Presidential Systems
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Turkey (Presidential)USA (Presidential)France (Semi-Presidential)Russia (Semi-Presidential)
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General Structure
Unitary/Centralist state structure. There is a 600-member parliament alongside President and his cabinet. Theoretically, Parliament has partial control powers. Constitutiona Court has the power to review constitutionality of laws. However, both parliament and judiciary have been structured in such a way that all power is practically concentrated in one person. USA is a country that consists of 50 federal states, each of which has own constitution. That enables federal states to exercise their executive, legislative and judicial functions properly even if presidential system reaches an impasse. There is a parliament (435 deputies in the House of Representative and 100 in the Senate) which exercises checks and balances on the president, who has large powers. There is no Constitutional Court in the USA. However, all courts, first and foremost the Supreme Court, examine claims of unconstitutionality. Every citizen has the right to make a constitutionality appeal to courts for laws relevant to their cases to be examined. Unitary/decentralized state structure. There is a balance of power between regional authorities and the central government. There is a parliament (577 members for National Assembly, 348 for Senate) alongside the President. If president and prime minister are of different parties, Co-Habitation prnciple is exercised: President and prime minister handle foreign and internal affairs, respectively. Constitutional Committee reviews constitutionality of laws. Federal state. Each republic has own constitution. Although there is a Parliament (450 members for Duma, 178 for Federal Assembly) alongside a Prime Minister and a board of ministers, Putin concentrates all powers in his hands.
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ExecutiveThere is a 600-member parliament alongside President and his cabinet. Theoretically, Parliament has partial control powers. Constitutiona Court has the power to review constitutionality of laws. However, both parliament and judiciary have been structured in such a way that all power is practically concentrated in one man's hands. The president appoints and dismisses the members of the cabinet. Appointments need parliamentary approval. President appoints the prime minister and receives his/her resignation. President appoints and remove ministers upon the prime minister's proposal. Prime minister and board of minister need to obtain a vote of confidence from the parliament (it is rather a procedure, not an obligation).President appoints the Prime Minister and receives his/her resignation. President appoints and removes vice prime ministers and federal ministers upon the Prime Minister's proposal. Prime Minister and his/her cabinet needs a vote of confidence.
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President prepares the annual budget. If it is rejected by parliament, a temporary budget law is enacted. If a temporary budget law may also not be enacted, previous year's budget planning is used. The president prepares the annual budget. The Congress either passes the budget with some amendments or directly rejects it. If the budget is rejected, salaries may be paid and the government reaches an impasse. President has no such a power. Budget is prepared by the government and approved and amended by the parliament. President has no such a power. It is prepared by the government. DUMA passes it.
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President appoints or removes senior public executive officers. Regulates the rules and procedures regarding the appointments. The President himself appoints colonels, generals and ambassadors. The president himself appoints 4.000 civil servants. 1.200 out of 4.000 appointments require no parliamentary approval. The president nominates candidates for foreign missions. Appointments requires to be approved by 2/3 of the Senate. The president promotes military officers. The Congress makes recommendations for promotions. Senior public officers are appointed by the President, but countersignatures of the prime minister and the relevant prime minister are required. Pursuant to the constitutional amendment made in 2008, appointments are reviewed firstly both by the National Assembly and the Senate. If negative votes account for more than 3/5 of total votes, appointments are not made.President proposes 3 candidates for the office of governorate. Appointment is made by the Federal Assembly. President may propose a candidate for the Head of Central Bank or propose the Duma to remove the incumbent head. President appoints or removes members of the Board of Armed Forces. President promotes senior military officer. He/she appoints diplomatic representatives in conslutation with the parliament.
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President determines the National Security policies and measures.
National Security policies and measures are determined by the president, however, the relevant expenditures reqiure parliamentary approval. National Security policies and measures are determined by the President, in consultation with the prime minister.
National Security policies and measures are determined by the president.
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The decision to deploy the armed forces is made by President. War is declared by Partliament. War is declared by Congress.War is declared by parliament. War is declared by parliament.
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Legislative President may make changes in person to available regulations via issuing "Presidential decrees and decisions". The president may issue decrees. But decrees may be appealed. President may issue decrees, which will not contradicts the constitution and the Civil Law. President may issue decrees and orders, which will not contradicts the constitution and the Federal Laws.
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President may dissolve parliament and hold an early election. However, that requires him to run again for the office. The president has no power to dissolve Congress. President has no power to dissolve Congress, with some exceptions. Congress has no power to remove incumbent president. President may dissolve the parliament and hold an early election after consulting with the prime minister and the parliamentary speaker (President may not exercise his power to dissolve the parliament in next two years).President may dissolve the DUMA in some exceptional circumstances for a definite period.
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President has the power to declare state of emergeny. It requires parliamentary approval.Can declare State of Emergency, but needs approval of both House of Rapesentatives and the Senat. President may declare 12 day long state of emergency. Any extension requires parliamentary approval.President may declare state of emergency. He/she has to inform the Duma and Federal Council following the declaration.
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President may veto laws passed by parliament. To enact laws to have been vetoed by President requires absolute majority vote. President may veto laws passed by Congess. Congress needs 2/3 majority to insist on them.President may send laws back to the parliament for re-debate.President has no such a power.
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President may file annulment appeals to the Constitutional Court. There is no Constitutional Court. Every citizen has the right to file constitutionalty appeals to courts. President may file an appeal any law at the Constitutional Committee.The president may file unconstitutionality appeals to the Constitutional Court.
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President ratifies international treaties.President ratifies international treaties after they are voted by 2/3 of the Senate. President ratifies international treaties (counter signatures required)The presidents ratifies international agreements
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President may hold a referendum for constitutional amendments having been voted by 2/3 of Parliament. President has no such a power. President may send laws back to the parliament for "revisions". He/she may hold a referendum for a bill when it is requested the government or the parliament. President has large powers in constitutional amendment procedures. He/she may propose a constitutional amendment or hold a referendum for it or refer it to Congress (National Assembly and Senate combined). He may also suspend constitutional amendment processes. President has no such a power.
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President issues directives for relevants laws. President may issue directives for relevants laws.President may issue directives for laws. President may issue directives for the relevant laws.
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Judiciary President has control over the Council of Judges and Prosecutors, Court of Cassation and Council of State. President appoints 9 members of the Supreme Court. It must be approved by Senate. They have life tenure. Many senior judges are appointed by the prime minister upon the board of ministers' proposal (ministers' countersignatures required) President has powers regarding determining the number of judges and their appointments.
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The president appoints 12 out of 15 members of the Constitutional Court. There is no separate "Constitutional Court". Courts, first and foremost the Supreme Court, may assume similar functions. Individuals may file constitutionality appeals to any court. President is permanent member of the Constitutional Council. The other 9 members are appointed by the President (3), the Speaker of the National Assembly (3) and the Senate (3). Appointed by the President.
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Checks and BalancesParliament may launch investigation against President when it is voted 1/2 of parliament. To set up an investigation commission requires to be voted by 3/5 of parliament. If voted by 2/3 of parliament, President stands trial at the Supreme Court. Congress must find the president guilty of "treason", "bribery" or "aggravated offence" so that an impeachment process may be initiated. It is first brought to the House of Representatives after a montion is submitted by any member of the House. Crime(s) incriminated to the President are addressed in the Justice Committee. For the President to stand trial before the Senate, majority vote is required. To impeach the President requires two-thirds of senators' approval. Impeachment process for President: If the President is accused of "high treason" and if simple majority in the National Assembly and Senate combined is in favor of trial, Parliament (National Assembly and Senate combined) may impeach the President. 2/3 of total votes is required to do so. President may be charged with either treason or aggravated offence only by the DUMA, with the Constitutional Court's approval that the process is carried out according to the Supreme Court's relevant legal opinions and established procedures. The Federal Council may impeach the President Decisions made both by the State Duma and by the Federal Council must obtain 2/3 majority of the total members of both. Before the final voting, 1/3 of deputies must propose the decisions to be voted. And a consultation with the relevant committee is required. If that procedure is not followed properly within 3 months, accussations are considered to be dropped.
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A person may be elected for the Presidential Office for 2 times at most, with 5 year for each. However, if parliament decides to hold an early election before the incumbent president's second term expires, he/she may be elected for a third term.A person may be elected for the Presidential Office for two times, with four year for each. President serves only for two consecutive terms, with 5 year for each.President serves for 6 years. The same person may be elected President for no more than two consecutive terms.
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Public Institutions Media outlets have been either silenced or forcibly sold to pro-AKP businessmen. Chairpersons of the Turkish Radio and Television Company, the Radio and Television Supreme Council, and Turkish Infromation Technologies and Communication Authority are appointed by President himself. Media is dominated by private sector in the USA. Even congressional sessions are aired by a private TV channel. There are media channels funded by the Department of Foreign Affairs that broadcast progagandist contents. President appoints the Head of Radio and Television High Council (CSA), the Head of France Télévisions and the Head of Radio France (countersignatures required). Appointments are reviewed by the relevant commissions both at the National Assembly and at the Senate. Big TV channels are owned by businesspersons who has close relationships with either the State or the President. No foreign businessperson owns or establishes a media outlet. They may only have %20 share of Russian media organs.
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Oppression on social media. Custodies, arrests and sentences continue, due to tweets and social media messages. It is not possible.It is not possible.Social media channels are under strict control.
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Rectors are appointed directly by President. President has no such a power. Rectors are elected by boards of trustees. President has no such a power. Rectors are voted by lecturers and students.President has no such a power.
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Professional associations, chambers and trade union confederations have ever been either pro-goverment or kept under strict control by governments. Professional associations, trade associations and trade unions are independent. Heads of public agencies are appointed by the President (countersignatures required). Those appointments are subject to review as well. President has no such a power.
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Civil Society Organizations have ever been seen as dangerous initiatives required to be kept under strict control. United States of America has strong civil society organizations, which exercise influence on state policies. Especially the institutes called "think thank", which conduct public policy research, are pro-active. There are interest groups as well. Heads of autonomous admisnistrative authorities are appointed by the President (countersignates reqiured). Those appointments are subject to review as well. Civil Society Organizations are under heavy pressure. The Law enacted in 2006, which states that "it is necessary that the political system and citizens must be protected against foreign interventions and from terrorist ideologies", sets obstacles for their activities.
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Term of Office For 2 terms, with 5 year for each (a third term is possible in the case of an early election)For 2 terms, with 4 year for each. A third term is not possible. For 2 terms, with 5 year for each.For 6 years. For 2 consecutive terms, with 6 years for each.
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