Date Published / Created
Date Range?
Authors / Founders
YACK (Theory)
HACK (Practice)
Affective Computing
A.I. / M.L.
Automation / Bots
Biotech / Biopolitics
Body + Sex
Communication Technology
Digital Divide / Diaspora
Fiction (Sci-Fi, Hypertext)
Free Culture (FLOSS)
Gender Abolition
Glitch / Error
Hacking / Hacktivism
Human Computer Interaction
Online Community / Hashtag
Porn / Sex Work
Privacy / Surveillance
Race / Decolonialism
Revisionist History
Self-Defense / Harrassment
Techno-Capital / Economics
Virtual Reality / Simulation
Aggregator / Directory
Art / Exhibition
Class / Education
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Essay / Article
Audio / Video
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Critical Art Ensemble (CAE)1987presentSteve Barnes, Dorian Burr, Beverly Schlee, Ricardo Dominguez, Hope Kurtz(CAE) is a collective of five tactical media practitioners of various specializations including computer graphics and web design, film/video, photography, text art, book art, and performance.Formed in 1987, CAE’s focus has been on the exploration of the intersections between art, critical theory, technology, and political activism. The group has exhibited and performed at diverse venues internationally, ranging from the street, to the museum, to the internet.*S.Kurtz omission 3/171987-CAE-sitecapture1999.png, 1987-CAE-sitecapture2019.png
The Drum19882006?The Talking Drum Collective is a collective of organizers and website owners who have came together in the spirit Unity for the upliftment of Afrikan People. Over the years we have become the premier Afrikan informational websites. Some of the more popular websites include: TheTalkingDrum.Com (The Talking Drum); AssataShakur.Org, which is currently engaged in the Hands Off Assata Campaign; and Afrikan.Net, who constantly updates mailing list with information about Political Prisoners and other issues. Race For Cyberspace: Information Technology in the Black DiasporaStone Mountain, GAsite is still up but is it in use? last copyrighted 20061988-TheDrum-sitecapture2003-long.png
Gyn/Ecology: The Metaethics of Radical Feminism1990Mary Daly(from back cover) Mary Daly's New Intergalactic Introduction explores her process as a Crafty Pirate on the Journey of Writing Gyn/Ecology and reveals the autobiographical context of this 'Thunderbolt or Rage' that she first hurled against the patriarchs in 1979 and Now hurls again in the Re-Surging Movement of Radical Feminism in the Be-Dazzling Nineties. 1990-MaryDaly-Gyn/Ecology.png
The Real World of Technology1990Ursula M. Franklin, culture, sociology
"A Cyborg Manifesto: Science, Technology, and Socialist-Feminism in the Late 20th Century" (republished in Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of Nature)1991Donna HarawayThe essay originated as a response to a call for political thinking about the 1980s from socialist-feminist points of view, in hopes of deepening our political and cultural debates in order to renew commitments to fundamental social change in the face of the Reagan years. The "Cyborg Manifesto" tried to find a feminist place for connected thinking and acting in profoundly contradictory worlds. Since its publication, this bit of cyborgian writing has had a surprising half-life. It has proved impossible to rewrite the cyborg. Cyborg's daughter will have to find its own matrix in another essay, starting from the proposition that the immune system is the bio-technical body's chief system of differences in late capitalism, where feminists mightfind provocative extra-terrestrial maps of the networks of embodied power marked by race, sex, and class. in Simians, Cyborgs and Women: The Reinvention of NatureRoutledgeoriginally published in 1985 in Socialist Review, No. 801991-DonnaHaraway-CyborgManifesto.gif
Feminism Confronts Technology1991Judy WajcmanIn the first major study of its kind, Judy Wajcman challenges the common assumption that technology is gender neutral and analyzes its influence on the lives of women.Does technology liberate women and encourage equality, or are the new technologies reinforcing sexual divisions in society? Does the problem lie in men’s monopoly of technology, or is technology itself in some sense inherently patriarchal? To answer these questions, Judy Wajcman explores what the impact of technology is on the lives of women today. Popular stereotypes depict women as technologically incompetent or invisible in technical spheres. Wajcman argues that the identification between men and machines is not immutable but is the result of ideological and cultural processes. She surveys sociological and feminist literature on technology, highlighting the male bias in the way technology is defined as well as developed.Penn State University Press1991-JudyWajcman-FeminismConfrontsTechnology.jpg
VNS Matrix19911997Josephine Starrs, Julianne Pierce, Francesca da Rimini, Virginia BarrattFrom 1991 – 1997 VNS Matrix presented installations and public art works in Australia and overseas, working with new media, photography, sound and video. Their works include installations, events, computer ames and interactive works, imagery and propaganda distributed through the Internet, zines, and billboards. Taking their point of departure in a sexualised and socially provocative relationship between women and technology the works subversively questioned discourses of domination and control in the expanding cyber space.
A Cyberfeminist Manifesto for the 21st Century1991VNS Matrix (Josephine Starrs, Julianne Pierce, Francesca da Rimini, and Virginia Barratt)we are the modern cuntpositive anti reasonunbounded unleased unforgivingwe see art with out cunt we make artwith our cuntwe believe in jouissance madness holinessand poetrywe are the virus of the new world disorderrupturing the symbol from within saboteurs of big daddy mainframethe clitoris is a direct line to the matrixVNS MATRIXterminators of the moral codemercenaries of slimego down on the altar of abjectionprobing the visceral temple we speak intonguesinfiltrating disrupting disseminatingcorrupting the dscoursewe are the future cunt
Automating Gender: Postmodern Feminisms in the Age of the Intelligent Machine1991Judith HalberstamThe development of computers and computer science in the 1940s activated a debate between humanists and mechanists over the possibility of intelligent machines. The prospect of thinking ma- chines, or cyborgs, inspired at first religious indignation; intellec- tual disbelief; and large-scale suspicion of the social, economic, and military implications of an autonomous technology. In general terms, we can identify two major causes for concern produced by cybernetics. The first concern relates to the idea that computers may be taught to simulate human thought, and the second relates to the possibility that automated robots may be wired to replace humans in the workplace. The cybernetics debate, in fact, appears to follow the somewhat familiar class and gender lines of a mind- body split. Artificial intelligence, of course, threatens to reproduce the thinking subject, while the robot could conceivably be mass produced to form an automated workforce (robot in Czech means "worker"). However, if the former challenges the traditional in- tellectual prestige of a class of experts, the latter promises to displace the social privilege dependent upon stable categories of gender. Studies 17, no. 3
All New Gen1992VNS MatrixIn this game you become a component of the matrix, joining ANG in her quest to sabotage the databanks of Big Daddy Mainframe . . . All battles take place in the Contested Zone, a terrain of propaganda, subversion and transgression. Your guides through the Contested Zone are renegade DNA Sluts, abdicators from the oppressive superhero regime, who have joined ANG in her fight for data liberation . . . The path of infiltration is treacherous and you will encounter many obstacles. The most wicked is Circuit Boy – a dangerous techno-bimbo . . . You will be fuelled by G-Slime. Please monitor your levels. Bonding with the DNA Sluts will replenish your supplies . . . Be prepared to question your gendered construction . . . Be aware there is no moral code in the Zone (VNS Matrix, Game Girl).
Women in Technology1992presentFounded in 1992, Women In Technology (WIT) empowers girls and women at every stage of their STEAM careers – from the classroom to the boardroom. WIT utilizes its programs, connections, volunteer opportunities and events to enable the development of the WIT community through recognition, thought leadership and foundation efforts. WIT is driven to help women and girls write their own stories of success throughout the full lifecycle of their careers and continued evolution as STEAM leaders in Georgia., USA1992-WIT-site.png
Recombinants (collage series)19921996Faith WildingFluid convergences of machines, animals, plants, and humans, in monstrous cyborg bodies.
Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of "Sex"1993Judith ButlerRoutledge
The Five Sexes: Why Male and Female Are Not Enough1993Anne Fausto-Sterling(excerpt) Western culture is deeply committed to the idea that there are only two sexes. Even language refuses other possibilities; thus to write about Levi Suydam I have had to invent conventions-- s/he and his/her-- to denote someone who is clearly neither male nor female or who is perhaps both sexes at once. Legally, too, every adult is either man or woman, and the difference, of course, is not trivial. For Suydam it meant the franchise; today it means being available for, or exempt from, draft registration, as well as being subject, in various ways, to a number of laws governing marriage, the family and human intimacy. In many parts of the United States, for instance, two people legally registered as men cannot have sexual relations without violating anti-sodomy statutes.But if the state and the legal system have an interest in maintaining a two-party sexual system, they are in defiance of nature. For biologically speaking, there are many gradations running from female to male; and depending on how one calls the shots, one can argue that along that spectrum lie at least five sexes-- and perhaps even more., 1992-FaithWilding-Recombinants-2.jpg, 1992-FaithWilding-Recombinants-3.jpg, 1992-FaithWilding-Recombinants-4.jpg,
geekgirl19932015Rosie CrossGeekgirl Zine is an online australian magazine about women and technology. Proud to boot, and a digital repository for interesting bits of infotainment. Slogans “put down that pony and pick up a computer!” & “Grrls Need Modems”., 1993-geekgirl-sitecapture?.png
Computers as Theater1993Brenda LaurelBrenda Laurel's Computers as Theatre revolutionized the field of human-computer interaction, offering ideas that inspired generations of interface and interaction designers-and continue to inspire them. Laurel's insight was that effective interface design, like effective drama, must engage the user directly in an experience involving both thought and emotion. Her practical conclusion was that a user's enjoyment must be a paramount design consideration, and this demands a deep awareness of dramatic theory and technique, both ancient and modern.1993-BrendaLaurel-ComputersasTheater.jpg
Women's WIRE (Women's Information Resource Exchange)1993Nancy Rhine, Ellen Pack"Their network, the Women's Information Resource Exchange, WIRE—renamed Women's WIRE after a legal dustup with Wired Magazine—launched to a founding group of five hundred members in October 1993, becoming the first commercial online service explicitly targeted to women." _ excerpt from Broad Band, Claire L. EvnasBroad Band, Claire L. EvansCritical article in San Jose Mercury News, "Women aim to build an on-line world that excludes boors, cybermashers."
Will the Real Body Please Stand Up?: Boundary Stories About Virtual Cultures1994Allucquère Rosanne StoneExcerpt: "It seems to be the engagement of the adolescent male within humans of both sexes that is responsible for the seductiveness of the cybernetic mode.There is also a protean quality about cybernetic interaction, a sense of physical as well as conceptual mutability that is implied in the sense of exciting, dizzying physical movement within purely conceptual space. I find that reality hackers experience a sense of longing for an embodied conceptual space like that which cyberspace suggests. This sense, which seems to accompany the desire to cross the human/machine boundary, to penetrate and merge,which is part of the evocation of cyberspace, and which shares certain conceptual and affectivecharacteristics with numerous fictional evocations of the inarticulate longing of the male for the female, I characterize as cyborg envy." in Cyberspace: first stepsMIT Presspart of bibliography for Lisa Nakamura's "Race In/For Cyberspace"1994-Allucquère Rosanne Stone-Will the Real Body Please Stand Up.jpg
"Black to the future: Interviews with Samuel R. Delany, Greg Tate, and Tricia Rose" (published in Flame Wars: the Discourse of Cyberculture)1994Mark DeryIntro Excerpt: "The interviews that follow began with a conundrum: Why do so few African Americans write science fiction, a genre whose close encounters with the Other—the stranger in a strange land—would seem uniquely suited to the concerns of African-American novelists? Yet, to my knoweldge, only Samuel R. Delany, Octavia Butler, Steve Barnes, and Charles Saunders have chosen to write within the genre conventions of science fiction. This is especially perplexing in light of the fact that African Americans, in a very real sense, are the descendants of alien abductees; they inhabit a sci-fi nightmare in which unseen but no less impassable force fields of intolerance frustrate their movements; official histories undo what has been done; and technology is too often brought to bear on black bodies (branding, forced steriization, the Tuskegee experiment, and tasers come readily to mind).", 1994-MarkDery-BlacktotheFuture-img2.png
l0ve0ne1994Judy Malloyl0ve0ne was the first work in the Eastgate Web Workshop. In this seminal web-based hypernovella -- of Xreality, changing identities, physical computing, robotic Pinocchios, Rajput miniatures that morph into parallel narratives, barns full of old computers, and country western songs on German radio -- an American writer on Holiday in Germany and France is immersed in an underground world of European hacker-artist culture., 1994-JudyMalloy-l0ve0ne-2.png, 1994-JudyMalloy-l0ve0ne-3.png
Cyber Rag1994Jaime Levy"Jaime spent her years at NYU experimenting with interactive media. For her master’s thesis, she combined the do-it-yourself ethos of punk with the emerging possibilities of desktop publishing, producing an electronic magazine, Cyber Rag, on floppy disk. With color-printed labels Krazy Glued onto each “issue,” Cyber Rag looked the part of a punk-rock fanzine. Loaded onto a consumer Mac, its stories came to life with images pilfered from the Village Voice, the Whole Earth Review, Mondo 2000, and Newsweek, collaged together onscreen as though they’d been xeroxed by hand. Cyber Rag was the first publication of its kind, built with Apple HyperCard and MacPaint. Along with her animations, Jaime added edgy interactive games (in one, you chase Manuel Noriega around Panama), hacker how-tos, and catty musings about hippies, sneaking into computer trade shows, and cyberspace." - excerpt from Broad Band, Claire L. EvansBroad Band, Claire L. Evans1994? check date
Mothers and Daughters of Invention: Notes for a Revised History of Technology1994Autumn StanleyWritten in an engaging and accessible style, this first broadly focused compensatory history of technology not only includes women's contributions but begins the long-overdue task of redefining technology and significant technology and to value these contributions correctly. Stanley traces women's inventions in five vital areas of technology worldwide--agriculture, medicine, reproduction, machines, and computers--from prehistory (or origin) forward, profiling hundreds of women, both famous and obscure. The author does not ignore theory. She contributes a paradigm for male takeovers of technologies originated by women.
Technologies of the Gendered Body: Reading Cyborg Women1995Anne BalsamoThis book takes the process of "reading the body" into the fields at the forefront of culture—the vast spaces mapped by science and technology—to show that the body in high-tech is as gendered as ever. From female body building to virtual reality, from cosmetic surgery to cyberpunk, from reproductive medicine to public health policies to TV science programs, Anne Balsamo articulates the key issues concerning the status of the body for feminist cultural studies in a postmodern world.Technologies of the Gendered Body combines close readings of popular texts—such as Margaret Atwood’s novel The Handmaid’s Tale, the movie Pumping Iron II: The Women, cyberpunk magazines, and mass media—with analyses of medical literature, public policy documents, and specific technological practices. Balsamo describes the ways in which certain biotechnologies are ideologically shaped by gender considerations and other beliefs about race, physical abilities, and economic and legal status. She presents a view of the conceptual system that structures individuals’ access to and participation in these technologies, as well as an overview of individuals’ rights and responsibilities in this sometimes baffling area. Examining the ways in which the body is gendered in its interactions with new technologies of corporeality, Technologies of the Gendered Body counters the claim that in our scientific culture the material body has become obsolete. With ample evidence that the techno-body is always gendered and marked by race, this book sets the stage for a renewed feminist engagement with contemporary technological narratives. University PressJudy Malloy list1995-Anne Balsamo-Technologies of the Gendered Body-Reading Cyborg Women.jpg
Cyborg: Engineering the Body Electric1995Diane GrecoThis title is published on a 3.5" disk (Mac and Windows).Part human and part machine, the cyborg is a familiar figure in cyberpunk science fiction. But this figure looms ever larger -- as metaphor and as reality -- in all our lives. Today, cyborgs are real; in cyberspace, we are all cyborgs. Greco explores the significance of the cyborg in 20th century writing. from Thomas Pynchon and William Gibson to Haraway and Derrida. The cyborg is more than just an interesting fiction; Cyborg: Engineering The Body Electric explores cyborg's impact on political action and personal identity.After reading Cyborg, you'll never again look at your body (or someone else's) quite the same way."If cyborgs know about anything, they know about parts. Spare parts, parts and wholes, prostheses, replacements, enhancements. How do you make sense of all these pieces? After the disaster, when things fall apart, cyborgs know how to stitch themselves back together." SystemsJudy Malloy list1995-DianeGreco-Cyborg-EngineeringtheBodyElectric.jpg
Webgrrls International1995presentWebgrrls International, founded in New York City on April 29, 1995, has been on the forefront of the women’s movement online for nearly 16 years. The Webgrrls International mission has been to empower women through technology and encourage women to learn about, coursework service embrace and leverage the technology and the tools of the Internet, to help them propel their careers and businesses forward and help them strive for and achieve success…however they define it.
Colonizing Virtual Reality: Construction of the Discourse of Virtual Reality, 1984-19921995Chris Chesher, vol. 1, issue 1The English Server
EROS INterACTive1995JoAnn GillermanEROS INterACTive (1995) is an interactive multimedia register [2] that I produced with Rob Terry. Soft whisperings and seductive images entice the viewer---in real time---to record their comments and listen to others' comments on eroticism and interactivity. EROS INterACTive is an interactive real-time register/bulletin board designed to solicit 10-second comments in real-time ("Record"), let participants listen to their own comments and the comments of the previous 35 people ("Playback"), as well as view/listen to pre-selected portrait-segments on the EROS Screen. The highly resolute Silicon Graphics monitor with sensuous imagery whispers constantly and seductively to encourage interactions. As one strokes an on-screen body, it may whisper, "Hello, come talk to me, tell me what you are thinking. I'll tell you what I'm thinking. . . ."
Tank Girl1995Tank Girl is a 1995 American science-fiction action comedy film directed by Rachel Talalay. Based on the British post-apocalyptic comic series of the same name by Alan Martin and Jamie Hewlett that was originally published in Deadline magazine, the film stars Lori Petty, Naomi Watts, Ice-T and Malcolm
iVillage19952014Nancy Evans, Candice Carpenter, Robert Levitan, Tina SharkeyiVillage, Inc. was a mass media company that operated several websites focused on categories targeted at women. In addition to, the company operated iVillage UK,, GardenWeb, and the NBC Digital Health Network. The iVillage website ceased operations on October 31, 2014 and the domain name was redirected to the Today Show website, while the other domain names were sold.
Tillie and CyberRoberta19951998Lynn Hershman LeesonCyberRoberta was conceived simultaneously with “Tillie, the Telerobotic Doll”. When they are exhibited together, each is programmed to pirate the others’ information, blurring their identities.“Tillie, The Telerobotic Doll” and “CyberRoberta” are constructed so that cameras replace the dolls’ eyes: a video camera in the left eye, a web cam in the right eye. By clicking on the “eye con” on the right of each doll’s internet image, users can telerobtically turn that doll’s head 180 degrees, allowing visitors to her web site to survey the room she is in. Viewers in the physical space of the gallery can see themselves captured on the small monitor in Tillie’s environment via a mirror places in front of her. They also have the capability to send images back through the internet to the web page.
Stock Market Skirt1995Nancy Paterson Stock Market Skirt works on many levels, as a cyberfeminist fashion statement, and as the embodiment of the emerging intelligence of the Internet. Instantly, several messages are imprinted on the viewer's subconscious.This project has the potential to be interactive with the global flow of information by responding to a dynamic feed of data. We are not merely voyeurs, watching the hemline quiver, rise and fall. A viewer might influence the mediawork by making a call to their broker, to buy (or sell) shares in whatever company the skirt is currently tracking. Or, this might be accomplished through online trading. If the stock or composite being tracked is bought/sold as a result of automatic trade execution, then Stock Market Skirt becomes interactive with the flow of data within the Internet itself rather than being interactive through the internet as a pipeline or conduit.
Cyberflesh Girlmonster1995Linda DementCD-ROM game, At the Adelaide Festival, about 30 women donated body parts by scanning their chosen flesh and digitally recording sound. From these, conglomerate bodies were created, animated and made interactive.When a viewer clicks on one of these monsters, the words attached to that body part could be heard or seen, another monster may appear, a digital video could play, a story or biological information about the physical state described by the story, may be displayed.Cyberflesh Girlmonster is a macabre comedy of monstrous femininity, of revenge, desire and violence.
webgrrls1995? Cybergrrl (aka Aliza Sherman)Webgrrls is an international organization that provides women who are
in or interested in the Internet with a forum to network, exchange job and
business leads, teach and mentor, intern and learn, to succeed in an
increasingly technical workplace and world. Zealandre: Helen Varley Jamieson, the webgrrls aotearoa website doesn't exist anymore, but it still ghosts in some places! like this community directory: according to the way back machine (*/ it was around as recently as 2013. 1996-webgrrls-sitecapture1997.png, 1996-webgrrls-sitecapture1997-2.png
Bitch Mutant Manifesto1996VNS Matrix(full transcription pulled from site)
Melanet: Watoto World1996presentWilliam and Rodney JordanNew Perspective Technologies, the creators of the MELANET Communication and Information Network, today announced the establishment of the Watoto World Website on the Internet. Watoto World [watoto is Kiswahili for children] was created to bring the creativity of African heritage children to the Internet; provide information and instruction for African American parents to meet the challenges of parenting now and in the 21st century; encourage educators and school systems to provide and utilize Internet access and computer technology in the classroom; and to highlight African Centered education and independent Black schools. is the platform for intellectual, economic and spiritual expression of peoples throughout the African Diaspora. Race For Cyberspace: Information Technology in the Black Diasporasite is still up but is it in use?1996-Melanet-Watoto.png
Electronic Civil Disobedience and other unpopular ideas1996Critical Art EnsembleREVIEWS: "Forget the nostalgia for old-school political resistance! Here is a smart guide for activism in the post-symbolic age of nomadic capital and power. CAE's brilliant analysis of our current cyberlandscape is grounded in a shockingly mystical radicality.: - Miwon Kwon (editor, DOCUMENTS) "An Anarchist's Cookbook for an age of decentralized, dematerialized power, Electronic Civil Disobedience shares cultural DNA with William Burroughs's "Electronic Revolution," Guy Debord's Society of the Spectacle, Hakim Bey's Temporary Autonomous Zone, and other classics of "nomadic resistance." CAE is a flesh-eating virus on the body politic." - Mark Dery
Wired women: gender and new realities in cyberspace1996Lynn Cherny, Elizabeth Reba WeiseA thought-provoking look at women and the new Internet technology and culture features fourteen essays that discuss such issues as gender attitudes, courtship via e-mail, censorship, hacker culture, online harassment, and more. PressJudy Malloy list
StorkSite1996presentTori KroppStorkSite is a unique, online community and interactive resource. The original “" launched in 1996 when the Internet was budding. The new “” is fresh and innovative and continues to be a “one of a kind” community. Women and men can find detailed information in the “Ask Tori, RN®” questions and receive emotional support regarding conception, pregnancy, childbirth, and the baby's first year of life. Its entertaining format allows users to easily access and personalize a wealth of vital information..
The War of Desire and Technology at the Close of the Mechanical Age1996Allucquère Rosanne StoneIn this witty, far-reaching, and utterly original work, Allucquère Rosanne Stone examines the myriad ways modern technology is challenging traditional notions of gender identity. Face-to-face meetings, and even telephone conversations, involuntarily reveal crucial aspects of identity such as gender, age, and race. However, these bits of identity are completely masked by computer-mediated communications; all that is revealed is what we choose to reveal—and then only if we choose to tell the truth. The rise of computer-mediated communications is giving people the means to try on alternative personae—in a sense, to reinvent themselves—which, as Stone compellingly argues, has both positive and potentially destructive implications.** do more research on Sandy Stone !!!
Performing the digital body—a ghost story1996Theresa M. Senft (Excerpt from introduction) For me, it’s about ghosts. My motives take the shape of a slim blue wrist, an IV drip, a steroid-induced mustache. If I stop typing on my keyboard, and listen, I can still hear her. Now, she’s negotiating an uneasy truce with an air tube -- the one living in her throat since her third brain surgery. I see the panic on her face. I try to keep the panic out of my voice. Work with the machine, I tell her. It’s saving your life. It’s strange; even after my mother was strong enough to forego her ventilator, th at sound took up space in my memory. My mother died two years ago, which is not coincidentally when I became obsessed with writing about the Internet, the performances of the digital bodies therein, the ghost stories told by those bodies.

Much of this special issue of Women & Performance consists of writers telling stories, trying to draw connections between the Internet, contemporary feminism, and theories of performance. There is a saying that goes, “A feminist always asks, Who tells the story and what precisely is told?” Indeed, it is possible to summarize most of contemporary feminism as a extended performance of story-telling, a continual struggle with those codes in narrative which have said about women, “it was ever thus.” In the 1970’s, frustrated with the ways in which their life-stories were being co-opted by medicine, psychoanalysis, and sexology, Continental Feminists exhorted women to produce their own narratives, and to tell their own “bodily truths of femininity.” Visionary texts like Luce Irigaray’s Speculum x Gynepunk of the Other Woman were not only trenchant critiques of the technologies of Freud and Hegel -- they were also offerings of feminine, embodied writing—l’ecriture femin’ne, it was called. & Performance: a journal of feminist theory, Vol. 9
When the personal becomes digitial: Linda dement and Barbara hammer move towards a Lesbian cyberspace1996Holly Willis, Mikki Halpin & Performance: a journal of feminist theory, Vol. 9
Phone Sex is Cool, Chat-Lines as Superconductors1996Marcus Boon & Performance: a journal of feminist theory, Vol. 9
Clicking In: Hot Links To a Digital Culture1996Lynn Hershman LeesonMachines and technologies are being built today which will shape our society for centuries to come. In this age of capitalism run rampant, however, the corporations are focused solely on profit and dissuade us in every way possible from considering the long term implications of the technologies being developed. In the spirit of the child who pointed out that the emperor had no clothes, Lynn Hershman Leeson has bravely assembled a remarkable collection of writings which begs us to STOP and ask BIG QUESTIONS about the digital culture being bornBay PressJudy Malloy list
Immersed in Technology1996Mary Anne Moser, Douglas MacLeod (editors)This book brings together critical essays along with artists' projects to explore the many issues raised by the creation of virtual environments and to provide a glimpse into worlds that have been much discussed but rarely seen. The book opens with eleven essays that approach the social and cultural implications of cyberspace from the perspective of cultural studies, communications, art history, art criticism, English, and women's studies. These are followed by nine virtual environments (along with statements of what the artists are trying to accomplish in both theoretical and technical terms) PressJudy Malloy list
The Woman Source Catalog & Review: Tools for Connecting the Community for Women1996Ilene Rosoff"A jam-packed source book reminiscent of The Whole Earth Catalogthat delves into almost everything we do, use, think, and say as women.Here are resources to help you fix leaky faucets; celebrate beingfemale; meditate on culture, race, gender and society; or overhaul ahumdrum life. The book is a gold mine of feminist publications, tools,and toys linked to hundreds of topics, including food, dwellings,homelessness, work, women's lives and achievements, money, music,sickness, spirituality, parenting, and laughter. Wonderfully brassy,bellicose, and thought-provoking--if sometimes didactic--thisfar-reaching guide offers a great selection of mainstream andalternative tools for life."
Women & Performance: a journal of feminist theory, Vol. 919961997* pull specific articles from here! Special issue devoted to sexuality and cyberspace. It was a compendium of essays on cybersex, online stalking, fetal imaging, and going digital
Disgruntled Housewife19962014Nikol Lohr
Eve's Apple or Women's Narrative Bytes1996Sue Ellen CaseRather than remaining within this bleak, pathological environment for fictional production, women might rather look to altered states of fiction for a healing process. Poisoned by the story, as it structured gendered roles in the cultural imagination, women might reel happily away from the traditional conventions of narrative into a new technology of writing, which disrupts the linear hold not only of the story, but also of its engine—print culture. Hypertext fiction offers myriad alternative conditions to the narrative regime: multiple paths through the fictional terrain that break with the linear path of story; online collective authorship, which opens out the singularized production in the direction of new, accretional possibilities; and an electronic environment which adds new dimensions to earlier conventions of time and space. These are only a few of the possibly healing properties hypertext fiction might offer women. As readers and writers, they may discover a new “freedom of choice” as they happily click among multiple screen links rather than trudge along the forced march of print. All together, these functions comprise the sense of an interactive environment. In contrast to what de Lauretis has described as the gendering of subject and object positions, this interactive environment promotes an exchange of agency, which makes those once-rigid positions more porous and interchangeable. Moreover, collective production offers the discovery of different voices within the subject position.special issue edited by Katherine HaylesMFS Modern Fiction Studies, 43:3Judy Malloy list
Sex, Lies and Avatars - Sherry Turkle knows what role-playing in cyberspace really means. A profile1996Pamela McCorduck Malloy list
Stealing Glances: Women('s) Writing on the World Wide Web1996Greg Dyer Book Review (ebr)
Surfer Grrrls: Look Ethel! An Internet Guide for Us!1996Laurel Gilbert, Crystal KileCalling all cyberchicks, wired women and girl geek wannabes, as well as any woman ready to merge onto the digital freeway. SurferGrrrls is the perfect companion for your trip. Long-time computer jocks Kile and Gilbert will take you step-by-step through the process of how to get online and how to make the most of it once you're there.Breezy, smart and accessible, SurferGrrrls will bust you free from the shackles of technophobia, reveal the secret history of women in computing, encourage you as you work your way from newbie to net goddess by earning SurferGrrrl Scout merit badges, enhance your popular culture repertoire with a masterful dose of cyborg culture info, and point you toward fabulous resources for women and girls on the Internet and the World Wide Web. from Sisterhood Is Forever: the Women's Anthology for a New Millennium, 2003
An introduction to our feminist yellow pages of cyberspace1996Molly Ker, Theresa M. Senft & Performance: a journal of feminist theory, Vol. 9
A kinder, gentler glossary for net neophytes, and others1996Cathy Young & Performance: a journal of feminist theory, Vol. 9
Modem butterfly, reconsidered1996Theresa M. Senft, Kaley Davis & Performance: a journal of feminist theory, Vol. 9
Studio XX1996presentKim Sawchuck, Patricia Kearns, Kathy Kennedy, Sheryl Hamilton (founders)Founded in 1996, Studio XX is a bilingual feminist artist-run centre that supports technological experimentation, creation and critical reflection in media arts. XX assists in the independent production and diffusion of art created by artists who identify as women, queer, trans, and gender fluid in the field of contemporary technological practices. Demystifying, providing access, equipping, questioning and creating, these are the aims of Studio XX. The centre actively participates in the development of a digital democracy that encourages autonomy and collaboration.The Studio is a space specifically dedicated to the feminist practices of a community of critical and committed artists, who are marginalized within the digital arts (and in society). XX contributes to the redistribution of power and expression between genders by defending an inclusive feminist position and by denouncing the persistence of gender disparities. The Studio supports projects from individuals and communities who use and design more accessible technologies, from artists who experiment with recycled materials and free software, from those who work with post-internet practices, and from people who define the Do-It-Yourself and Do-It-Together ethics. Malloy list
Nattering on the Net: Women, power and cyberspace1996Dale SpenderElectronic networks have revolutionized the human relationship to time and space, and have undermined national boundaries. But what of class, race and gender boundaries? Is it true that women use technology, but men fall in love with it? Dale Spender promises to change the way we think about computers. She reveals that men are writing the road rules for the information superhighway subjecting women to new forms of sexual harassment and even data rape. Violence on the Internet is an all-too-common event in virtual reality. These are some of the problems raised by the new technologies, but Dale Spender is also excited about the possibilities of the new media. She asks, will the Internet create virtual sisterhood? Nattering on the Net is the result of many years' research during which the author made the transition from books to the Internet. She conveys her sheer delight cruising the Web and satisfying her unquenchable curiosity. She argues that it is creating unimaginable opportunities in the areas of education and authorship; the question is: can we use it for good?
Cyberfeminism1996Nancy PatersonMultimedia, interactive video, virtual reality; for women these newtechnologies present opportunities to break out of prescribed roles andaway from scripted dialogues. A rabbit hole through which we may tumble.Our real experiences, when not denied, have been acknowledged only intheir immediacy. Our individual histories and the attempt to isolate orremove ourselves from a patriarchal context, have always been undervaluedand undermined. We have learned to live from hand to mouth. Transgressingorder and linear organization of information, cyberfeminists recognize theopportunity to redefine 'reality,' on our terms and in our interest andrealize that the electronic communications infrastructure or 'matrix' maybe the ideal instrument for a new breed of feminists to pick up and play."Cyberfemmes are everywhere, but cyberfeminists are few and far between.”check date
Brutal Myths1996Sonya Rapoport, Marie-Jose SatIn 1996 Rapoport created Brutal Myths with collaborator Marie-Jose Sat. This was to be the first of many Web Art works with a feminist perspective.Brutal Myths addresses the sadistic male fantasies about women found in the Malleus Maleficarum (The Hammer of Witches), a infamously misogynistic treatise on witch-hunting published in the 15th century. Because women were traditionally the lay healers of their societies and used herbs in their medicinal practices, Rapoport used representations of herbs as the primary metaphor of this work (this interest in herbal symbolism can be traced back to her 1979 drawing Geothe’s Urpflanz). Beginning with the Biblical story of Eve, Brutal Myths describes the “evil” herbs that contaminated the minds of men and made them believe in the dictums laid forth in the Malleus Maleficarum. Then the participant “plants” a “blissful” garden of “blessed” herbs to destroy prejudicial myths about women.
On the Matrix: Cyberfeminist Simulations1996Sadie PlantRob Shield's (ed) Cultures of the Internet: Virtual Spaces, Real Histories, Living BodiesComputation, cybernetics, economics, feminism, simulation
Museum of Menstruation and Women's Health19962018Harry FinleyThe purpose of the museum is to teach the public the rich history of menstruation from all cultures of the world, and give researchers access to its unmatched collections. Located in a suburb of Washington, D.C., the capital of the U.S.A., the museum displays menstrual physiology, customs, the history of the advertising of menstrual products, menstrual underwear, art related to menstruation, unusual products, kitsch, and much else. Source Estrogen
Flesh Machine19971998Critical Art EnsembleThis live performative project attempted to simulate bio-class divisions in the flesh economy. By live testing the suitability of participants to pass on their genes through a “donor program”, CAE revealed the latent residue of eugenics in the fertility market. This performance also brought the scientific processes of reproductive technology into the public domain., class1997-CAE-FleshMachine.jpg, 1997-CAE-FleshMachine-2.gif
Zeros and Ones1997Sadie PlantZeros and Ones is an intelligent, provocative and accessible investigation of the intersection between women, feminism, machines and in particular, information technology. Arguing that the computer is rewriting the old conceptions of man and his world, it suggests that the telecoms revolution is also a sexual revolution which undermines the fundamental assumptions crucial to patriarchal culture. Historical, contemporary and future developments in telecommunications and in IT are interwoven with the past, present and future of feminism, women and sexual difference, and a wealth of connections, parallels and affinities between machines and women are uncovered as a result. Challenging the belief that man was ever in control of either his own agency, the planet, or his machines, this book argues it is seriously undermined by the new scientific paradigms emergent from theories of chaos, complexity and connectionism, all of which suggest that the old distinctions between man, woman, nature and technology need to be radically reassessed.
Modest_Witness@Second_Millennium.FemaleMan_Meets_OncoMouse: Feminism and Technoscience1997Donna HarawayModest_Witness@Second_Millenium.FemaleMan_Meets_OncoMouse explores the roles of stories, figures, dreams, theories, facts, delusions, advertising, institutions, economic arrangements, publishing practices, scientific advances, and politics in twentieth-century technoscience.The book's title is an e-mail address. With it, Haraway locates herself and her readers in a sprawling net of associations more far-flung than the Internet. The address is not a cozy home. There is no innocent place to stand in the world where the book's author figure, FemaleMan, encounters DuPont's controversial laboratory rodent, OncoMouse.Routledge
You are Cyborg1997Hari Kunzru"But she is not talking about some putative future or a technologically advanced corner of the present. The cyborg age is here and now, everywhere there's a car or a phone or a VCR. Being a cyborg isn't about how many bits of silicon you have under your skin or how many prosthetics your body contains. It's about Donna Haraway going to the gym, looking at a shelf of carbo-loaded bodybuilding foods, checking out the Nautilus machines, and realizing that she's in a place that wouldn't exist without the idea of the body as high-performance machine." Haraway
Affective Computing1997Rosalind W. PicardAccording to Rosalind Picard, if we want computers to be genuinely intelligent and to interact naturally with us, we must give computers the ability to recognize, understand, even to have and express emotions. PressJudy Malloy list
Life on the Screen: Identity in the Age of the Internet1997Sherry TurkleLife on the Screen is a book not about computers, but about people and how computers are causing us to reevaluate our identities in the age of the Internet. We are using life on the screen to engage in new ways of thinking about evolution, relationships, politics, sex, and the self. Life on the Screen traces a set of boundary negotiations, telling the story of the changing impact of the computer on our psychological lives and our evolving ideas about minds, bodies, and machines. What is emerging, Turkle says, is a new sense of identity- as decentered and multiple. She describes trends in computer design, in artificial intelligence, and in people's experiences of virtual environments that confirm a dramatic shift in our notions of self, other, machine, and world. The computer emerges as an object that brings postmodernism down to earth.
Old Boys Network (OBN)1997Susanne Ackers, Cornelia Sollfrank, Ellen Nonnenmacher, Vali Djordjevic, Julianne Pierce OBN stands for Old Boys Network. OBN is regarded as the first international Cyberfeminist alliance and was founded in 1997 in Berlin. Since the early days the network keeps changing due to changing members. OBN is a real and a virtual coalition of Cyberfeminists. Under the umbrella of the term 'Cyberfeminism', OBN contributes to the critical discourse on new media, especially focussing on its gender-specific aspects. Cyberfeminist InternationalBerlin
100 Anti-Theses1997Old Boys Network Cyberfeminist InternationalKassel, Germany
La Tecnologia las ha Olvidado1997Martha Burkle BonecchiMéxico Este trabajo realiza un recorrido lo más actual posible, de la reflexión de las mujeres sobre el terreno de las nuevas tecnologías. La autora inicia su propuesta analizando el discurso feminista de estudiosas del campo que han analizado el fenómeno desde las vivencias de sus países, Europa y los Estados Unidos. Las propuestas de Beijing, por su actualidad y trascendencia sobre la temática están también presentes. Por último, se realiza un breve recorrido por las formas de apropiación de los contenidos de los medios, realizadas por las mujeres en países subdesarrollados. y Palabra 9:2Judy Malloy list
Colonial Ventures in Cyberspace1997Rejane Spitz Malloy list
First Cyberfeminist International1997Old Boys Networkshow abstracts for all talks
Conceiving Ada1997Lynn Hershman LeesonEmmy Coer is a computer scientist obsessed with Countess Ada Lovelace, author of the first computer algorithm, written for Charles Babbage's "Analytical Engine".[2] She is upset to discover she is pregnant believing that the pregnancy will interfere with her work. Afraid of losing her boyfriend she decides to keep the baby. Emmy tries to work on a way of communicating with Lovelace in the past by way of "undying information waves". She eventually succeeds and is able to communicate with Ada and learn about her studies, her work and how she felt that in many ways her work was hampered by her children and by the time she lived in. Emmy wants to bring Ada into the present by allowing her to inhabit her body. A dying Ada refuses, insisting that Emmy needs to live her own life. However, by 2002 Emmy is raising a daughter who has been embedded with Ada's consciousness and who already shows a precociousness with computers despite the fact that Emmy is trying to raise her to have a normal childhood.
Charting the Currents of the Third Wave1997Catherine OrrThe term 'third wave' within contemporary feminism presents some initial difficulties in scholarly investigation. Located in popular-press anthologies, zines, punk music, and cyberspace, many third wave discourses constitute themselves as a break with both second wave and academic feminisms; a break problematic for both generations of feminists. The emergence of third wave feminism offers academic feminists an opportunity to rethink the context of knowledge production and the mediums through which we disseminate our work.
FACES1997presentDiana McCarty, Kathy Rae Huffman, Ushi Reiter, Valie DjordjevicWhile faces can create a marginal platform for women, not much has changed in the main programs of most media arts and culture events in the past years – they still present very little of the work women do. For this, the events organized by several women’s groups and networks in the broad “neighborhood” of media culture are deeply appreciated by many faces. Despite these positive steps, the kinds of questions that have inspired these many initiatives still beg to be asked. “What gaps remain unfilled?” “Where are the rest of the women?” “What are the issues that need to be addressed?” Perhaps most important question is what pragmatic response will fulfill the needs of a thriving community of interrelated networks of women actively working with media?
HTMLles Festival1997presentStudio XXFounded in 1997, The HTMlles Festival is an international platform dedicated to the presentation of innovative and independent media artworks unveiling multi-faceted, contemporary technological work created by artists who identify as women, queer, transgender and gender fluid. The festival occupies the singular position of being one of the only events promoting and diffusing independent media artworks with a specific emphasis on feminist approaches, concerns and engagement.
The Adventures of Josie True19972005Mary FlanaganThe Adventures of Josie True is a web-basedhistorical adventure game for girls.The hero of the game is Chinese-American Josie True,a regular girl who becomes involved in intrigueacross time and space as she tries to find herinventor-turned-teacher Ms. Trombone. She timetravels with one of Ms. Trombone's inventions,the Intellicat .During their travels, they meet a host of historical figures includingwomen from history such as Bessie Coleman, the firstAfrican American woman pilot.At each stop in the journey, there are fun, rewarding activitiesto play in order to find Ms. Trombone,stop the artifact thieves, helpBessie Coleman at her airshow, and much more!
Razor girls: Genre and Gender in Cyberpunk Fiction1997Lauraine LeblancMuch of the allure of science fiction is that it provides us with "the fantasy of knowing the unknowable through objectification" (Cawelti, 1978, p. 49). Science fiction writers produce models of worlds which, in some cases, differ only slightly from ours; the magic of science fiction is that it speculates on the results of such changes with little risk to us. In his review of definitions of science fiction, John Walchak (1993) concludes that "science fiction is the literary [or textual] investigation of the relationship between humanity and technology, and (thus) of the myriad kinds of change produced by science and technology." If the investigation of our relationship to science and technology is the definitive feature of science fiction, then the exploration of human couplings with a particular type of technology constitutes a broad categorization of cyberpunk fiction. Cyberpunk, a subgenre of science fiction which emerged in the 1980s, is particularly concerned with exploring the effects of "cyborg technologies" on late twentieth-century culture. Cyberpunk is differentiated from the more mainstream science fiction literature by three central themes which illuminate the role of technology in society: futurology, techno-paradigms, and the cyborg presence.
Trapped by the body? Telepresence Technologies and Transgendered Performance in Feminist and Lesbian Rewritings of Cyberpunk Fiction1997Thomas FosterThis essay uses Allucquère Rosanne Stone’s recent work on the status of embodiment in virtual systems to account for the existence of a significant number of popular narratives by women writers about virtual reality, despite Ross’s characterization of cyberpunk fiction as inherently masculinist. In particular, Stone’s work helps explain the predominance of themes of gender and sexual performativity or cross-identification in these narratives about cyberspace. I have written elsewhere about the relevance of theories of performativity to narratives of cyborg embodiment, 3 but this essay considers the relevance of those theories to virtual reality computer interfaces and computer simulations, which tend to be represented popularly as technologies of disembodiment. 4 To what extent do theories and practices of subversive mimicry and performativity, such as drag or butch-femme, function as a cultural framework for constructing the meaning of virtual reality and telepresence technologies? 5Sandy Stone
My Body, A Wonderkammer1997Shelley Jackson
Female artists manipulate the new media at Art-Tech1997Ann Elliott ShermanIntro: CONTRARY TO stereotype, women aren't necessarily technophobic. It's just that, for most of us, technology is less a toy that we can't resist and more a tool for getting the job done. For all its variety, the Chik Tek '97: Women Artists Defining Technology exhibit at Art-Tech in San Jose pretty much bears out this generalization. Most of the 14 artists experimenting with new media are not as concerned with the technology itself as with how effectively it allows them to convey a complex, multilayered world view. Chik-Tek ExhibitionMetro** art mentioned
Chik-Tek Spotlights Women in New-Media Art1997 Chik-Tek ExhibitionSan JoseSilicon Valley Institute of Art and Technology
Slimy metaphors for technology: ’the clitoris is a direct line to the Matrix'1998Jyanni SteffensenThis paper examines some futuristic fantasy possibilities for constructions of perversely signified female desire through the work of techno-artists, VNS Matrix’s ALL NEW GEN (1994). The framework within which this cyborgian text is read utilises recent theoretical developments in cyberfeminist thinking, including that of Donna Haraway, Zoë Sofoulis, and Sadie Plant. paper was presented at a conference at Duke University, Durham, North Carolina (2-4 October 1998) titled "Discipline and Deviance: Technology, Gender, Machines"
Flesh Machine: Cyborgs, Designer Babies, & New Eugenic Consciousness1998Critical Art Ensemble (CAE)Project visitors at the Vienna event use the BioCom CD-ROM. Participants take donor screening tests and gather information on reproductive technology. On the CD, viewers can view factual data on in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment, new methods for assisted reproduction, egg and sperm donor profiles, and even take a donor screening test themselves. There is also a family page documenting a couple going through IVF. Underneath all the spectacle, there is a critical subtext aimed at directing the viewer toward a more skeptical view of the utopian presentation.
subRosa1998presentLaleh Mehran, Hyla Willis, Steffi Domike, Lucia Sommer, Faith WildingsubRosa is a reproducible cyberfeminist cell of cultural researchers committed to combining art, activism, and politics to explore and critique the effects of the intersections of the new information and biotechnologies on women’s bodies, lives, and work. and Providence
DigitalBlood1998Marjorie FranklinDigitalBlood is an interactive narrative on CD-ROM about mothers, babies and artificial life. It is also about emotional machines, love for one's creations and the struggle for power in computer/human interactions and baby/mother relationships. Malloy list
From Barbie® to Mortal KombatGender and Computer Games 1998Justine Cassell and Henry Jenkins (editors)Many parents worry about the influence of video games on their children's lives. The game console may help to prepare children for participation in the digital world, but at the same time it socializes boys into misogyny and excludes girls from all but the most objectified positions. The new "girls' games" movement has addressed these concerns. Although many people associate video games mainly with boys, the girls games' movement has emerged from an unusual alliance between feminist activists (who want to change the "gendering" of digital technology) and industry leaders (who want to create a girls' market for their games). PressJudy Malloy list
Cyberville: Clicks, Culture, and the Creation of an Online Town
1998Stacy HornThe founder of the online service Echo shares her online experiences with respect to the popularization of her cybercommunity, which grew from a handful of Manhattanites to thousands of members who log on daily.Judy Malloy list
Virtualities: Television, Media Art, and Cyberculture1998Margaret MorseIndiana University PressJudy Malloy list
Cybergrrl! A Woman's Guide to the World Wide Web1998Aliza ShermanYou're here! That means you've at least started to discover life online. But if you still are in the dark about a lot of what's going on here . . . or you know someone who still thinks the Internet and the World Wide Web are too hard, too expensive, and too dangerous then Aliza Sherman (aka Cybergrrl) can help. In language free of technical jargon, she answers your most perplexing questions. From simple concepts to complicated functions, this unique book tells you exactly how to go online without hassle or confusion.
Notes on the Political Condition of Cyberfeminism1998Faith Wilding and CAE Cyberfeminism is a promising new wave of (post)feminist thinking and practice. Through the work of numerous Netactive women, there is now a distinct cyberfeminist Netpresence that is fresh, brash, smart, and iconoclastic of many of the tenets of classical feminism. At the same time, cyberfeminism has only taken its first steps in contesting technologically complex territories. To complicate matters further, these new territories have been overcoded to a mythic degree as a male domain. Consequently, cyberfeminist incursion into various technoworlds (CD-ROM production, Web works, lists and news groups, artificial intelligence, etc.) has been largely nomadic, spontaneous, and anarchic. On the one hand, these qualities have allowed maximum freedom for diverse manifestations, experiments, and the beginnings of various written and artistic genres. On the other, networks and organizations seem somewhat lacking, and the theoretical issues of gender regarding the techno-social are immature relative to their development in spaces of greater gender equity won through struggle. Given such conditions, some feminist strategies and tactics will repeat themselves as women attempt to establish a foothold in a territory traditionally denied to them. This repetition should not be considered with the usual yawn of boredom whenever the familiar appears, as cyberspace is a crucial point of gender struggle that is desperately in need of gender diversification (and diversity in general). Journal
Bridging the digital divide: The impact of race on computer access and Internet use1998Donna Hoffman, Thomas NovackThe differences between Whites and African Americans in the United States with respect to computer access, which is the current prerequisite for Internet access and World Wide Web use, were studied. The question was whether observed race differences in access and use can be accounted for by differences in income and education, how access impacts use, and when race matters in the calculation of equal access. Whites are more likely than African Americans to have a computer in their homes (44.2% compared to 29.0%), but African Americans are more likely to state that they would like to acquire access to a computer. Whites are more likely to have used the Web (26% versus 22%). Increasing levels of household income corresponding to increased likelihood of owning a home computer, regardless of race. Increasing levels of education correspond to an increased likelihood of work computer access, regardless of race. People who owned a home computer and had access to a work computer were much more likely than others to have used the World Wide Web in the past 6 months. When students are considered, race almost always makes a difference. White students lacking a home computer, but not African American students, appear to find an alternative means of accessing the Internet. These results have certain implications for policy with regard to computer access. African American students need multiple points of computer access. To ensure the participation of African Americans in the information revolution, it is critical to improve the educational opportunities of African Americans. Results also indicate that if access is ensured, use will follow. Fractal dreams: New media in social context
n.paradoxa, international feminist art journal, vol. 2: Women and New Media1998*** deep dive
Digital, Human, Animal, Plant: The Politics of Cyberfeminism?1998Susanna PaasonenWhen feminism is discussed as "post" or "cyber", it seems to gain a new kind of market value that has not been attributed to any traditions in feminism or feminists. The concept of postfeminism did indicate a move "above" or "beyond" feminism, even becoming its antithesis, as, for example, formulated in the writings of Camilla Paglia. This detachment from any tradition of feminist politics has made postfeminism easier to market, but in the case of cyberfeminism its marketability owes a great deal to the high exchange rate of cybertheory in general. chapter in n.paradoxa, international feminist art journal, vol. 2: Women and New Media
Hard, Soft and Wet: Digital Generation Comes of Age1998Melanie McGrathMcGrath's book is about the first generation of people to take the information age for granted. First published in 1997, it explores the dreams, ambitions, aesthetics and assumptions of all the children growing up in the digital age.
How We Became Posthuman: Virtual Bodies in Cybernetics, Literature, and Informatics1999N. Katherine HaylesHayles relates three interwoven stories: how information lost its body, that is, how it came to be conceptualized as an entity separate from the material forms that carry it; the cultural and technological construction of the cyborg; and the dismantling of the liberal humanist "subject" in cybernetic discourse, along with the emergence of the "posthuman." of Chicago PressJudy Malloy list
Cyberfeminism: Connectivity, Critique & Creativity1999Renate Klein, Susan HawthorneAn international anthology by feminists working in the field of electronic publishing, electronic activism, electronic data delivery, multimedia production, virtual reality creation, developing programs or products electronically, as well as those developing critiques of electronic culture. This collection explores what the possibilities are for feminists and for feminism. It also grapples with the pitfalls of the medium. The book, however, does not assume that the technology in itself is negative, but rather how it is used is open to critique. This leaves open the possibility of feminists having an impact on the way the technologies develop. The book includes connecting HTML with poetry, developing resources for Women's Studies and libraries, on-line, CD-ROM and VRML developments. The book has markets across trade and educational sectors and could be used at secondary and tertiary levels. Press
Women Internet: Creating New Cultures in Cyberspace
1999Wendy HarcourtZed BooksJudy Malloy list
When Computers Were Women1999Jennifer Light and Culture, Vol. 40, No. 3Working women, Computer programming, Ballistics, World wars, Men, Machinery, Computer technology, Labor
Gesturing Toward the Visual: Virtual Reality, Hypertext & Embodied Feminist Criticism1999Carolyn GuertinThe rhetoric surrounding virtual reality, on the other hand,argues not for the disappearance of technology, but for adisappearance of the body in favour of existence as a state of pureinformation. Katherine Hayles has pointed out that the body is bothinformational and material object (6) and that it is only "when oneduality is chosen over anotherÑwhen the body is seen only asinformationÑthat its erasure seems possible" (6). This elision of thebody nullifies the spiritual component of ourselves and precludesany notions of psychological transcendence that should be possiblein physical experiences, particularly experiences like the creative act,art and lovemaking. "[D]isembodied theorizing" (Greco) denies bothconsciousness and the sensory input that is integral to our navigationof the world: that being the proprioceptive sense, our physical senseof our body boundaries.Tressie CottomJudy Malloy list