750.250.50.750.50.750.750.250.250.50.250.50.750.25Y0.5
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I (Naïve) 0 +0.25 −0.25 0 −0.25 0 −0.5 −0.25 +0.25 +0.5 +0.25 0 +0.25 −0.25 +0.25 −0.25 0 −0.25 −0.5 −0.25 +0.25 I (Naïve) +0.5
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Q (Naïve) 0 +0.25 +0.25 +0.5 −0.25 0 0 +0.25 −0.25 0 +0.25 −0.5 −0.25 −0.25 +0.25 +0.25 +0.5 −0.25 0 +0.25 −0.25 Q (Naïve) 0
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I (Actual) 0 +0.297 −0.193 +0.104 −0.297 0 −0.489 −0.193 +0.193 +0.489 +0.297 −0.104 +0.193 −0.297 +0.297 −0.193 +0.104 −0.297 −0.489 −0.193 +0.193 I (Actual) +0.489
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Q (Actual) 0 +0.193 +0.297 +0.489 −0.193 0 +0.104 +0.297 −0.297 −0.104 +0.193 −0.489 −0.297 −0.193 +0.193 +0.297 +0.489 −0.193 +0.104 +0.297 −0.297 Q (Actual) −0.104
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-I+I-I+I-I+I-I+I-I+I-I+I-I+I-I+I-I+I-I+I-I+I-I+I-I+I-I+I-I+I-I+I-I+I-I+I-I+I-I+I-I+I-I+I-I-I+I-I+I-I
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-Q+Q-Q+Q-Q+Q-Q+Q-Q+Q-Q+Q-Q+Q-Q+Q-Q+Q-Q+Q-Q+Q-Q+Q-Q+Q-Q+Q-Q+Q-Q+Q-Q+Q-Q+Q-Q+Q-Q+Q-Q+Q-Q+Q-Q-Q+Q-Q+Q
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00.250.250.50.250.50.50.750.250.50.750.50.750.750.250.250.50.250.50.750.25Y0.50.50.75
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0 −0.25 −0.25 −0.5 +0.25 0 0 −0.25 +0.25 0 −0.25 +0.5 +0.25 +0.25 −0.25 −0.25 −0.5 +0.25 0 −0.25 +0.25 I (Naïve) 0 0 −0.25
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0 +0.25 −0.25 0 −0.25 0 −0.5 −0.25 +0.25 +0.5 +0.25 0 +0.25 −0.25 +0.25 −0.25 0 −0.25 −0.5 −0.25 +0.25 Q (Naïve) +0.5 0 +0.25
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0 −0.193 −0.297 −0.489 +0.193 0 −0.104 −0.297 +0.297 +0.104 −0.193 +0.489 +0.297 +0.193 −0.193 −0.297 −0.489 +0.193 −0.104 −0.297 +0.297 I (Actual) +0.104 0 −0.193
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0 +0.297 −0.193 +0.104 −0.297 0 −0.489 −0.193 +0.193 +0.489 +0.297 −0.104 +0.193 −0.297 +0.297 −0.193 +0.104 −0.297 −0.489 −0.193 +0.193 Q (Actual) +0.489 0 +0.297
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0246810121413791113246812141COLOR=357
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BlackD BlueD GreenBlueBrownGrayGreenAquaRedVioletL BlueOrangePinkYellowD BlueD GreenBlueBrownGreenAquaRedColorVioletGrayL Blue
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Bit Pattern
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Double Hi-Res Graphics
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Aux Col 0Main Col 0Aux Col 1Main Col 1Aux Col 2Main Col 2Aux Col 3Main Col 3Aux Col 4Main Col 4Aux Col 5Main Col 5...Aux Col 38Main Col 38
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012345601234560123456012345601234560123456012345601234560123456012345601234560123456...012345601
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Double Lo-Res Graphics
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Aux Col 0Main Col 0Aux Col 1Main Col 1Aux Col 2Main Col 2Aux Col 3Main Col 3Aux Even ColMain Even ColAux Odd ColMain Odd Col...Aux Col 38Main Col 38
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012301201230122301230230123001230120123012230123023012300123012012301223012302301230...012301201
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012301201230122301230230123001230120123012230123023012300123012012301223012302301230...012301201
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012301201230122301230230123001230120123012230123023012300123012012301223012302301230...012301201
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012301201230122301230230123001230120123012230123023012300123012012301223012302301230...012301201
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456745645674566745674674567445674564567456674567467456744567456456745667456746745674...456745645
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456745645674566745674674567445674564567456674567467456744567456456745667456746745674...456745645
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456745645674566745674674567445674564567456674567467456744567456456745667456746745674...456745645
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456745645674566745674674567445674564567456674567467456744567456456745667456746745674...456745645
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80-Column Text
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Aux Col 0Main Col 0Aux Col 1Main Col 1Aux Col 2Main Col 2Aux Col 3Main Col 3Aux Col 4Main Col 4Aux Col 5Main Col 5...Aux Col 38Main Col 38
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Apple II Video Display Theory
Calculating RGB Values