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SectionHeadlineTitleAuthorPublished inPublisherYear (YYYY)Month (01-12)Day (01-31)Wheeler Excerpt (text)Wheeler Excerpt (HTML)Commentary AuthorApplication TypeApplicationURLPriority (5=high, 0=none)Broken Link?New addition?PR Alternate Link
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PopularityThe most popular Content Management System in the US Federal government's .gov domain is Drupal, an OSS system.Distribution of content management systems among websites that use .govQ-success' w3techs.com2014324Drupalhttp://w3techs.com/technologies/segmentation/tld-gov-/content_management4Y
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PopularityThe most popular web server has always been FLOSS since such data have been collected. For example, Apache is the current #1 web server.November 2011 Web Server SurveyNetcraftWeb Server SurveyNetcraft201111Netcraft’s statistics on web servers have consistently shown Apache (an FLOSS web server) dominating the public Internet web server market ever since Apache grew into the #1 web server in April 1996. Before that time, the NCSA web server (Apache’s ancestor) dominated the web from August 1995 through March 1996 - and it is also FLOSS.<a href="http://survey.netcraft.com/">Netcraft&#8217;s statistics on web servers</a>
have consistently shown Apache (an FLOSS web server) dominating
the public Internet web server market ever since Apache
grew into the #1 web server in April 1996.
Before that time, the NCSA web server (Apache&#8217;s ancestor)
dominated the web from August 1995 through March 1996 - and it is also FLOSS.
DWWeb ServerApachehttp://survey.netcraft.com/
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PopularityThe most popular web server has always been FLOSS since such data have been collected. For example, Apache is the current #1 web server.May 2011 Web Server SurveyNetcraftWeb Server SurveyNetcraft20110502Netcraft’s survey published May 2011 polled all the web sites they could find (totaling 324,697,205 sites), and found that of all the sites they could find, counting by name, Apache had 62.71% of the market, while Microsoft had 18.37% (these were the top two).<a href="http://news.netcraft.com/archives/2011/05/02/may-2011-web-server-survey.html">Netcraft&#8217;s survey published May 2011</a>
polled all the web sites they could find
(totaling 324,697,205 sites), and found that of
all the sites they could find, counting by name,
Apache had 62.71% of the market, while
Microsoft had 18.37% (these were the top two).
DWWeb ServerApachehttp://news.netcraft.com/archives/2011/05/02/may-2011-web-server-survey.html4
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PopularityThe most popular web server has always been FLOSS since such data have been collected. For example, Apache is the current #1 web server.April 2006 Web Server SurveyWeb Server SurveyNetcraft200604Many web sites have been created that are simply “placeholder” sites (i.e., their domain names have been reserved but they are not being used); such sites are termed “inactive.” This means that just tracking the names can be misleading, and somewhat vulnerable to rigging. This eventually happened. In April 2006 there was a one-time significant increase in IIS sites (versus Apache) among inactive sites, entirely due to a single company (Go Daddy) switching from Apache to IIS when serving inactive sites.many web sites
have been created that are simply &#8220;placeholder&#8221; sites
(i.e., their domain names have been reserved but they are not being used);
such sites are termed &#8220;inactive.&#8221;
This means that just tracking the names can be misleading, and somewhat
vulnerable to rigging.
This eventually happened.
In
<a href="http://news.netcraft.com/archives/2006/04/06/april_2006_web_server_survey.html">April 2006 there was a one-time significant increase in IIS sites
(versus Apache) among inactive sites, entirely due
to a single company (Go Daddy) switching from
Apache to IIS when serving inactive sites</a>.
DWWeb ServerApachehttp://news.netcraft.com/archives/2006/04/06/april_2006_web_server_survey.html3
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PopularityThe most popular web server has always been FLOSS since such data have been collected. For example, Apache is the current #1 web server.While it is more difficult for a single active site to switch web servers, it is trivial for a hosting organization to switch all its inactive sites. Go Daddy’s president and COO, Warren Adelman, refused to discuss whether or not Microsoft paid or gave other incentives to move its inactive (parked) domains to Windows, leading a vast number of people to suspect that Go Daddy was paid by Microsoft to make this change, just to try to make Microsoft’s share numbers look better than they really were.While it is more difficult for a single active site to switch web servers,
it is trivial for a hosting organization to switch all its
<i>inactive</i> sites.
Go Daddy&#8217;s president and COO,
<a href="http://business.newsforge.com/article.pl?sid=06/04/20/1652228">
Warren Adelman, refused to discuss whether or not Microsoft paid or gave
other incentives to move its inactive (parked) domains to Windows</a>,
leading a vast number of people
to suspect that Go Daddy was paid by Microsoft to make this change,
just to try to make Microsoft&#8217;s share numbers look better than
they really were.
DWWeb ServerApachehttp://business.newsforge.com/article.pl?sid=06/04/20/165222811
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PopularityThe most popular web server has always been FLOSS since such data have been collected. For example, Apache is the current #1 web server.May 2011 Web Server SurveyWeb Server SurveyNetcraft20110502Since 2000, Netcraft has been separately counting “active” web sites. Netcraft’s count of only the active sites is arguably a more relevant figure than counting all web sites, since the count of active sites shows the web server selected by those who choose to actually develop a web site. Apache does extremely well when counting active sites; in the May 2011 results, Apache had 57.52% of the web server market and Microsoft had 15.41%.since 2000, Netcraft has been separately counting
<a href="http://news.netcraft.com/archives/2011/05/02/may-2011-web-server-survey.html">&#8220;active&#8221; web sites</a>.
Netcraft&#8217;s count of only the
active sites is arguably a more relevant figure than counting all web sites,
since the count of active sites shows
the web server selected by those who choose to actually develop a web site.
Apache does extremely well when counting active sites; in the
May 2011 results,
Apache had 57.52% of the web server market and
Microsoft had 15.41%.
DWWeb ServerApachehttp://news.netcraft.com/archives/2011/05/02/may-2011-web-server-survey.html4
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PopularityThe most popular web server has always been FLOSS since such data have been collected. For example, Apache is the current #1 web server.HighlightsSSL Server SurveyNetcraft2009Netcraft’s latest public SSL survey (Jan 2009) surveyed the number of web servers that encrypted their information using TLS/SSL. In short, "Netscape once dominated... Microsoft soon caught up and passed... [and now the] most popular choice of SSL web servers is the open source Apache server." Apache had about 45% of the market, and Microsoft had about 43%, and Microsoft's share was clearly trending down.<a href="https://ssl.netcraft.com/ssl-sample-report/">
Netcraft’s latest public SSL survey (Jan 2009)</a> surveyed the number of
web servers that encrypted their information using TLS/SSL.
In short, "Netscape once dominated... Microsoft soon caught up
and passed... [and now the] most popular choice of
SSL web servers is the open source Apache server."
Apache had about 45% of the market, and Microsoft had about 43%, and
Microsoft's share was clearly trending down.
DWWeb ServerApachehttps://ssl.netcraft.com/ssl-sample-report/4
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PopularityThe most popular web server has always been FLOSS since such data have been collected. For example, Apache is the current #1 web server.September 2002 Web Server SurveyWeb Server SurveyNetcraft200209Netcraft’s September 2002 survey reported on websites based on their “IP address” instead of the host name; this has the effect of removing computers used to serve multiple sites and sites with multiple names. When counting by IP address, Apache has shown a slow increase from 51% at the start of 2001 to 54%, while Microsoft has been unchanged at 35%. Again, a clear majority.Netcraft&#8217;s September 2002 survey reported on
websites based on their &#8220;IP address&#8221; instead of the host name;
this has the effect of removing
computers used to serve multiple sites and sites with multiple names.
When counting by IP address, Apache has shown a slow increase
from 51% at the start of 2001 to 54%, while
Microsoft has been unchanged at 35%.
Again, a clear majority.
DWWeb ServerApache2
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PopularityThe most popular web server has always been FLOSS since such data have been collected. For example, Apache is the current #1 web server.Apache zooms away from Microsoft's web serverMathew BroersmaCNet NewsCNet2004CNet’s ”Apache zooms away from Microsoft’s Web server” summed up the year 2003 noting that “Apache grew far more rapidly in 2003 than its nearest rival, Microsoft’s Internet Information Services (IIS), according to a new survey--meaning that the open-source software remains by far the most widely used Web server on the Internet.” The same happened in 2004, in fact, in just December 2004 Apache gained a full percentage point over Microsoft’s IIS among the total number of all web sites.CNet&#8217;s
<a href="http://news.com.com/2100-7344-5139511.html">&#8221;Apache
zooms away from Microsoft&#8217;s Web server&#8221;</a> summed up the year 2003
noting that
&#8220;Apache grew far more rapidly in 2003 than its nearest rival,
Microsoft&#8217;s Internet Information Services (IIS),
according to a new survey--meaning that the
open-source software remains by far the most widely
used Web server on the Internet.&#8221;
The same happened in 2004, in fact, in just December 2004 Apache gained
a full percentage point over Microsoft&#8217;s IIS among the total number of
all web sites.
DWWeb ServerApachehttp://www.securityspace.com/s_survey3
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PopularityThe most popular web server has always been FLOSS since such data have been collected. For example, Apache is the current #1 web server.Web Server SurveySecurity Space20070401Apache’s dominance in the web server market has been independently confirmed by E-Soft’s Security Space - their report on web server share published April 1st, 2007 surveyed 23,331,627 web servers in March 2007 and found that Apache was #1 (73.29%), with Microsoft IIS being #2 (20.01%).Apache&#8217;s dominance in the web server market
has been independently confirmed by
<a href="http://www.securityspace.com/s_survey">E-Soft&#8217;s Security Space</a> -
their report on
<a href="http://www.securityspace.com/s_survey/data/200703/index.html">
web server share published April 1st, 2007</a>
surveyed 23,331,627 web servers in March 2007 and
found that Apache was #1 (73.29%), with Microsoft IIS being #2 (20.01%).
<a href="http://www.securityspace.com/s_survey/sdata/200703/index.html">
DWWeb ServerApachehttp://www.securityspace.com/s_survey/data/200703/index.html3
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PopularityThe most popular web server has always been FLOSS since such data have been collected. For example, Apache is the current #1 web server.Secure Server SurveySecurity Space20070401E-soft also reports specifically on secure servers (web servers supporting SSL/TLS, such as e-commerce sites); Apache leads there too, with 52.49% share, as compared to Microsoft’s 39.32%. You can go to http://www.securityspace.com for more information.E-soft also reports specifically on secure servers (web servers supporting
SSL/TLS, such as e-commerce sites)</a>;
Apache leads there too, with 52.49%
share, as compared to Microsoft&#8217;s
39.32%.
You can go to
<a href="http://www.securityspace.com">http://www.securityspace.com</a>
for more information.
DWWeb ServerApachehttp://www.securityspace.com/s_survey/sdata/200703/index.html3
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PopularityThe most popular web server has always been FLOSS since such data have been collected. For example, Apache is the current #1 web server.Open Source Parking Spoofing Headers to Benefit Apache InsteadRich MillerWeb Server SurveyNetcraft20070404Netcraft has noted that by April 2007 some domains appear to be running lighthttpd, but claim to be running Apache instead. For this paper’s purpose a lighttpd server claiming to be Apache does not harm the validity of the result, though. Both lighttpd and Apache are FLOSS, so the share of FLOSS web servers would be the sum of them (and other FLOSS web servers) anyway.<a href="http://news.netcraft.com/archives/2007/04/04/open_source_parking_spoofing_headers_to_benefit_apache.html">Netcraft has noted that by April 2007
some domains appear to be running lighthttpd,
but claim to be running Apache instead</a>.
For this paper&#8217;s purpose a lighttpd server claiming to be Apache does not
harm the validity of the result, though.
Both lighttpd and Apache are FLOSS, so the share
of FLOSS web servers would be the sum of them
(and other FLOSS web servers) anyway.
DWWeb ServerApachehttp://news.netcraft.com/archives/2007/04/04/open_source_parking_spoofing_headers_to_benefit_apache.html2
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PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. Mozilla Gains on IERobert McMillianPC World20040709PC World found that in July 2004, Internet Explorer began to measurably lost share to FLOSS browsers. According to PC World, IE lost 1% of its share in a single month, July 2004. In the same time period Mozilla-based browser use increased by 26% (when compared to its previous share). IE was still far more widely used at this time according to this July 2004 poll (94.73%), but IE hadn’t lost share for many years, and it takes a significant event for that many people to change browsers. This was probably at least in part due to repeated security problems (though its poor support of web standards and lack of features may also have had a role).PC World found that in
<a href="http://www.pcworld.com/news/article/0,aid,116848,00.asp">
July 2004, Internet Explorer began to measurably lost share</a>
to FLOSS browsers.
According to PC World,
IE lost 1% of its share in a single month, July 2004.
In the same time period Mozilla-based browser use increased by 26%
(when compared to its previous share).
IE was still far more widely used at this time
according to this July 2004 poll (94.73%),
but IE hadn&#8217;t lost share
for many years, and it takes a significant event for that many people
to change browsers.
This was probably at least in part due to
<a href="#ie-vulnerabilities">repeated security problems</a>
(though its poor support of web standards and lack of features may also
have had a role).
DWBrowserMicrosoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefoxhttp://www.pcworld.com/article/116848/mozilla_gains_on_ie.html21
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PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. Firefox Home Page2004Note that the major Mozilla rewrite of its web browser, Mozilla Firefox, wasn’t even officially available at time; Firefox wasn’t officially released until November 9, 2004.Note that the major Mozilla rewrite of its web browser,
<a href="http://www.mozilla.org/products/firefox/">Mozilla Firefox</a>,
wasn&#8217;t even officially available at time; Firefox wasn&#8217;t
officially released until November 9, 2004.
DWBrowserMicrosoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefoxhttp://www.mozilla.org/products/firefox/0
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PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. Ziff Davis20041101FLOSS web browsers (particularly Firefox) are gradually gaining share among the general population of web users. By November 1, 2004, Ziff Davis revealed that IE had lost about another percent in only 7 weeks.FLOSS web browsers (particularly Firefox) are gradually
gaining share among the general population of web users.
<a href="http://story.news.yahoo.com/news?tmpl=story&amp;ncid=1817&amp;e=2&amp;u=/zd/20041101/tc_zd/138409&amp;sid=96120751">
By November 1, 2004, Ziff Davis revealed that IE had lost about another
percent in only 7 weeks.</a>
DWBrowserMicrosoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefoxhttp://story.news.yahoo.com/news?tmpl=story&amp;ncid=1817&amp;e=2&amp;u=/zd/20041101/tc_zd/138409&amp;sid=9612075111
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PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. Chuck Upsdell200409Chuck Upsdell has combined many data sources and estimates that, as of September 2004, IE has decreased from 94% to 84%, as users switch to other browser families (mainly Gecko); he also believes this downward trend is likely to continue.<a href="http://www.upsdell.com/BrowserNews/stat_trends.htm">
Chuck Upsdell has combined many data sources</a> and estimates that,
as of September 2004, IE has decreased from 94% to 84%,
as users switch to other browser families (mainly Gecko); he also believes
this downward trend is likely to continue.
DWBrowserGeckohttp://www.upsdell.com/BrowserNews/stat_trends.htm11
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PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. InformationWeek20050318InformationWeek reported in March 18, 2005, some results from Net Applications (a maker of Web-monitoring software). Net Applications found that Firefox use rose to 6.17% of the market in February 2005, compared to 5.59% in January 2005.<a href="http://www.informationweek.com/story/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=159902316">InformationWeek reported in March 18, 2005,
some results from Net Applications</a> (a maker of Web-monitoring software).
Net Applications found that
Firefox use rose to 6.17% of the market in February 2005,
compared to 5.59% in January 2005.
DWBrowserMicrosoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefoxhttp://www.informationweek.com/story/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=15990231611
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PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. WebSideStory200502WebSideStory reported in February 2005 that Firefox’s general share was 5.69% as of February 18, 2005, compared to IE’s 89.85%.<a href="http://www.websidestory.com/services-solutions/datainsights/spotlight.html">WebSideStory reported in February 2005</a> that
Firefox&#8217;s general share was 5.69% as of February 18, 2005, compared
to IE&#8217;s 89.85%.
DWBrowserMicrosoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefoxhttp://www.websidestory.com/services-solutions/datainsights/spotlight.html11
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PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. Mozilla's browsers global usage share is 8.45 percent according to OneStat.comNews and Press ReleasesOneStat20050228OneStat reported on February 28, 2005, that Mozilla-based browsers’ global usage share (or at least Firefox’s) is 8.45%, compared to IE’s 87.28%. Co-founder Niels Brinkman suspects that IE 5 users were upgrading to Firefox, not IE 6, as at least one reason why “global usage share of Mozilla’s Firefox is still increasing and the total global usage share of Microsoft’s Internet Explorer is still decreasing.”<a href="http://www.onestat.com/html/aboutus_pressbox36.html">
OneStat reported on February 28, 2005</a>, that
Mozilla-based browsers&#8217; global usage share
(or at least Firefox&#8217;s) is 8.45%, compared to IE&#8217;s 87.28%.
Co-founder Niels Brinkman suspects that
IE 5 users were upgrading to Firefox, not IE 6, as
at least one reason why
&#8220;global usage share of Mozilla&#8217;s Firefox is still increasing and
the total global usage share of Microsoft&#8217;s Internet Explorer
is still decreasing.&#8221;
DWBrowserMicrosoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefoxhttp://www.onestat.com/html/aboutus_pressbox36.html2
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PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. Browser StatsGlobal Statistics 2004TheCounter.com200408The site TheCounter.com reports global statistics about web browsers; February 2005shows Mozilla-based browsers (including Firefox, but not Netscape) had 6%, while IE 6 had 81% and IE 5 had 8% (89% total for IE). This is a significant growth; the August 2004 study of 6 months earlier had Mozilla 2%, IE 6 with 79%, and IE 5 with 13% (92% for IE)The site
<a href="http://www.thecounter.com/stats/">
TheCounter.com</a> reports global statistics about web browsers;
<a href="http://www.thecounter.com/stats/2005/February/browser.php">February
2005</a> shows Mozilla-based browsers (including Firefox, but not
Netscape) had 6%, while IE 6 had 81% and IE 5 had 8% (89% total for IE). This is a significant growth; the
<a href="http://www.thecounter.com/stats/2004/August/browser.php">
August 2004</a> study of 6 months earlier had
Mozilla 2%, IE 6 with 79%, and IE 5 with 13% (92% for IE).
DWBrowserMicrosoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefoxhttp://www.thecounter.com/stats/2004/August/browser.php2
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PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. Browser StatsGlobal Statistics 2009TheCounter.com200903The site TheCounter.com reports global statistics about web browsers; March 2009 shows Mozilla-based browsers (including Firefox, but not Netscape) had 18%, while IE 7 had 42% and IE 6 had 33% (75% total for IE). PRBrowserMicrosoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefoxhttp://www.thecounter.com/stats/2009/March/browser.php31
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PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. The Quotations Page Home Pagequotationspage.com200402The website quotationspage.com is a popular general-use website; quotationspage statistics of February 2004 and 2005 show a marked rise in the use of FLOSS browsers. In February 2004, IE had 89.93% while Mozilla-based browsers accounted for 5.29% of browser users; by February 2005, IE had dropped to 76.47% while Mozilla-based browsers (including Firefox) had risen to 14.11%.The website
<a href="http://www.quotationspage.com/">quotationspage.com</a> is
a popular general-use website;
<a href="http://www.figby.com/archives/2005/02/28/browser-stats-the-state-of-firefox/">
quotationspage statistics of February 2004 and 2005
show a marked rise in the use of FLOSS browsers</a>.
In February 2004, IE had 89.93% while Mozilla-based browsers accounted for
5.29% of browser users; by February 2005, IE had dropped to 76.47% while
Mozilla-based browsers (including Firefox) had risen to 14.11%.
DWBrowserMicrosoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefoxhttp://www.figby.com/archives/2005/02/28/browser-stats-the-state-of-firefox/1
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PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. Browser and Operating System share White PaperJanco Associates200504Janco Associates also reported Firefox share data; comparing January 2005 to April 2005, Firefox had jumped from 4.23% to 10.28% of the market (IE dropped from 84.85% to 83.07% in that time, and Mozilla, Netscape, and AOL all lost share in this time as well according to this survey).<a href="http://www.e-janco.com/browser.htm">Janco Associates also
reported Firefox share data</a>;
comparing January 2005 to April 2005, Firefox had jumped from
4.23% to 10.28% of the market
(IE dropped from 84.85% to 83.07% in that time, and
Mozilla, Netscape, and AOL all lost share in this time as well
according to this survey).
DWBrowserMicrosoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefoxhttp://www.e-janco.com/browser.htm1
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PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. Browser and Operating System share White PaperJanco Associates201111In its November 2011 share white paper, Janco Associates reports a 59.87% share for Microsoft Internet Explorer, a 14.15% share for Firefox, and an 11.55% share for Google Chrome. Microsoft's share was down 5.45 percentage points since November 2010, Firefox's share was down 4.36 percentage points, and Chrome's share was up 4.73 percentage points. Janco Associates has published monthly share data since September 2007.PRBrowserMicrosoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefoxhttp://www.e-janco.com/browser.htm51
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PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. Firefox draws 2.6 million surfers in MarchDinesh C. SharmaZDNet20050414Nielsen/NetRatings’ survey of site visitors found that in June 2004, 795,000 people visited the Firefox website (this was the minimum for their tracking system). There were 2.2 million in January 2005, 1.6 million in February, and 2.6 million people who visited the Firefox web site in March 2005. The numbers were also up for Mozilla.org, the Web site of the Mozilla Foundation (FireFox’s developer).<a href="http://www.zdnet.com.au/news/software/0,2000061733,39188309,00.htm">
Nielsen/NetRatings&#8217; survey of site visitors</a> found that
in June 2004, 795,000 people visited the Firefox website (this was the
minimum for their tracking system).
There were 2.2 million in January 2005, 1.6 million in February, and
2.6 million people who visited the Firefox web site in March 2005.
The numbers were also up for Mozilla.org, the Web site of
the Mozilla Foundation (FireFox&#8217;s developer).
DWBrowserMicrosoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefoxhttp://www.zdnet.com.au/firefox-draws-26-million-surfers-in-march-139188309.htm3
27
PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. Techweb200610In October 2006, TechWeb noted that Firefox was continuing to grow, citing MarketShare’s report Firefox had continued to grow - it was now at 12.46% share as of September 2006 among all browsers for general-purpose browsing (up from 11.84% the previous month). In
<a href="http://www.techweb.com/wire/security/193104314">October 2006,
TechWeb noted that Firefox was continuing to grow</a>,
citing <a href="http://marketshare.hitslink.com/report.aspx?qprid=3">
MarketShare&#8217;s report</a> Firefox had continued to grow -
it was now at 12.46% share as of September 2006 among all browsers
for general-purpose browsing (up from 11.84% the previous month).
DWBrowserMicrosoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefoxhttp://www.techweb.com/wire/security/19310431401
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PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. Despite 100 Million IE 7 Installs, Microsoft's Browser Still Loses GroundGregg KeizerInformationWeek20070116InformationWeek reported on January 16, 2007 that Firefox’s share was continuing to climb after IE 7’s release.<a href="http://www.informationweek.com/news/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=196901142">InformationWeek reported on January 16, 2007 that Firefox&#8217;s
share was continuing to climb after IE 7&#8217;s release</a>.
DWBrowserMicrosoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefoxhttp://www.informationweek.com/news/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=1969011422
29
PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. Firefox: la France en deuxieme position, loin derriere lAllemagneAT Internet20050306The growth of FLOSS web browsers becomes even more impressive when home users are specifically studied. Home users can choose which browser to use, while many businesses users cannot choose their web browser (it’s selected by the company, and companies are often slow to change). XitiMonitor surveyed a sample of websites used on a Sunday (March 6, 2005), totalling 16,650,993 visits. By surveying Sunday, they intended to primarily find out what people choose to use. Of the German users, an astonishing 21.4% were using Firefox. The other countries surveyed were France (12.2%), England (10.9%), Spain (9%), and Italy (8.6%). Here is the original XitiMonitor study of 2005-03-06, an automated translation of the XitiMonitor study, and a blog summary of the XitiMonitor study observing that, “Web sites aiming at the consumer have [no] other choice but [to make] sure that they are compatible with Firefox ... Ignoring compatibility with Firefox and other modern browsers does not make sense business-wise.” Using this data, we can determine that 13.3% of European home users were using Firefox on this date in March 2005. How do can get such a figure? Well, we can use these major European countries as representatives of Europe as a whole; they’re certainly representative of western Europe, since they’re the most populous countries. Presuming that the vast majority of Sunday users are home users is quite reasonable for Europe. We can then make the reasonable presumption that the number of web browser users is proportional to the general population. Then we just need to get the countries’ populations; I used the CIA World Fact Book updated to 2005-02-10. These countries’ populations (in millions) are, in the same order as above, 82, 60, 60, 40, and 58; calculating (21.4%*82 + 12.2%*60 + 10.9%*60 + 9%*40 + 8.6%*58) / (82+60+60+40+58) yields 13.3%.The growth of FLOSS web browsers
becomes even more impressive when home users are specifically studied.
Home users can <i>choose</i> which browser to use, while many
businesses users cannot choose their web browser (it&#8217;s selected by
the company, and companies are often slow to change).
<a name="xitimonitor-march2005"></a>
XitiMonitor surveyed a sample of websites used on a Sunday
(March 6, 2005), totalling 16,650,993 visits.
By surveying Sunday, they intended to primarily find out what people
<i>choose</i> to use.
Of the German users, an astonishing 21.4% were using Firefox.
The other countries surveyed were France (12.2%), England (10.9%),
Spain (9%), and Italy (8.6%).
Here is
<a href="http://www.xitimonitor.com/etudes/equipement4.asp">
the original XitiMonitor study of 2005-03-06</a>,
an
<a href="http://translate.google.com/translate?u=http%3A//www.xitimonitor.com/etudes/equipement4.asp&amp;langpair=fr%7Cen&amp;prev=/language_tools">
automated translation of the XitiMonitor study</a>,
and
<a href="http://standblog.org/blog/2005/03/15/93114061-firefox-usage-in-europe-during-week-ends">a blog summary of the XitiMonitor study</a>
observing that,
&#8220;Web sites aiming at the consumer have [no] other choice but [to make]
sure that they are compatible with Firefox ...
Ignoring compatibility with Firefox and other modern browsers
does not make sense business-wise.&#8221;<p>
Using this data, we can determine that
13.3% of European home users were using Firefox
on this date in March 2005.
How do can get such a figure?
Well, we can use these major European countries as representatives of
Europe as a whole; they&#8217;re <i>certainly</i> representative of western
Europe, since they&#8217;re the most populous countries.
Presuming that the vast majority of Sunday users are home users is
quite reasonable for Europe.
We can then make the reasonable presumption that the number of
web browser users is proportional to the general
population.
Then we just need to get the countries&#8217; populations; I used the
<a href="http://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/">CIA World Fact Book
updated to 2005-02-10</a>.
These countries&#8217; populations (in millions) are, in the same order as above,
82, 60, 60, 40, and 58;
calculating
(21.4%*82 + 12.2%*60 + 10.9%*60 + 9%*40 + 8.6%*58) / (82+60+60+40+58)
yields 13.3%.
DWBrowserMicrosoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefoxhttp://www.xitimonitor.com/etudes/equipement4.asp21
30
PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. gaining with web developersAsa Dotzler20040912Among leading-edge indicators such as the technically savvy and web developers, the market penetration has been even more rapid and widespread. In one case (Ars Technica), Firefox has become the leading web browser! This is a leading indicator because these are the people developing the web sites you’ll see tomorrow; in many cases, they’ve already switched to FLOSS web browsers such as Firefox. W3schools is a site dedicated to aiding web developers, and as part of their role track the browsers that web developers use. W3schools found a dramatic shift from July 2003 to September 2004, with IE dropping from 87.2% to 74.8% while Gecko-based browsers (including Netscape 7, Mozilla, and Firefox) rising from 7.2% to 19%. ( W3Schools’ current statistics are available). This trend has continued; as of March 2005 Firefox was still growing in share, having grown to 21.5% (with an increase every month), while IE was shrinking quickly (IE 6 was down to 64.0% and decreasing every month).Among leading-edge indicators such as
the technically savvy and web developers, the market penetration
has been even more rapid and widespread.
In one case (Ars Technica), Firefox has become the <i>leading</i>
web browser!
This is a leading indicator because these are the people
developing the web sites you&#8217;ll see tomorrow;
in many cases, they&#8217;ve already switched to FLOSS web browsers such as Firefox.
W3schools is a site dedicated to aiding web developers, and
as part of their role track the browsers that web developers use.
<a href="http://weblogs.mozillazine.org/asa/archives/006444.html">W3schools
found a dramatic shift</a>
from July 2003 to September 2004,
with IE dropping from 87.2% to 74.8% while Gecko-based browsers
(including Netscape 7, Mozilla, and Firefox) rising from 7.2% to 19%.
(<a href="http://www.w3schools.com/browsers/browsers_stats.asp">
W3Schools&#8217; current statistics are available</a>).
This trend has continued;
as of March 2005 Firefox was still growing in share,
having grown to 21.5% (with an increase every month),
while IE was shrinking quickly (IE 6 was down to 64.0% and decreasing
every month).
DWBrowserMicrosoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefoxhttp://weblogs.mozillazine.org/asa/archives/006444.html1
31
PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. Web Statistics and TrendsBrowser Statisticsw3schools.com201111W3schools' browser shares for October 2011 show Firefox in the lead with 38.7%, followed by Chrome with 32.3% and IE with 21.7%. Chrome's share in October was up over 8 percentage points since January, while IE's share was down almost 5 percentage points. PRBrowserMicrosoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chromehttp://www.w3schools.com/browsers/browsers_stats.asp51
32
PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. Firefox drawing fans away from Microsoft IERobert LemosCNet News20040915CNN found that among its CNet News.com readers, site visitors with FLOSS browsers jumped up from 8% in January 2004 to 18% by September 2004.<a href="http://news.com.com/Firefox+drawing+fans+away+from+Microsoft+IE/2100-1032_3-5368302.html?tag=nefd.top">
CNN found that among its CNet News.com readers,
site visitors with FLOSS browsers jumped up from 8% in January 2004 to
18% by September 2004</a>.
DWBrowserMozilla Firefoxhttp://news.com.com/Firefox+drawing+fans+away+from+Microsoft+IE/2100-1032_3-5368302.html?tag=nefd.top2
33
PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. 2004Statistics forEngadget.com, which has a technical audience, found that as of September 2004, only 57% used a MS browser and Firefox had rapidly risen to 18%Statistics for
<a href="http://calacanis.weblogsinc.com/entry/5574794258282236/">
Engadget.com</a>, which has a technical audience,
found that as of September 2004,
only 57% used a MS browser and Firefox had rapidly risen to 18%.
DWBrowserMicrosoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefoxhttp://calacanis.weblogsinc.com/entry/5574794258282236/01
34
PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. The Fight Has Just BegunJohn C. DvorakPC Magazine20050913IT pundits such as PC Magazine’s John C. Dvorak reported even more dramatic slides, with IE dropping to 50% share.  IT pundits such as
<a href="http://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,1759,1645327,00.asp">
PC Magazine&#8217;s John C. Dvorak reported even more dramatic slides, with
IE dropping to 50% share.</a>
DWBrowserMicrosoft Internet Explorerhttp://www.pcmag.com/article2/0,2817,1645327,00.asp2
35
PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. InformationWeek20050330 InformationWeek reported that on March 30, 2005, 22% of visitors used Firefox, versus 69% who used Internet Explorer. <a href="http://www.informationweek.com/story/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=159908603&amp;tid=5979">InformationWeek</a>
reported that on March 30, 2005, 22% of visitors used Firefox,
versus 69% who used Internet Explorer.
DWBrowserMicrosoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefoxhttp://www.informationweek.com/story/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=159908603&tid=597921
36
PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. Ars Technica traffic report shows Firefox making strides on Windows, OS XKen FisherArs Technica20050327The technical website Ars Technica reported on March 27, 2005, that Firefox was now their #1 browser at 40%, while IE was down to #2 at 30% (vs. 38% in September 2004).The technical website
<a href="http://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20050327-4738.html">
Ars Technica reported on March 27, 2005</a>, that
Firefox was now their #1 browser at 40%,
while IE was down to #2 at 30% (vs. 38% in September 2004).
DWBrowserMicrosoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefoxhttp://arstechnica.com/news.ars/post/20050327-4738.html
37
PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. Firefox Thrives Among BloggersInformationWeek20050330Bloggers, another group of especially active web users (and thus, I believe, another leading indicator) also suggest this is a trend. InformationWeek’s March 30, 2005 article “Firefox Thrives Among Bloggers” specifically discussed this point. InformationWeek reported that on Boing Boing, one of the most popular blog sites, March 2005 statistics show that more of their users use Firefox than Internet Explorer: 35.9% of its visitors use Firefox, compared with 34.5% using Internet Explorer. I checked Boing Boing’s April 2, 2004 statistics; they reported Firefox at 39.1%, IE at 33.8%, Safari at 8.8%, and Mozilla at 4.1%; this means that Firefox plus Mozilla was at 43.2%, significantly beyond IE’s 33.8%. Between January 1 though March 9, the Technometria blog found that “Firefox accounted for 28% of browsers compared with 58% for Internet Explorer.” Kottke.org reported on February 27 that 41% of visitors used Mozilla-based browsers (such as Firefox), while 31% used Internet Explorer.Bloggers, another group of especially active web users (and thus, I
believe, another leading indicator) also suggest this is a trend.
<a href="http://www.informationweek.com/story/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=159908603&amp;tid=5979">InformationWeek&#8217;s March 30, 2005 article
&#8220;Firefox Thrives Among Bloggers&#8221;</a>
specifically discussed this point.
InformationWeek reported that on
Boing Boing, one of the most popular blog sites, March 2005 statistics
show that more of their users use Firefox than Internet Explorer:
35.9% of its visitors use Firefox, compared with 34.5%
using Internet Explorer.
I checked Boing Boing&#8217;s April 2, 2004 statistics; they
reported Firefox at 39.1%,
IE at 33.8%, Safari at 8.8%, and Mozilla at 4.1%; this means that
Firefox plus Mozilla was at 43.2%, significantly beyond IE&#8217;s 33.8%.
Between January 1 though March 9, the Technometria blog
found that &#8220;Firefox accounted for 28% of browsers compared
with 58% for Internet Explorer.&#8221;
Kottke.org reported on February 27 that 41% of visitors
used Mozilla-based browsers (such as Firefox),
while 31% used Internet Explorer.
DWBrowserMicrosoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefoxhttp://www.informationweek.com/story/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=159908603&amp;tid=597901
38
PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. 2006Net Applications’ tracking of web browser share found that Firefox’ share has been growing, reaching 10.05% by March 2006. News sources, such as ComputerWorld and InformationWeek, trumpeted this news; 10% of all web browsers (and growing) is such a large market that it’s now considered risky for developers to ignore Firefox.<a href="http://marketshare.hitslink.com/report.aspx?qprid=3">
Net Applications&#8217; tracking of web browser share</a>
found that Firefox&#8217; share has been growing,
reaching 10.05% by March 2006.
News sources, such as
<a href="http://www.computerworld.com/softwaretopics/software/apps/story/0,10801,110194,00.html?source=x4">ComputerWorld</a> and
<a href="http://www.informationweek.com/story/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=159902316">InformationWeek</a>, trumpeted this news; 10% of all
web browsers (and growing) is such a large market
that it&#8217;s now considered risky for developers to ignore Firefox.
DWBrowserMicrosoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefoxhttp://marketshare.hitslink.com/report.aspx?qprid=30
39
PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. Global usage share Mozilla Firefox has increased according to OneStat.comOneStat.com20060709OneStat.com’s statistics of July 9, 2006 show increasing Firefox use. They found that global Firefox share had stabilized for a little while, and then rapidly grown again. Their statistics found that globally Mozilla Firefox had 12.93% (compared to IE’s 83.05%), and that it varied considerably by country. In the U.S., Firefox was at 15.82% (compared to IE 79.78%), while in Germany Firefox had 39.02% (compared to IE’s 55.99%).<a href="http://www.onestat.com/html/aboutus_pressbox44-mozilla-firefox-has-slightly-increased.html">OneStat.com&#8217;s statistics of July 9, 2006 show
increasing Firefox use</a>.
They found that global Firefox share had stabilized for a little while,
and then rapidly grown again.
Their statistics found that globally
Mozilla Firefox had 12.93% (compared to IE&#8217;s 83.05%), and that it varied
considerably by country.
In the U.S., Firefox was at 15.82% (compared to IE 79.78%), while in Germany
Firefox had 39.02% (compared to IE&#8217;s 55.99%).
DWBrowserMicrosoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefoxhttp://www.onestat.com/html/aboutus_pressbox44-mozilla-firefox-has-slightly-increased.html2
40
PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. "Brand-X Browsers--User Agent Strings: A Note on User Agent Identifiers and Browser StatisticsDan's Web Tips20111022These increasing share statistics are in spite of data-gathering problems that under-report FLOSS browsers. Some non-IE browsers are configured to lie and use the same identification string as Internet Explorer, even though they aren’t actually IE. Thus, all of these studies are almost certainly understating the actual share of non-IE browsers, though the amount of understatement is generally unknown.These increasing share statistics are
in spite of data-gathering problems that under-report FLOSS browsers.
<a href="http://webtips.dan.info/brand-x/useragent.html">
Some non-IE browsers are configured to
lie and use the same identification string as
Internet Explorer</a>, even though they aren&#8217;t actually IE.
Thus, all of these studies are almost certainly
<i>understating</i> the actual share of non-IE browsers,
though the amount of understatement is generally unknown.
DWBrowserMicrosoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefoxhttp://webtips.dan.info/brand-x/useragent.html1
41
PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. In short, efforts such as the grassroots Spread Firefox marketing group seem to have been very effective at convincing people to try out the FLOSS web browser Firefox. Once people try it, they appear to like it enough to continue using it.In short, efforts such as the grassroots
<a href="http://spreadfirefox.com/">Spread Firefox</a> marketing group
seem to have been very effective at convincing people to
try out the FLOSS web browser Firefox.
Once people try it, they appear to like it enough to continue using it.
DWBrowserMozilla Firefoxhttp://spreadfirefox.com/0
42
PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. Mitchel Baker and the Firefox Paradox David H. FreemanInc. Magazine20070201Mitchell Baker and the Firefox Paradox by David H. Freedman (Inc.com magazine) reviews the history and context of Firefox. They had set the absurdly ambitious goal of a million downloads within 10 days of release in November 2004; they reached that in only 4 days, and had 10 million downloads within 30 days. In only a year, Firefox was being downloaded an average of 250,000 times per day. He concludes that Mozilla “may be the hottest tech company in America.”<a href="http://www.inc.com/magazine/20070201/features-firefox.html">
Mitchell Baker and the Firefox Paradox by David H. Freedman
(Inc.com magazine)</a>
reviews the history and context of Firefox.
They had set the absurdly ambitious goal of a million downloads within
10 days of release in November 2004;
they reached that in only 4 days, and had 10 million downloads
within 30 days.
In only a year, Firefox was being downloaded an average
of 250,000 times per day.
He concludes that Mozilla &#8220;may be the hottest tech company in America.&#8221;
DWBrowserMozilla Firefoxhttp://www.inc.com/magazine/20070201/features-firefox.html3
43
PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. Usage share of web browsersWikipedia20110530The Wikipedia article on usage share of web browsers (May 30, 2011 version) summarizes web browser share data from a variety of sources, specifically Net Applications, StatCounter, W3Counter, and Wikipedia itself. They found that the shares, averaged worldwide, were Internet Explorer 43.2%, Mozilla Firefox 28.6%, Google Chrome 14.6%, Safari 6.3%, Opera 2.6%, and other Mobile browsers 4.7%; both Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome are FLOSS, so at least 43.2% of web browser users are using FLOSS tools. This varies by region, for example, in Europe Firefox is the most popular web browser, and FLOSS as a whole has a commanding lead.The
<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Usage_share_of_web_browsers&oldid=430705550">
Wikipedia article on usage share of web browsers (May 30, 2011 version)</a>
summarizes web browser share data from a variety of sources,
specifically Net Applications, StatCounter, W3Counter, and
Wikipedia itself.
They found that the shares, averaged worldwide, were
Internet Explorer 43.2%, Mozilla Firefox 28.6%, Google Chrome 14.6%,
Safari 6.3%, Opera 2.6%, and other Mobile browsers 4.7%;
both Mozilla Firefox and Google Chrome are FLOSS, so at least 43.2% of web
browser users are using FLOSS tools.
This varies by region, for example, in Europe Firefox is the most popular
web browser, and FLOSS as a whole has a commanding lead.
DWBrowserMicrosoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chromehttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Usage_share_of_web_browsers&oldid=4307055505
44
PopularityLinux-based Android smart phones have become a powerful market force.Google Android Surpasses Apple iPhone shareAntone GonsalvesInformationWeek SMBInformationWeek20100110In a 3-month period ending November 2010 in the U.S., the shares were RIM 33.5% (fell 4.1%), Android 26% (grew 6.4%), Apple 25% (grew less than 1%), Microsoft 9% (fell 1.8%), Palm 3.9% (fell 0.7%), per Comscore as reported by InformationWeek 2011.In a 3-month period ending November 2010 in the U.S., the shares were RIM 33.5% (fell 4.1%), Android 26% (grew 6.4%), Apple 25% (grew less than 1%), Microsoft 9% (fell 1.8%), Palm 3.9% (fell 0.7%), per
<a href="http://www.informationweek.com/news/smb/mobile/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=229000356">Comscore as reported by InformationWeek 2011</a>.
DWMobile OSGoogle Androidhttp://www.informationweek.com/news/smb/mobile/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=2290003565
45
PopularityLinux-based Android smart phones have become a powerful market force.Android share Numbers QuestionedSarah PerezReadWriteWeb20110211Gartner and Nielson have also posted share data showing the growth of Android.<a href="http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/android_market_share_numbers_questioned.php">Gartner</a> and
<a href="http://androidheadlines.com/2011/02/android-os-market-share-rises-to-27-tied-with-blackberry-os.html/smartphone-os-share1">Nielson</a>
have also posted share data showing the growth of Android.
DWMobile OSGoogle Androidhttp://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/android_market_share_numbers_questioned.php5
46
PopularityLinux-based Android smart phones have become a powerful market force.Smartphone OS shareCorey MillerAndroid Headlines20110201 Gartner and Nielson have also posted share data showing the growth of Android.<a href="http://www.readwriteweb.com/archives/android_market_share_numbers_questioned.php">Gartner</a> and
<a href="http://androidheadlines.com/2011/02/android-os-market-share-rises-to-27-tied-with-blackberry-os.html/smartphone-os-share1">Nielson</a>
have also posted share data showing the growth of Android.
DWMobile OSGoogle Androidhttp://androidheadlines.com/2011/02/android-os-market-share-rises-to-27-tied-with-blackberry-os.html/smartphone-os-share13
47
PopularityGNU/Linux is the #2 web serving OS on the public Internet (counting by physical machine), according to a study by Netcraft surveying March and June 2001.Netcraft200109Some of Netcraft’ssurveys have also included data on OSes; two 2001 surveys (their June 2001 and September 2001 surveys) found that GNU/Linux is the #2 OS for web servers when counting physical machines (and has been consistently gaining share since February 1999). As Netcraft themselves point out, the usual Netcraft web server survey (discussed above) counts web server host names rather than physical computers, and so it doesn’t measure such things as the installed hardware base. Companies can run several thousand web sites on one computer, and most of the world’s web sites are located at hosting and co-location companies.
Therefore, Netcraft developed a technique that indicates the number of actual computers being used as Web servers, together with the OS and web server software used (by arranging many IP addresses to reply to Netcraft simultaneously and then analyzing the responses). This is a statistical approach, so many visits to the site are used over a month to build up sufficient certainty. In some cases, the OS detected is that of a “front” device rather than the web server actually performing the task. Still, Netcraft believes that the error margins world-wide are well within the order of plus or minus 10%, and this is in any case the best available data.

Before presenting the data, it’s important to explain Netcraft’s system for dating the data. Netcraft dates their information based on the web server surveys (not the publication date), and they only report OS summaries from an earlier month. Thus, the survey dated “June 2001” was published in July and covers OS survey results of March 2001, while the survey dated “September 2001” was published in October and covers the operating system survey results of June 2001.

Here’s a summary of Netcraft’s study results:

OS group Percentage (March) Percentage (June) Composition
Windows 49.2% 49.6% Windows 2000, NT4, NT3, Windows 95, Windows 98
[GNU/]Linux 28.5% 29.6% [GNU/]Linux
Solaris 7.6% 7.1% Solaris 2, Solaris 7, Solaris 8
BSD 6.3% 6.1% BSDI BSD/OS, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD
Other Unix 2.4% 2.2% AIX, Compaq Tru64, HP-UX, IRIX, SCO Unix, SunOS 4 and others
Other non-Unix 2.5% 2.4% MacOS, NetWare, proprietary IBM OSes
Unknown 3.6% 3.0% not identified by Netcraft OS detector
Much depends on what you want to measure. Several of the BSDs (FreeBSD, NetBSD, and OpenBSD) are FLOSS as well; so at least a part of the 6.1% for BSD should be added to GNU/Linux’s 29.6% to determine the percentage of FLOSS OSes being used as web servers. Thus, it’s likely that approximately one-third of web serving computers use FLOSS OSes. There are also regional differences, for example, GNU/Linux leads Windows in Germany, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and Poland.

Well-known web sites using FLOSS include Google (GNU/Linux) and Yahoo (FreeBSD).

If you really want to know about the web server market breakdown of “Unix vs. Windows,” you can find that also in this study. All of the various Windows OSes are rolled into a single number (even Windows 95/98 and Windows 2000/NT4/NT3 are merged, although they are fundamentally very different systems). Merging all the Unix-like systems in a similar way produces a total of 44.8% for Unix-like systems (compared to Windows’ 49.2%) in March 2001.

Note that these figures would probably be quite different if they were based on web addresses instead of physical computers; in such a case, the clear majority of web sites are hosted by Unix-like systems. As stated by Netcraft, “Although Apache running on various Unix systems runs more sites than Windows, Apache is heavily deployed at hosting companies and ISPs who strive to run as many sites as possible on one computer to save costs.”
Some of <a href="http://www.netcraft.com">Netcraft&#8217;s</a>
surveys have also included data on OSes;
two 2001 surveys
(their
<a href="http://www.netcraft.com/Survey/index-200106.html#computers">June 2001</a> and
<a href="http://www.netcraft.com/Survey/index-200109.html#computers">September 2001</a>
surveys) found that GNU/Linux is the #2 OS
for web servers when counting physical machines (and has been consistently
gaining share since February 1999).
As Netcraft themselves point out,
the usual Netcraft web server survey (discussed above)
counts web server host names rather than physical computers,
and so it doesn&#8217;t measure such things as the installed hardware base.
Companies can run several thousand web sites on one computer,
and most of the world&#8217;s web sites are located at hosting
and co-location companies.
<p>
Therefore, Netcraft developed a technique that
indicates the number of actual computers being used as Web servers,
together with the OS and web server software used
(by arranging many IP addresses to reply to Netcraft
simultaneously and then analyzing the responses).
This is a statistical approach, so
many visits to the site are used over a month to build up sufficient certainty.
In some cases, the OS detected
is that of a &#8220;front&#8221; device rather than the web server actually
performing the task.
Still, Netcraft believes that the
error margins world-wide are well within the order of plus or minus 10%,
and this is in any case the best available data.
<p>
Before presenting the data, it&#8217;s important to explain Netcraft&#8217;s
system for dating the data.
Netcraft dates their information based on the web server
surveys (not the publication date), and they only report OS
summaries from an earlier month.
Thus, the survey dated &#8220;June 2001&#8221; was published in July and
covers OS survey results of March 2001, while the survey
dated &#8220;September 2001&#8221; was published in October and covers the operating
system survey results of June 2001.
<p>
Here&#8217;s a summary of Netcraft&#8217;s study results:
<p>
<!-- <font size="-2"> -->
<table align="center" border="1" cellpadding="2" summary="GNU/Linux is Number Two for Web Server Operating Systems">
<TR bgcolor="#bac0ff"><TH ALIGN=left>OS group</TH><TH ALIGN=right>Percentage (March)</TH><TH ALIGN=right>Percentage (June)</TH><TH ALIGN=left>Composition</TH></TR>
<TR bgcolor="#ccccfe"><TD ALIGN=left><B>Windows</B></TD><TD ALIGN=right>49.2%</TD><TD ALIGN=right>49.6%</TD><TD ALIGN=left>Windows 2000, NT4, NT3, Windows 95, Windows 98</TD></TR>
<TR bgcolor="#ccccfe"><TD ALIGN=left><B>[GNU/]Linux</B></TD><TD ALIGN=right>28.5%</TD><TD ALIGN=right>29.6%</TD><TD ALIGN=left>[GNU/]Linux</TD></TR>
<TR bgcolor="#ccccfe"><TD ALIGN=left><B>Solaris</B></TD><TD ALIGN=right>7.6%</TD><TD ALIGN=right>7.1%</TD><TD ALIGN=left>Solaris 2, Solaris 7, Solaris 8</TD></TR>
<TR bgcolor="#ccccfe"><TD ALIGN=left><B>BSD</B></TD><TD ALIGN=right>6.3%</TD><TD ALIGN=right>6.1%</TD><TD ALIGN=left>BSDI BSD/OS, FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD</TD></TR>
<TR bgcolor="#ccccfe"><TD ALIGN=left><B>Other Unix</B></TD><TD ALIGN=right>2.4%</TD><TD ALIGN=right>2.2%</TD><TD ALIGN=left>AIX, Compaq Tru64, HP-UX, IRIX, SCO Unix, SunOS 4 and others</TD></TR>
<TR bgcolor="#ccccfe"><TD ALIGN=left><B>Other non-Unix</B></TD><TD ALIGN=right>2.5%</TD><TD ALIGN=right>2.4%</TD><TD ALIGN=left>MacOS, NetWare, proprietary IBM OSes</TD></TR>
<TR bgcolor="#ccccfe"><TD ALIGN=left><B>Unknown</B></TD><TD ALIGN=right>3.6%</TD><TD ALIGN=right>3.0%</TD><TD ALIGN=left>not identified by Netcraft OS detector</TD></TR>
</table>
<!-- </font> -->
<p>
Much depends on what you want to measure.
Several of the BSDs
(FreeBSD, NetBSD, and OpenBSD) are FLOSS as well;
so at least a part of the 6.1% for BSD should be added to GNU/Linux&#8217;s
29.6% to determine the percentage of FLOSS OSes being used
as web servers.
Thus, it&#8217;s likely that approximately one-third of
web serving computers use FLOSS OSes.
There are also regional differences, for example,
GNU/Linux leads Windows in Germany, Hungary, the Czech Republic, and
Poland.
<p>
<!-- I checked these as of November 30, 2001: -->
Well-known web sites using FLOSS include
<a href="http://uptime.netcraft.com/up/graph/?mode_u=on&amp;mode_w=on&amp;site=www.google.com">Google</a> (GNU/Linux) and
<a href="http://uptime.netcraft.com/up/graph/?mode_u=on&amp;mode_w=on&amp;site=www.yahoo.com">Yahoo</a> (FreeBSD).
<p>
If you really want to know about the web server market breakdown of
&#8220;Unix vs. Windows,&#8221; you can find that also in this study.
All of the various Windows OSes are rolled into a single number
(even Windows 95/98 and Windows 2000/NT4/NT3 are merged,
although they are fundamentally very different systems).
Merging all the Unix-like systems in a similar way
produces a total of 44.8% for Unix-like systems (compared
to Windows&#8217; 49.2%) in March 2001.
<p>
Note that these figures would probably be quite different if they were
based on web addresses instead of physical computers; in such a case,
the clear majority of web sites are hosted by Unix-like systems.
As stated by Netcraft,
&#8220;Although Apache running on various Unix systems runs more sites than Windows,
Apache is heavily deployed at hosting companies and ISPs who strive
to run as many sites as possible on one computer to save costs.&#8221;
<p>
<li>
DWWeb Server OSWindows, Linux, Solaris, BSDhttp://www.netcraft.com01
48
PopularityAn Open SecretMarshall KrantzCFO Magazine20090101A 2009 article in CFO magazine argues that OSS applications are already commonplace in business enterprises. The article cites a 2008 Gartner study which estimated that 90% of enterprises worldwide will deploy OSS in some form by 2012. The article also includes a graphic which shows that in 2009, 25.71% of the software deployed by 234 enterprises was OSS.PRGeneralhttp://www.cfo.com/article.cfm/12835201/1/c_1283867741
49
PopularityLinux share grows vs. Windows and Mac OS X shrinkageRichi JenningsComputerworld20100125A 2010 blog post at Computerworld mentioned that in 2009, Linux OS share edged up 0.02 percentage points, while Mac OS dipped 0.01 percentage points and Windows dropp 0.31 percentage points.PROperating SystemsWindows, Linux, Machttp://blogs.computerworld.com/15462/linux_market_share_grows_vs_windows_and_mac_os_x_shrinkage51
50
PopularityGovernment Open Source PoliciesCenter for Strategic and International Studies 201003According to a survey public media sources by CSIS, in 2010, 43.8% of 354 surveyed governments use OSS for research, 6.3% mandate the use of OSS, 25% have policy that assignes preference to the use of OSS, and 25% have policies that allows the use of OSS. PRGeneralhttp://csis.org/files/publication/100416_Open_Source_Policies.pdf51
51
PopularityThe most popular web server has always been FLOSS since such data have been collected. For example, Apache is the current #1 web server.Apache Web Server Hit a Home Run in 2010Pingdom20110104According to the Pingdom blog, Apache's share grew from 46.6% to 59.4% in 2010, while Microsoft IIS grew from 21.0% to only 22.2%.PRWeb ServersApachehttp://royal.pingdom.com/2011/01/04/apache-web-server-hit-a-home-run-in-2010/41
52
PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. The end of an era: Internet Expolorer drops below 50% of web usage.Peter BrightArs Technica201110Ars Technica's combined browser share statistics for October 2011 show Internet Explorer dropping below 50% (to 49.59%). Firefox had a share of 21.20% and Chrome had a share of 16.60%. The article also showed that users of Chrome and Firefox had higher adoption rates of the latest versions of their browser, while users of IE were much more likely to be using outdated versions.PRBrowsersMicrosoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chromehttp://arstechnica.com/microsoft/news/2011/11/the-end-of-an-era-internet-explorer-drops-below-50-percent-of-web-usage.ars51
53
PopularityInternet Explorer has become less popular relative to FLOSS web browsers (such as Mozilla Firefox) since mid-2004, a trend especially obvious in leading indicators such as technology sites, web development sites, and bloggers. Google Chrome now has 20 Million UsersWolfgang GruenerTom's Hardware20111015A Tom's hardware article said that Google's Chrome had 200 million users in October of 2011, up from 120 million users at the beginning of the year. The article also cited share statistics from StatCounter which estimated that Chrome's share was 23.6% in September, Firefox was 26.8%, and IE was 41.7%, which puts the combined share of Firefox and Chrome (both OSS) ahead of IE.PRBrowsersMicrosoft Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Google Chromehttp://www.tomshardware.com/news/google-chrome-market-share-browser-wars,13721.html51
54
PopularityUsage Share of Operating SystemsWikipedia20111127The wikipedia article on usag eshare of operating systems (accessed November 27, 2011), compiles share statistics for October and November of 2011 from multiple sources, including AT Internet, Clicky Web Analytics, Chitika, Net share, StatCounter Global Stats, StatOwl, W3Counter, Webmasterpro, and Wikimedia. The share statistics for Microsoft windows range from 77.2%-87.1%, Apple OSX ranges from 6.3%-14.04%, and Linux ranges from 0.7% to 2.9%.PRWeb Client OSWindows, Apple OSX, Linuxhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Usage_share_of_operating_systems51
55
PopularityLinux-based Android smart phones have become a powerful market force.Usage Share of Operating SystemsWikipedia20111127The wikipedia article on usage shares of operating systems (accessed November 27, 2011), compiles mobile operating system share statistics for 2010 and 2011 from a variety of sources, including Gartner, IDC, Taiwan MIC, Canalys, StatCounter, Wikimedia, NPD Group, and Nielson company. The share statistics for Android range from 20.6% to 54%, with only two sources (StatCounter and Wikimedia) listing a higher share for an alternative OS.PRMobile OSGoogle Androidhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Usage_share_of_operating_systems51
56
PopularityTop500 Statistics: Operating System Familytop500201111Top500, a publication that compiles information about the top 500 supercomputers, reported that 91.4% of the top supercomputers used Linux operating systems in November 2011.PRSupercomputersLinuxhttp://i.top500.org/stats51
57
PopularityGNU/Linux is the #1 server OS on the public Internet (counting by domain name), according to a 1999 survey of primarily European and educational sites.Internet Operating System CounterZoebelein199904The first study that I’ve found that examined GNU/Linux’s market penetration is a survey by Zoebelein in April 1999. This survey found that, of the total number of servers deployed on the Internet in 1999 (running at least ftp, news, or http (WWW)) in a database of names they used, the #1 OS was GNU/Linux (at 28.5%), with others trailing. It’s important to note that this survey, which is the first one that I’ve found to try to answer questions of share, used existing databases of servers from the .edu (educational domain) and the RIPE database (which covers Europe , the Middle East, parts of Asia, and parts of Africa), so this isn’t really a survey of “the whole Internet” (e.g., it omits “.com” and “.net”). This is a count by domain name (e.g., the text name you would type into a web browser for a location) instead of by physical computer, so what it’s counting is different than the Netcraft June 2001 OS study. Also, this study counted servers providing ftp and news services (not just web servers).
Here’s how the various OSes fared in the study:

Operating System share Composition
GNU/Linux 28.5% GNU/Linux
Windows 24.4% All Windows combined (including 95, 98, NT)
Sun 17.7% Sun Solaris or SunOS
BSD 15.0% BSD Family (FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, BSDI, ...)
IRIX 5.3% SGI IRIX
A part of the BSD family is also FLOSS, so the FLOSS OS total is even higher; if over 2/3 of the BSDs are FLOSS, then the total share of FLOSS would be about 40%. Advocates of Unix-like systems will notice that the majority (around 66%) were running Unix-like systems, while only around 24% ran a Microsoft Windows variant.
The first study that I&#8217;ve found that examined GNU/Linux&#8217;s market penetration
is a survey by
<a href="http://www.leb.net/hzo/ioscount">Zoebelein in April 1999</a>.
This survey
found that, of the total number of servers deployed on the Internet in 1999
(running at least ftp, news, or http (WWW)) in a database of names they used,
the #1 OS was
GNU/Linux (at 28.5%), with others trailing.
It&#8217;s important to note that this survey, which is the first one that
I&#8217;ve found to try to answer questions of share,
used existing databases of servers
from the .edu (educational domain) and the RIPE database
(which covers Europe , the Middle East, parts of Asia, and parts of Africa),
so this isn&#8217;t really a survey of &#8220;the whole
Internet&#8221; (e.g., it
omits &#8220;.com&#8221; and &#8220;.net&#8221;).
This is a count by domain <i>name</i> (e.g., the text name you would type
into a web browser for a location) instead of by physical
computer, so what it&#8217;s
counting is different than the Netcraft June 2001 OS study.
Also, this study counted servers providing ftp and news services
(not just web servers).
<p>
Here&#8217;s how the various OSes fared in the study:

<!-- with others trailing (24.4% for all Windows 95/98/NT
combined, 17.7% for Solaris or SunOS,
15% for the BSD family, and 5.3% for IRIX). -->

<p>
<center>
<table border="1" cellpadding="2" summary="GNU/Linux is Number 1">
<tr align="left" bgcolor="#bac0ff"><th>Operating System</th><th>share</th><th>Composition</th></tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><td><b>GNU/Linux</b></td><td align="right">28.5%</td><td>GNU/Linux</td></tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><td><b>Windows</b></td><td align="right">24.4%</td><td>All Windows combined (including 95, 98, NT)</td></tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><td><b>Sun</b></td><td align="right">17.7%</td><td>Sun Solaris or SunOS</td></tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><td><b>BSD</b></td><td align="right">15.0%</td><td>BSD Family (FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD, BSDI, ...)</td></tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><td><b>IRIX</b></td><td align="right">5.3%</td><td>SGI IRIX</td></tr>
</table>
</center>

<p>
A part of the BSD family is also FLOSS, so the FLOSS OS
total is even higher; if over 2/3 of the BSDs are FLOSS, then the total
share of FLOSS would be about 40%.
Advocates of Unix-like systems
will notice that the majority (around 66%) were running Unix-like
systems, while only around 24% ran a Microsoft Windows variant.
DWServer OSGNU/Linux, Windows, Sun, BSD, IRIXhttp://www.leb.net/hzo/ioscount/1
58
PopularityGNU/Linux was the #2 server OS sold in 1999, 2000, and 2001.IDC200006According to a June 2000 IDC survey of 1999 licenses, 24% of all servers (counting both Internet and intranet servers) installed in 1999 ran GNU/Linux. Windows NT came in first with 36%; all Unixes combined totaled 15%. Again, since some of the Unixes are FLOSS systems (e.g., FreeBSD, OpenBSD, and NetBSD), the number of FLOSS systems is actually larger than the GNU/Linux figures. Note that it all depends on what you want to count; 39% of all servers installed from this survey were Unix-like (that’s 24%+15%), so “Unix-like” servers were actually #1 in installed share once you count GNU/Linux and Unix together.According to
<a href="http://www.idc.com/itforecaster/itf20000808.stm">a June 2000 IDC
survey</a> of 1999 licenses,
24% of all servers (counting both Internet and intranet servers)
installed in 1999 ran GNU/Linux.
Windows NT came in first with 36%;
all Unixes combined totaled 15%.
Again, since some of the Unixes are FLOSS systems (e.g., FreeBSD, OpenBSD,
and NetBSD), the number of FLOSS systems is actually larger than the
GNU/Linux figures.
Note that it all depends on what you want to count;
39% of all servers installed from this survey
were Unix-like (that&#8217;s 24%+15%), so
&#8220;Unix-like&#8221; servers were actually #1 in installed share
once you count GNU/Linux and Unix together.
DWServer OSGNU/Linux, Windows NT, BSDhttp://www.idc.com/err/404error.jsp;jsessionid=27C877C8F5E7D0B862A4FA9E4CB3012F?requestedUrl=/itforecaster/itf20000808.stm&redirectUrl=www.idc.com11
59
PopularityGNU/Linux was the #2 server OS sold in 1999, 2000, and 2001.Server Operating EnvironmentsIDC20010117IDC released a similar study on January 17, 2001 titled “Server Operating Environments: 2000 Year in Review”. On the server, Windows accounted for 41% of new server OS sales in 2000, growing by 20% - but GNU/Linux accounted for 27% and grew even faster, by 24%. Other major Unixes had 13%.IDC released a similar study on January 17, 2001 titled
<a href="http://www.computer.org/computer/homepage/june/ind_trends/index.htm">
&#8220;Server Operating Environments: 2000 Year in Review&#8221;</a>.
<!-- Neal Leavitt, "Linux: At a Turning Point?", IEEE Computer. -->
On the server, Windows accounted for 41% of new server OS sales
in 2000, growing by 20% - but GNU/Linux accounted for 27%
and grew even faster, by 24%.
Other major Unixes had 13%.
DWServer OSGNU/Linux, Windowshttp://www.computer.org/portal/web/guest/sitemap?uri=http://www.computer.org//computer/homepage/june/ind_trends/index.htm11
60
PopularityGNU/Linux was the #2 server OS sold in 1999, 2000, and 2001.Microsoft server share jumps in 2001Joe WilcoxCNet20020923IDC’s 2002 report found that Linux held its own in 2001 at 25%.<a href="http://news.com.com/2100-1001-959049.html">
IDC&#8217;s 2002 report found that Linux held its own in 2001 at 25%.</a>
DWServer OSGNU/Linuxhttp://news.cnet.com/2100-1001-959049.html1
61
PopularityGNU/Linux was the #2 server OS sold in 1999, 2000, and 2001.Linux Not Just for Geeks AnymoreLisa DiCarloForbes20020715All of this is especially intriguing since GNU/Linux had 0.5% of the market in 1995, according to a Forbes quote of IDC.All of this is especially intriguing since GNU/Linux had 0.5% of the
market in 1995,
<a href="http://www.forbes.com/2002/07/15/0715linux.html">according
to a Forbes quote of IDC</a>.
DWServer OSGNU/Linuxhttp://www.forbes.com/2002/07/15/0715linux.html2
62
PopularityGNU/Linux was the #2 server OS sold in 1999, 2000, and 2001.IT-Director.com20011112Data such as these (and the TCO data shown later) have inspired statements such as this one from IT-Director on November 12, 2001: “Linux on the desktop is still too early to call, but on the server it now looks to be unstoppable.”Data such as these (and the TCO data shown later)
have inspired statements such as
this one from IT-Director on November 12, 2001:
<a href="http://www.it-director.com/article.php?id=2332">
&#8220;Linux on the desktop is still too early to call, but
on the server it now looks to be unstoppable.&#8221;</a>
DWServer OSGNU/Linuxhttp://www.it-director.com/article.php?id=233211
63
PopularityGNU/Linux was the #2 server OS sold in 1999, 2000, and 2001.Computerworld20081028Note that a study published October 28, 2002 by the IT analyst company Butler Group concluded that on or before 2009, Linux and Microsoft’s .Net will have fully penetrated the server OS market from file and print servers through to the mainframe.Note that
<a href="http://www.computerworld.com.au/idg2.nsf/All/67D07652A34F7ABBCA256C6000761846!OpenDocument&amp;NavArea=Home&amp;SelectedCategoryName=News">
a study published October 28, 2002 by the IT analyst company Butler Group</a>
concluded that on or before 2009,
Linux and Microsoft&#8217;s .Net will have fully penetrated the server OS
market from file and print servers through to the mainframe.
DWServer OShttp://www.computerworld.com.au/idg2.nsf/All/67D07652A34F7ABBCA256C6000761846!OpenDocument&NavArea=Home&SelectedCategoryName=News11
64
PopularityGNU/Linux and Windows systems (when Windows CE and XP are combined) are the leaders and essentially even in terms of developer use for future embedded projects, according to Evans Data Corporation (EDC).Linux, Windows neck-and-neck in embeddedlinuxdevices.com20021028GNU/Linux and Windows systems (when Windows CE and XP are combined) are the leaders and essentially even in terms of developer use for future embedded projects, according to Evans Data Corporation (EDC). Their Embedded Systems Developer Survey, fielded in July 2002, asked developers “For each of the following operating systems, please indicate whether you are targeting the OS on your current project or your next project.” They collected data from 444 developers. Their results: 30.2% of embedded developers use or expect to use Linux, while 16.2% say they will use Windows CE and another 14.4% say they will use Windows XP Embedded. If the two Windows systems are combined, this gives Windows Embedded operating systems a statistically insignificant edge over Embedded Linux (at 30.6% vs. 30.2%). However, Embedded Linux has nearly double the growth rate, and combining two different Windows systems into a single value is somewhat misleading. Wind River’s VxWorks embedded OS, the current embedded software market leader, “trails slightly behind Embedded Linux for current project use, and VxWorks’ modest gain of just 2.9% for expected use in future projects drops it to a distant third place position, ending up with less than half the usage rate of the two neck-and-neck future project usage leaders (Windows Embedded and Embedded Linux).”<b>GNU/Linux and Windows systems (when Windows CE and XP are combined)
are the leaders and essentially even in terms of developer
use for future embedded projects, according to Evans Data Corporation (EDC).</b>
<a href="http://www.linuxdevices.com/articles/AT7342059167.html">
Their Embedded Systems Developer Survey, fielded
in July 2002</a>, asked developers
&#8220;For each of the following operating systems,
please indicate whether you are targeting the OS on your current project
or your next project.&#8221;
They collected data from 444 developers.
Their results: 30.2% of embedded developers use or expect to use Linux,
while 16.2% say they will use Windows CE and another 14.4% say they will
use Windows XP Embedded.
If the two Windows systems are combined, this gives
Windows Embedded operating systems a statistically insignificant
edge over Embedded Linux (at 30.6% vs. 30.2%).
However, Embedded Linux has nearly double the growth rate, and
combining two different Windows systems into a single value is somewhat
misleading.
Wind River&#8217;s VxWorks embedded OS,
the current embedded software market leader,
&#8220;trails slightly behind Embedded Linux for current project use,
and VxWorks&#8217; modest gain of just 2.9% for expected use in future projects
drops it to a distant third place position,
ending up with less than half the usage rate of the two neck-and-neck
future project usage leaders (Windows Embedded and Embedded Linux).&#8221;
DWEmbedded OSGNU/Linux, Windows CE, Windows XPhttp://www.linuxfordevices.com/c/a/Linux-For-Devices-Articles/Linux-Windows-neckandneck-in-embedded/1
65
PopularityAn Evans Data survey published in November 2001 found that 48.1% of international developers and 39.6% of North Americans plan to target most of their applications to GNU/Linux. In October 2002, they found that 59% of developers expect to write Linux applications in the next year. Evans Data Corporation Developer Survey SeriesEvans Data Corporation200111The November 2001 edition of the Evans Data Corporation Developer Survey Series reported on in-depth interviews with over 400 developers representing over 70 countries, and found that when asked which OS they plan to target with most of their applications next year, 48.1% of international developers and 39.6% of North Americans stated that they plan to target most of their applications to GNU/Linux. This is surprising since only a year earlier less than a third of the international development community was writing GNU/Linux applications. The survey also found that 37.8% of the international development community and 33.7% of North American developers have already written applications for GNU/Linux, and that over half of those surveyed have enough confidence in GNU/Linux to use it for mission-critical applications.The
<a href="http://www.businesswire.com/cgi-bin/f_headline.cgi?bw.111301/213170209">
November 2001 edition of the
<i>Evans Data Corporation Developer Survey Series</i></a>
reported on in-depth interviews with over 400 developers
representing over 70 countries,
and found that when asked
which OS they plan to target with
most of their applications next year,
48.1% of international developers and 39.6% of North Americans
stated that they plan to target most of their applications to GNU/Linux.
This is surprising since
only a year earlier less than a third of
the international development community was writing GNU/Linux applications.
The survey also found that
37.8% of the international development community
and 33.7% of North American developers
have already written applications for GNU/Linux, and that
over half of those surveyed have enough confidence in GNU/Linux
to use it for mission-critical applications.
DWOSGNU/Linuxhttp://www.businesswire.com/cgi-bin/f_headline.cgi?bw.111301/21317020911
66
PopularityAn Evans Data survey published in November 2001 found that 48.1% of international developers and 39.6% of North Americans plan to target most of their applications to GNU/Linux. In October 2002, they found that 59% of developers expect to write Linux applications in the next year. Evans Data Corporation200210Evans Data conducted a survey in October 2002. In this survey, they reported “Linux continues to expand its user base. 59% of survey respondents expect to write Linux applications in the next year.”<a href="http://www.businesswire.com/cgi-bin/f_headline.cgi?bw.112602/223300066">Evans Data
conducted a survey in October 2002</a>.
In this survey, they reported
&#8220;Linux continues to expand its user base.
59% of survey respondents expect to write Linux applications in the next year.&#8221;
DWOSGNU/Linuxhttp://www.businesswire.com/cgi-bin/f_headline.cgi?bw.112602/22330006611
67
PopularityAn IBM-sponsored study on Linux suggested that GNU/Linux has “won” the server war as of 2006, as 83% were using GNU/Linux to deploy new systems versus only 23% for Windows.The War is Over and Linux WonDana BlankehornZDNet20061109The November 9, 2006 article The war is over and Linux won by Dana Blankenhorn summarizes a new IBM-sponsored study. IBM determined that 83% of companies expect to support new workloads on Linux next year, against 23% for Windows. He noted, “Over two-thirds of the respondents said they will increase their use of Linux in the next year, and almost no one said the opposite.”The November 9, 2006 article
<a href="http://blogs.zdnet.com/open-source/?p=837">
The war is over and Linux won</a> by Dana Blankenhorn
summarizes a new IBM-sponsored study.
IBM determined that 83% of companies expect to support
new workloads on Linux next year, against 23% for Windows.
He noted,
&#8220;Over two-thirds of the respondents said they will increase their
use of Linux in the next year, and almost no one said the opposite.&#8221;
DWOSLinux, Windowshttp://www.zdnet.com/blog/open-source/the-war-is-over-and-linux-won/8373
68
PopularityHalf of all mission-critical business applications are expected to run on GNU/Linux by 2012CIO study finds Linux ready for prime timeBryan BettsComputerworld20070102A survey of IT directors, vice presidents and CIOs carried out by Saugatuck Research, reported in January 2007, suggests that nearly half of all companies will be running mission-critical business applications on Linux in five years’ time.A survey of IT directors, vice presidents and CIOs carried out
by Saugatuck Research</a>, reported in January 2007, suggests that
nearly half of all companies will be running
mission-critical business applications on Linux in five years&#8217; time.
DWOSLinuxhttp://www.computerworld.com/s/article/9006990/CIO_study_finds_Linux_ready_for_prime_time?intsrc=news_ts_head4
69
PopularityAn Evans Data survey made public in February 2004 found that 1.1 million developers in North America were working on FLOSS projects.North American Developer Population StudyEvan's Data International200402Evans Data’s North American Developer Population Study examined the number of software developers using various approaches. It found that more than 1.1 million developers in North America were spending at least some of their time working on Open Source development projects. That’s an extraordinarily large number of people, and it doesn’t even account for developers in other countries. Many only develop part-time, but that many people can develop a lot of software, and having a large number of people increases the likelihood of helpful insights and innovations in various FLOSS projects.<a href="http://www.businesswire.com/cgi-bin/f_headline.cgi?bw.020904/240405311">Evans Data&#8217;s North American Developer Population Study</a>
examined the number of software developers using various approaches.
It found that more than 1.1 million developers
in North America were spending at least some of their
time working on Open Source development projects.
That&#8217;s an extraordinarily large number of people, and it doesn&#8217;t even
account for developers in other countries.
Many only develop part-time, but that many people can develop a lot of
software, and having a large number of people increases the likelihood
of helpful insights and innovations in various FLOSS projects.
DWGeneralhttp://www.businesswire.com/cgi-bin/f_headline.cgi?bw.020904/24040531111
70
PopularityA 2004 InformationWeek survey found that 67% of companies use FLOSS products, with another 16% expecting to use it in 2005; only 17% have no near-term plans to support FLOSS products. Open-Source Software Use Joins the MixHelen D'AntoniInformationWeek20041101The November 1, 2004 InformationWeek article Open-Source Software Use Joins The Mix by Helen D’Antoni reported the results from InformationWeek Research, which measured adoption of “open-source architecture” and found that adoption is widespread. The survey also found other interesting results: “In general, companies don’t view open-source software as risky. It often functions alongside [proprietary] and internally developed software, and because of this acceptance, open-source code is being used more broadly. Its use is evolving as companies look for cost-effective ways to manage software expenses.” Of those companies using FLOSS, they found that 42% of companies implement production database operations using FLOSS, with 33% more considering it; only 25% are not using or considering FLOSS for production database use.The November 1, 2004 InformationWeek article
<a href="http://www.informationweek.com/story/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=51201599&amp;tid=5979">
Open-Source Software Use Joins The Mix</a>
by Helen D&#8217;Antoni reported the results from
InformationWeek Research, which
measured adoption of &#8220;open-source architecture&#8221;
and found that adoption is widespread.
The survey also found other interesting results:
&#8220;In general, companies don&#8217;t view open-source software as risky.
It often functions alongside
[proprietary] and internally developed software,
and because of this acceptance, open-source code is being used more broadly.
Its use is evolving as companies look for cost-effective ways
to manage software expenses.&#8221;
Of those companies using FLOSS,
they found that 42% of
companies implement production database operations using FLOSS,
with 33% more considering it;
only 25% are not using or considering FLOSS for production database use.
DWGeneralhttp://www.informationweek.com/story/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=51201599&tid=597921
71
PopularityA Japanese survey found widespread use and support for GNU/Linux; overall use of GNU/Linux jumped from 35.5% in 2001 to 64.3% in 2002 of Japanese corporations, and GNU/Linux was the most popular platform for small projects.Linux White Paper 20032003The book Linux White Paper 2003 (published by Impress Corporation) surveys the use of GNU/Linux in Japan (it is an update to an earlier book, “Linux White Paper 2001-2002”). This is written in Japanese; here is a brief summary of its contents.
The survey has two parts, user and vendor. In “Part I : User enterprise”, they surveyed 729 enterprises that use servers. In “Part II : Vendor enterprise”, they surveyed 276 vendor enterprises who supply server computers, including system integrators, software developers, IT service suppliers, and hardware resellers. The most interesting results are those that discuss the use of Linux servers in user enterprises, the support of Linux servers by vendors, and Linux server adoption in system integration projects.

First, the use of Linux servers in user enterprises:
System 2002 2001
Linux server 64.3% 35.5%
Windows 2000 Server 59.9% 37.0%
Windows NT Server 64.3% 74.2%
Commercial Unix server 37.7% 31.2%
And specifically, here’s the average use in 2002:
System Ave. units # samples
Linux server 13.4 N=429 (5.3 in 2001)
Windows 2000 Server 24.6 N=380
Windows NT Server 4.5 N=413
Commercial Unix server 6.9 N=233
Linux servers are the fastest growing category from last year. The average units of server per enterprise increased by 2.5-fold from 5.3 units to 13.4 units.

Second, note the support of GNU/Linux servers by vendors:
System Year 2002 Support
Windows NT/2000 Server 66.7%
Linux server 49.3%
Commercial Unix server 38.0%
This is the rate of vendors that develop or sale products supporting Linux server; note that Linux is already a major OS when compared with its competitors. The reasons for supporting Linux server were also surveyed, which turn out to be different than the reasons in some other counties (for a contrast, see the European FLOSS report):
Increase of importance in the future 44.1%
Requirement from their customers 41.2%
Major OS in their market 38.2%
Free of licence fee 37.5%
Most reasonable OS for their purpose 36.0%
Open source 34.6%
High reliability 27.2%
Third, note the rate of Linux server adoption in system integration projects:
Project Size (Million Yen) Linux Win2000 Unix
2002 2001 2002 2002
0-3 62.7% 65.7% 53.8% 15.4%
3-10 51.5% 53.7% 56.3% 37.1%
10-50 38.3% 48.9% 55.8% 55.8%
50-100 39.0% 20.0% 45.8% 74.6%
100+ 24.4% 9.1% 51.1% 80.0%
Where 1 Million Yen = $8,000 US. GNU/Linux servers are No.1 (62.5%) in small projects less than 3,000,000 Yen ($24,000 US), and GNU/Linux has grown in larger projects more than 50,000,000 Yen ($400,000 US) from 20.0% to 39.0%. In projects over 100,000,000 Yen ($800,000 US), Linux is adopted by 24.4% of the projects (mainly as a substitute for proprietary Unix systems). Note that many projects (especially large ones) use multiple platforms simultaneously, so the values need not total 100%.

Note that the Japanese Linux white paper 2003 found that 49.3% of IT solution vendors support Linux in Japan.
The book
<a href="http://direct.ips.co.jp/book/Template/Goods/go_BookstempGR.cfm?GM_ID=1686&amp;SPM_ID=1&amp;HN_NO=00400">Linux White Paper 2003</a>
(published by Impress Corporation) surveys the use of GNU/Linux
in Japan (it is an update to an earlier book,
&#8220;Linux White Paper 2001-2002&#8221;).
This is written in Japanese; here is a brief summary of its contents.
<p>
The survey has two parts, user and vendor. In &#8220;Part I : User enterprise&#8221;,
they surveyed 729 enterprises that use servers.
In &#8220;Part II : Vendor enterprise&#8221;,
they surveyed 276 vendor enterprises
who supply server computers, including system
integrators, software developers, IT service suppliers, and hardware resellers.
The most interesting results are those that discuss the use of Linux servers
in user enterprises, the support of Linux servers by vendors,
and Linux server adoption in system integration projects.The book
<a href="http://direct.ips.co.jp/book/Template/Goods/go_BookstempGR.cfm?GM_ID=1686&amp;SPM_ID=1&amp;HN_NO=00400">Linux White Paper 2003</a>
(published by Impress Corporation) surveys the use of GNU/Linux
in Japan (it is an update to an earlier book,
&#8220;Linux White Paper 2001-2002&#8221;).
This is written in Japanese; here is a brief summary of its contents.
<p>
The survey has two parts, user and vendor. In &#8220;Part I : User enterprise&#8221;,
they surveyed 729 enterprises that use servers.
In &#8220;Part II : Vendor enterprise&#8221;,
they surveyed 276 vendor enterprises
who supply server computers, including system
integrators, software developers, IT service suppliers, and hardware resellers.
The most interesting results are those that discuss the use of Linux servers
in user enterprises, the support of Linux servers by vendors,
and Linux server adoption in system integration projects.
<p>
First, the use of Linux servers in user enterprises:
<table align="center" border="1">
<tr bgcolor="#bac0ff"><th>System</th><th>2002</th><th>2001</th></tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><td>Linux server<td>64.3%<td>35.5%</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><td>Windows 2000 Server<td>59.9%<td>37.0%</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><td>Windows NT Server<td>64.3%<td>74.2%</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><td>Commercial Unix server<td>37.7% <td>31.2%</tr>
</table>
<p>
And specifically, here&#8217;s the average use in 2002:
<table align="center" border="1">
<tr bgcolor="#bac0ff"><th>System<th>Ave. units<th># samples</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><td>Linux server<td>13.4<td>N=429 (5.3 in 2001)</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><td>Windows 2000 Server<td>24.6<td>N=380</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><td>Windows NT Server<td>4.5<td>N=413</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><td>Commercial Unix server<td>6.9<td>N=233</tr>
</table>
Linux servers are the fastest growing category from last year.
The average units of server per enterprise increased by
2.5-fold from 5.3 units to 13.4 units.

<p>
Second, note the support of GNU/Linux servers by vendors:

<table align="center" border="1">
<tr bgcolor="#bac0ff"><th>System<th>Year 2002 Support</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><td>Windows NT/2000 Server<td>66.7%</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><td>Linux server<td>49.3%</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><td>Commercial Unix server<td>38.0%</tr>
</table>

This is the rate of vendors that develop or sale products supporting
Linux server; note that Linux is already a major OS when compared
with its competitors. The reasons for supporting Linux server
were also surveyed, which turn out to be different than the
reasons in some other counties (for a contrast, see the
<a href="http://www.infonomics.nl/FLOSS">European FLOSS report</a>):

<table align="center" border="1">
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><td>Increase of importance in the future<td>44.1%</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><td>Requirement from their customers<td>41.2%</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><td>Major OS in their market<td>38.2%</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><td>Free of licence fee<td>37.5%</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><td>Most reasonable OS for their purpose<td>36.0%</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><td>Open source<td>34.6%</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><td>High reliability<td>27.2%</tr>
</table>


<p>
Third, note the rate of Linux server adoption in system integration projects:

<table align="center" border="1">
<tr bgcolor="#bac0ff"><th>Project Size (Million Yen)<th colspan="2">Linux<th>Win2000<th>Unix</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#bac0ff"><th>&nbsp;<th>2002<th>2001<th>2002<th>2002</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><td>0-3<td>62.7%<td>65.7%<td>53.8%<td>15.4%</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><td>3-10<td>51.5%<td>53.7%<td>56.3%<td>37.1%</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><td>10-50<td>38.3%<td>48.9%<td>55.8%<td>55.8%</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><td>50-100<td>39.0%<td>20.0%<td>45.8%<td>74.6%</tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><td>100+<td>24.4%<td>9.1%<td>51.1%<td>80.0%</tr>
</table>
Where 1 Million Yen = $8,000 US.
GNU/Linux servers are No.1 (62.5%) in small projects less than
3,000,000 Yen ($24,000 US), and
GNU/Linux has grown in larger projects more
than 50,000,000 Yen ($400,000 US) from 20.0% to 39.0%.
In projects over 100,000,000 Yen ($800,000 US), Linux is adopted by
24.4% of the projects (mainly as a substitute for proprietary Unix systems).
Note that many projects (especially large ones) use multiple platforms
simultaneously, so the values need not total 100%.
DWOSLinuxhttp://direct.ips.co.jp/book/Template/Goods/go_BookstempGR.cfm?GM_ID=1686&SPM_ID=1&HN_NO=004001
72
PopularityThe European FLOSS study found significant use of FLOSS.Free/Libre and Open Source Software (FLOSS): Survey and Study200206The large report Free/Libre and Open Source Software (FLOSS): Survey and Study, published in June 2002, examined many issues including the use of FLOSS. This study found significant variance in the use of FLOSS; 43.7% of German establishments reported using FLOSS, 31.5% of British establishments reported using FLOSS, while only 17.7% of Swedish establishments reported using FLOSS. In addition, they found that OSS usage rates of larger establishments were larger than smaller establishments, and that OSS usage rates in the public sector were above average.The large report
<a href="http://www.infonomics.nl/FLOSS">Free/Libre and
Open Source Software (FLOSS): Survey and Study</a>,
published in June 2002, examined many issues including
the use of FLOSS.
This study found significant variance in the use of FLOSS;
43.7% of German establishments reported using FLOSS,
31.5% of British establishments reported using FLOSS, while only
17.7% of Swedish establishments reported using FLOSS.
In addition, they found that OSS usage rates of larger establishments
were larger than smaller establishments, and that OSS usage rates
in the public sector were above average.
DWGeneralhttp://www.infonomics.nl/FLOSS11
73
PopularityMicrosoft sponsored its own research to “prove” that GNU/Linux is not as widely used, but this research has been shown to be seriously flawed. New report fuels MS-Linux furorPeter GalliZDNet20000612Microsoft sponsored a Gartner Dataquest report claiming only 8.6% of servers shipped in the U.S. during the third quarter of 2000 were Linux-based. However, it’s worth noting that Microsoft (as the research sponsor) has every incentive to create low numbers, and these numbers are quite different from IDC’s research in the same subject. IDC’s Kusnetzky commented that the likely explanation is that Gartner used a very narrow definition of “shipped”; he thought the number was “quite reasonable” if it only surveyed new servers with Linux, “But our research is that this is not how most users get their Linux. We found that just 10 to 15 percent of Linux adoption comes from pre-installed machines... for every paid copy of Linux, there is a free copy that can be replicated 15 times.” Note that it’s quite difficult to buy a new x86 computer without a Microsoft OS (Microsoft’s contracts with computer makers ensure this), but that doesn’t mean that these OSes are used. Gartner claimed that it used interviews to counter this problem, but its final research results (when compared to known facts) suggest that Gartner did not really counter this effect. For example, Gartner states that Linux shipments in the supercomputer field were zero. In fact, Linux is widely used on commodity parallel clusters at many scientific sites, including many high-profile sites. Many of these systems were assembled in-house, showing that Gartner’s method of defining a “shipment” does not appear to correlate to working installations. Microsoft sponsored a
<!-- was: http://www.zdnet.com/zdnn/stories/news/0,4586,2772060,00.html -->
<!-- "New report fuels MS-Linux furor" by Peter Galli , eWEEK. 12 June 2001 -->
<a href="http://www.zdnet.com.au/news/0,39023165,20230848,00.htm">
Gartner Dataquest report</a> claiming only 8.6% of servers shipped in
the U.S. during the third quarter of 2000 were Linux-based.
However, it&#8217;s worth noting that Microsoft (as the research sponsor)
has every incentive to create low numbers, and these numbers are quite
different from IDC&#8217;s research in the same subject.
IDC&#8217;s Kusnetzky
commented that the likely explanation is that Gartner used a very
narrow definition of &#8220;shipped&#8221;; he thought the number was
&#8220;quite reasonable&#8221; if it only surveyed new servers with Linux,
&#8220;But our research is that this is not how most users get their Linux.
We found that just 10 to 15 percent of Linux adoption comes from
pre-installed machines... for every paid copy
of Linux, there is a free copy that can be replicated 15 times.&#8221;
Note that it&#8217;s quite difficult to buy a new x86 computer without a
Microsoft OS (Microsoft&#8217;s contracts with computer makers
ensure this), but that doesn&#8217;t mean that these OSes are used.
Gartner claimed that it used interviews to counter this problem, but
its final research results (when compared to known facts) suggest that
Gartner did not really counter this effect.
For example, Gartner states that Linux shipments in the supercomputer field
were zero.
In fact, Linux is widely used on commodity parallel clusters
at many scientific sites, including many high-profile sites.
Many of these systems were assembled in-house, showing that
Gartner&#8217;s method of defining a &#8220;shipment&#8221; does not appear to
correlate to working installations.
DWServer OSLinux, Windowshttp://www.zdnet.com.au/new-report-fuels-ms-linux-furor-120230848.htm3
74
PopularityMicrosoft sponsored its own research to “prove” that GNU/Linux is not as widely used, but this research has been shown to be seriously flawed. No one's using Linux, claims MicrosoftAndrew OrlowskiThe Register20010613The Register’s article, “No one’s using Linux” (with its companion article “90% Windows..”) discusses this further. In short, Microsoft-sponsored research has reported low numbers, but these numbers are quite suspect.The Register&#8217;s article,
<a href="http://www.theregister.co.uk/content/4/19662.html">&#8220;No one&#8217;s
using Linux&#8221;</a>
(with its companion article
<a href="http://www.theregister.co.uk/content/4/19661.html">&#8220;90% Windows..&#8221;</a>)
discusses this further.
In short, Microsoft-sponsored research has reported low numbers, but
these numbers are quite suspect.
DWServer OShttp://www.theregister.co.uk/2001/06/13/no_ones_using_linux_claims/21
75
PopularityBusinesses plan to increase their use of GNU/Linux.The New Religion: Linux and Open SourceZDNetA Zona Research study found that over half of the large enterprise respondents expected increases of up to 25% in the number of GNU/Linux users in their firm, while nearly 20% expected increases of over 50%. In small companies, over one third felt that GNU/Linux usage would expand by 50%. The most important factors identified that drove these decisions were reliability, lower price, speed of applications, and scalability. Here are the numbers:
Expected GNU/Linux Use Small Business Midsize Business Large Business Total
50% increase 21.0% 16% 19.0% 19%
10-25% increase 30.5% 42% 56.5% 44%
No growth 45.5% 42% 24.5% 36%
Reduction 3.0% 0% 0% 1%
You can see more about this study in “The New Religion: Linux and Open Source” (ZDNet) and in InfoWorld’s February 5, 2001 article “Linux lights up enterprise: But concerns loom about OS vendor profitability.”
A Zona Research study
found that over half of the large enterprise respondents expected
increases of up to 25% in the number of GNU/Linux users in their firm, while
nearly 20% expected increases of over 50%.
In small companies, over one third felt that GNU/Linux usage would
expand by 50%.
The most important factors identified that drove these
decisions were reliability, lower price,
speed of applications, and scalability.
Here are the numbers:
<center>
<table border="1" cellpadding="2" summary="GNU/Linux is Number 1">
<tr bgcolor="#bac0ff"><th>Expected GNU/Linux Use</th><th>Small Business</th><th>Midsize Business</th><th>Large Business</th><th>Total</th></tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><th>50% increase</th><td>21.0%</td><td>16%</td><td>19.0%</td><td>19%</td></tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><th>10-25% increase</th><td>30.5%</td><td>42%</td><td>56.5%</td><td>44%</td></tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><th>No growth</th><td>45.5%</td><td>42%</td><td>24.5%</td><td>36%</td></tr>
<tr bgcolor="#ccccfe"><th>Reduction</th><td>3.0%</td><td>0%</td><td>0%</td><td>1%</td></tr>
<!--
(tr)(th)Sample Size(br)(# businesses)(/th)(td)33(/td)(td)31(/td)(td)44(/td)(td)108(/td)(/tr)
-->
</table>
</center>
You can see more about this study in
<a href="http://www.zdnet.com/eWeek/stories/general/0,11011,2651826,00.html">&#8220;The New Religion: Linux and Open Source&#8221;</a> (ZDNet)
and in InfoWorld&#8217;s February 5, 2001 article
&#8220;Linux lights up enterprise: But concerns loom about OS vendor profitability.&#8221;
DWOSGNU/Linuxhttp://www.zdnet.com/eWeek/stories/general/0,11011,2651826,00.html11
76
PopularityThe global top 1000 Internet Service Providers expect GNU/Linux use to increase by 154%, according to Idaya’s survey conducted January through March 2001.Linux Market to Grow 154% in 2001 predicts Idaya/freeVSD reserchIdaya2002A survey conducted by Idaya of the global top 1000 ISPs found that they expected GNU/Linux to grow a further 154% in 2001. Also, almost two thirds (64%) of ISPs consider the leading open source software meets the standard required for enterprise level applications, comparable with proprietary software. Idaya produces FLOSS software, so keep that in mind as a potential bias.A
<a href="idaya_linuxgrowth.pdf">survey</a>
<!-- the survey's no longer publicly available; an Idaya employee sent
me a copy and said I could include it on my website. -->
conducted by Idaya
of the global top 1000 ISPs
found that they expected GNU/Linux to grow a further 154% in 2001.
Also, almost two thirds (64%) of ISPs consider the leading open source
software meets the standard required for enterprise level applications,
comparable with proprietary software.
Idaya produces FLOSS software, so keep that in mind as a potential bias.
DWGeneralhttp://www.dwheeler.com/idaya_linuxgrowth.pdf2
77
PopularityA 2002 European survey found that 49% of CIOs in financial services, retail, and the public sector expect to be using FLOSS. Market Opportunity Analysis For Open Source SoftwareOpenforum Europe200202OpenForum Europe published in February 2002 a survey titled Market Opportunity Analysis For Open Source Software. Over three months CIOs and financial directors in financial services, retail and public sector were interviewed for this survey. In this survey, 37% of the CIOs stated that they were already using FLOSS, and 49% expected to be using FLOSS in the future. It is quite likely that even more companies are using FLOSS but their CIOs are not aware of it. Perceived benefits cited included decreased costs in general (54%), lower software license cost (24%), better control over development (22%), and improved security (22%).OpenForum Europe published in February 2002 a survey titled
<a href="http://www.openforumeurope.org/research.php">
Market Opportunity Analysis For Open Source Software</a>.
Over three months CIOs and financial directors
in financial services, retail and public sector were interviewed for this
survey.
In this survey,
37% of the CIOs stated that they were already using FLOSS,
and 49% expected to be using FLOSS in the future.
It is quite likely that even more companies are using FLOSS but
their CIOs are not aware of it.
Perceived benefits cited included decreased costs in general (54%),
lower software license cost (24%), better control over development (22%),
and improved security (22%).
DWGeneralhttp://www.openforumeurope.org/research.php11
78
PopularityIBM found a 30% growth in the number of enterprise-level applications for GNU/Linux in the six month period ending June 2001.IBMAt one time, it was common to claim that “Not enough applications run under GNU/Linux” for enterprise-level use. However, IBM found there are over 2,300 GNU/Linux applications (an increase in 30% over 6 months) available from IBM and the industry’s top independent software vendors (ISVs).At one time, it was common to claim that
&#8220;Not enough applications run under GNU/Linux&#8221;
for enterprise-level use.
However,
<a href="http://www.businesswire.com/cgi-bin/f_headline.cgi?bw.062701/211782585&amp;ticker=IBM">IBM found there are over 2,300
GNU/Linux applications (an increase in 30% over 6 months)</a>
available from IBM and the industry&#8217;s top
independent software vendors (ISVs).
DWOSGNU/Linuxhttp://www.businesswire.com/cgi-bin/f_headline.cgi?bw.062701/211782585&ticker=IBM11
79
PopularityIBM found a 30% growth in the number of enterprise-level applications for GNU/Linux in the six month period ending June 2001.Special Report: Are We There Yet?Kevin Novak and Patrick MuellerNetwork Computing20011126A Special report by Network Computing on Linux for the Enterprise discusses some of the strengths and weaknesses of GNU/Linux, and found many positive things to say about GNU/Linux for enterprise-class applications.A
<a href="http://www.networkcomputing.com/1224/1224f1.html">Special report by Network Computing on Linux for the Enterprise</a>
discusses some of the strengths and weaknesses of GNU/Linux, and
found many positive things to say about GNU/Linux for enterprise-class
applications.
DWOSGNU/Linuxhttp://www.networkcomputing.com/1224/1224f1.html11
80
PopularityMorgan Stanley found significant and growing use of GNU/Linux.Survey: Linux growing, CRM in doubtLarry DignanCNet20020904Morgan Stanley found significant and growing use of GNU/Linux. They surveyed 225 CIOs on August 2002, and among the respondents, 29% said they owned GNU/Linux servers, 8% did not but are formally considering buying them, and 17% of the CIOs said they neither owned nor were formally considering GNU/Linux servers but that they were informally considering them. The remainder (slightly less than half, or 46%) noted they didn’t own and weren’t considering GNU/Linux. For those that have recently purchased new GNU/Linux servers, 31% were adding capacity, 31% were replacing Windows systems, 24% were replacing Unix and 14% were replacing other OSes. It’s easier to transition to GNU/Linux from Unix than from Windows, so it’s intriguing that Windows was being replaced more often than Unix. CNet news commented on this study with additional commentary about open source vs. Microsoft.<b>Morgan Stanley found significant and growing use of GNU/Linux.</b>
<a href="http://news.com.com/2100-1001-956496.html">
They surveyed 225 CIOs on August 2002</a>,
and among the respondents, 29% said they owned GNU/Linux servers,
8% did not but are formally considering buying them, and
17% of the CIOs said they neither owned nor were formally considering
GNU/Linux servers but that they were informally considering them.
The remainder (slightly less than half, or 46%)
noted they didn&#8217;t own and weren&#8217;t considering GNU/Linux.
For those that have recently purchased new GNU/Linux servers,
31% were adding capacity, 31% were replacing Windows systems,
24% were replacing Unix and 14% were replacing other OSes.
It&#8217;s easier to transition to GNU/Linux from Unix than from Windows,
so it&#8217;s intriguing that Windows was being replaced more often than Unix.
<a href="http://news.com.com/2009-1001-961354.html">CNet news commented
on this study with additional commentary about open source vs. Microsoft</a>.
DWOSGNU/Linuxhttp://news.cnet.com/2100-1001-956496.html2
81
PopularityMorgan Stanley found significant and growing use of GNU/Linux.Open source: Rebels at the gateMike RicciutiA Mortal MicrosoftCNet20021014CNet news commented on this study with additional commentary about open source vs. Microsoft.<a href="http://news.com.com/2009-1001-961354.html">CNet news commented
on this study with additional commentary about open source vs. Microsoft</a>.
DWGeneralGNU/Linuxhttp://news.cnet.com/2009-1001-961354.html2
82
PopularityRevenue from sales of GNU/Linux-based server systems increased 90% in the fourth quarter of 2002 compared to the fourth quarter of 2001.Sales increase for U.S. Linux serversIan FriedCNet20030210Revenue from sales of GNU/Linux-based server systems increased 90% in the fourth quarter of 2002 compared to the fourth quarter of 2001. This 90% increase compared sharply with the 5% increase of server market revenue overall. This data was determined by Gartner Dataquest, and reported in C|Net.<b>Revenue from sales of GNU/Linux-based server systems
increased 90% in the fourth quarter of 2002 compared to the fourth
quarter of 2001</b>.
This 90% increase compared sharply with the 5% increase of
server market revenue overall.
This data was determined by Gartner Dataquest, and
<a href="http://news.com.com/2100-1001-984010.html">
reported in C|Net</a>.
DWOSGNU/Linuxhttp://news.cnet.com/2100-1001-984010.html3
83
PopularityRevenue from sales of GNU/Linux-based server systems increased 90% in the fourth quarter of 2002 compared to the fourth quarter of 2001.IBM, Dell win in losing server marketStephen ShanklandCNet20030224Sales of GNU/Linux servers increased 63% from 2001 to 2002. This is an increase from $1.3 billion to $2 billion, according to Gartner.<b><a href="http://news.com.com/2100-1001-985769.html">
Sales of GNU/Linux servers increased 63% from 2001 to 2002</a></b>.
This is an increase from $1.3 billion to $2 billion,
according to Gartner.
DWServer OSGNU/Linuxhttp://news.cnet.com/2100-1001-985769.html3
84
PopularityIn a survey of business users by Forrester Research Inc., 52% said they are now replacing Windows servers with Linux. Linux Inc.Steve HammBloomberg Businessweek20050131In a survey of business users by Forrester Research Inc., 52% said they are now replacing Windows servers with Linux. Business Week quoted this survey in a January 2005 article, noting that GNU/Linux is forcing Microsoft to offer discounts to avoid losing even more sales.<b><a href="http://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_05/b3918001_mz001.htm">In a survey of business users by Forrester Research Inc.,
52% said they are now replacing Windows servers with Linux.</a></b>
Business Week quoted this survey in a January 2005 article,
noting that GNU/Linux
is forcing Microsoft to offer discounts to avoid losing even more sales.
DWServer OSGNU/Linuxhttp://www.businessweek.com/magazine/content/05_05/b3918001_mz001.htm3
85
PopularityA 2001 survey found that 46.6% of IT professionals were confident that their organizations could support GNU/Linux, a figure larger than any OS except WindowsResearch shows Linux supportBob ArtnerZDNet20011106A TechRepublic Research survey titled Benchmarks, Trends, and Forecasts: Linux Report found that “support for Linux runs surprisingly deep” when it surveyed IT professionals and asked them how confidently their organizations could support various OSes. Given Windows’ market dominance on the desktop, it’s not surprising that most were confident that their organizations could support various versions of Windows (for Windows NT the figure was 90.6%; for Windows 2000, 81.6%). However, GNU/Linux came in third, at 46.4%; about half of those surveyed responded that their organizations were already confident in their ability to support GNU/Linux! This is especially shocking because GNU/Linux beat other well-known products with longer histories including Unix (42.1%), Novell Netware (39.5%), Sun Solaris (25.7%), and Apple (13.6%). TechRepublic suggested that there are several possible reasons for this surprisingly large result:
GNU/Linux is considered to be a rising technology; many IT professionals are already studying it and learning how to use it, assuming that it will be a marketable skill in the near future.
Many IT professionals already use GNU/Linux at home, giving GNU/Linux an entree into professional organizations.
Since GNU/Linux is similar to Unix, IT professionals who are proficient in Unix can easily pick up GNU/Linux.
TechRepublic suggests that IT executives should inventory their staff’s skill sets, because they may discover that their organization can already support GNU/Linux if they aren’t currently using it.
A
<a href="http://www.zdnet.com.au/newstech/os/story/0,2000024997,20261699,00.htm
">TechRepublic Research survey titled
<i>Benchmarks, Trends, and Forecasts: Linux Report</i></a>
found that &#8220;support for Linux runs surprisingly deep&#8221;
when it surveyed IT professionals and asked them how confidently their
organizations could support various OSes.
Given Windows&#8217; market dominance on the desktop, it&#8217;s not surprising
that most were confident that their organizations could support various
versions of Windows
(for Windows NT the figure was 90.6%; for Windows 2000, 81.6%).
However, GNU/Linux came in third, at 46.4%; about half of
those surveyed responded that their organizations were
already confident in their ability to support GNU/Linux!
This is especially shocking because GNU/Linux beat other well-known
products with longer histories including Unix (42.1%),
Novell Netware (39.5%), Sun Solaris (25.7%), and Apple (13.6%).
TechRepublic suggested that there are several possible reasons for this
surprisingly large result:
<ul>
<li>GNU/Linux is considered to be a rising technology;
many IT professionals are already studying it
and learning how to use it, assuming that it will be
a marketable skill in the near future.
<li>Many IT professionals already use GNU/Linux at home,
giving GNU/Linux an entree into professional organizations.
<li>Since GNU/Linux is similar to Unix,
IT professionals who are proficient in Unix can easily pick up GNU/Linux.
</ul>
TechRepublic suggests that IT executives should inventory their staff&#8217;s
skill sets, because they may discover that their organization can already
support GNU/Linux if they aren&#8217;t currently using it.
DWOSWindows, Linux, Unix, Solaris, Novell Netwarehttp://www.zdnet.com.au/research-shows-linux-support-120261699.htm2
86
PopularitySendmail, an FLOSS program, is the leading email server, per surveys by D.J. Bernstein.D.J. Bernstein 20011004A survey between 2001-09-27 and 2001-10-03 by D.J. Bernstein of one million random IP addresses successfully connected to 958 SMTP (email) servers (such servers are also called mail transport agents, or MTAs). Bernstein found that Unix Sendmail had the largest share (42% of all email servers), followed by Windows Microsoft Exchange (18%), Unix qmail (17%), Windows Ipswitch IMail (6%), Unix smap (2%), UNIX Postfix (formerly VMailer, 2%) and Unix Exim (1%). Note that Bernstein implements one of Sendmail’s competitors (qmail), so he has a disincentive to identify Sendmail’s large share. At the time qmail was not FLOSS, because modified derivatives of Qmail could not be freely redistributed (without express permission by the author). Qmail was “source viewable,”, so some people were confused into believing that Qmail was FLOSS. Since then, qmail has been released to the public domain and thus FLOSS. However, Sendmail, Postfix, and Exim were all FLOSS at the time. Indeed, not only is the leading program (Sendmail) FLOSS, but that FLOSS program has more than twice the installations of its nearest competition. A <a href="http://cr.yp.to/surveys/smtpsoftware6.txt">survey
between 2001-09-27 and 2001-10-03
by D.J. Bernstein of one million random IP addresses</a>
successfully connected to 958 SMTP (email) servers
(such servers are also called mail transport agents, or MTAs).
Bernstein found
that Unix Sendmail had the largest share (42% of
all email servers), followed by
Windows Microsoft Exchange (18%),
Unix qmail (17%), Windows Ipswitch IMail (6%),
Unix smap (2%), UNIX Postfix (formerly VMailer, 2%)
and Unix Exim (1%).
Note that Bernstein implements one of Sendmail&#8217;s competitors (qmail),
so he has a disincentive to identify Sendmail&#8217;s large share.
At the time qmail was not FLOSS, because
<a href="http://openacs.org/about/licensing/open-source-licensing">
modified derivatives of Qmail could not be freely redistributed
(without express permission by the author)</a>.
Qmail
<i>was</i> &#8220;source viewable,&#8221;,
so some people were confused into believing that Qmail was FLOSS.
Since then, <a href="http://cr.yp.to/qmail/dist.html">qmail has been
released to the public domain</a> and thus FLOSS.
However, Sendmail, Postfix, and Exim <i>were</i> all FLOSS at the time.
Indeed, not only is the leading program (Sendmail) FLOSS, but that FLOSS
program has more than twice the installations of its nearest competition.
DWemail serverUnix Sendmail, Microsoft Exchange, Unix Qmail, Windows Ipswitch IMail, Unix smap, Unix Postfix, Unix Exim.http://cr.yp.to/surveys/smtpsoftware6.txt2
87
PopularityMailChannel’s survey (published 2007) showed that the top two email servers (Sendmail and Postfix) are FLOSS programs.Fingerprinting the World's Mail ServersKen Simpson and Stas BekmanSysAdmin20070107Fingerprinting the World’s Mail Servers described a different survey approach: To avoid including spammers, they first started with a list of 400,000 companies worldwide, and then determined what their external email server software was. They even sent erroneous commands to double-check their results (different servers produced different results). The most popular two email servers were Sendmail (12.3%) and Postfix (8.6%). This was followed by Postini (8.5%), Microsoft Exchange (7.6%), MXLogic (6.0%), qmail (5.3%), and Exim (5.0%).<a href="http://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/sysadmin/2007/01/05/fingerprinting-mail-servers.html">Fingerprinting the World&#8217;s Mail Servers</a>
described a different survey approach: To avoid including spammers,
they first started with a list of 400,000 companies worldwide, and then
determined what their external email server software was.
They even sent erroneous commands to double-check their results
(different servers produced different results).
The most popular two email servers were Sendmail (12.3%) and Postfix
(8.6%). This was followed by Postini (8.5%), Microsoft Exchange (7.6%),
MXLogic (6.0%), qmail (5.3%), and Exim (5.0%).
DWemail serverSendmail, Postfix, Postini, Microsoft Exchange, MXLogic, Qmail, Eximhttp://www.oreillynet.com/pub/a/sysadmin/2007/01/05/fingerprinting-mail-servers.html4
88
PopularityA survey in the second quarter of 2000 found that 95% of all reverse-lookup domain name servers (DNS) used bind, an FLOSS product.Bill Manning2000The Internet is built from many mostly-invisible infrastructure components. This includes domain name servers (DNSs), which take human-readable machine names (like “yahoo.com”) and translate them into numeric addresses. Publicly accessible machines also generally support “reverse lookups”, which convert the numbers back to names; for historical reasons, this is implemented using the hidden “in-addr.arpa” domain. By surveying the in-addr domain, you can gain insight into how the whole Internet is supported. Bill Manning has surveyed the in-addr domain and found that 95% of all name servers (in 2q2000) performing this important Internet infrastructure task are some version of “bind.” This includes all of the DNS root servers, which are critical for keeping the Internet functioning. Bind is an FLOSS program.The Internet is built from many mostly-invisible infrastructure components.
This includes domain name servers (DNSs), which take human-readable machine
names (like &#8220;yahoo.com&#8221;) and translate them into numeric addresses.
Publicly accessible machines also generally support &#8220;reverse lookups&#8221;, which
convert the numbers back to names; for historical reasons, this is implemented
using the hidden &#8220;in-addr.arpa&#8221; domain.
By surveying the in-addr domain, you can gain insight into
how the whole Internet is supported.
<a href="http://www.isi.edu/~bmanning/in-addr-versions.html">Bill Manning
has surveyed the in-addr domain</a> and found that
95% of all name servers (in 2q2000)
performing this important Internet infrastructure task are
some version of &#8220;bind.&#8221;
This includes all of the
<a href="http://www.idg.net.nz/webhome.nsf/NL/1B8AEC1796517F55CC256BF30015ADB4">DNS root servers</a>,
which are critical for keeping the Internet functioning.
Bind is an FLOSS program.
DWDNShttp://www.isi.edu/~bmanning/in-addr-versions.html01
89
PopularityA survey in May 2004 found that over 75% of all DNS domains are serviced by an FLOSS program.DNS server surveyDon Moore20040523 Don Moore’s DNS Server Survey completed May 23, 2004 surveyed DNS servers. He found that BIND (an FLOSS program) serviced 70.105% of all domains, followed by TinyDNS (15.571%), Microsoft DNS Server (6.237%), MyDNS (2.792%), PowerDNS (1.964%), SimpleDNS Plus (1.25%), unknown (1.138%), and the Pliant DNS Server (0.277%), with many others trailing. Since BIND, MyDNS, PowerDNS, and Pliant are all FLOSS, FLOSS programs service 75.138% of all DNS domains. The figures are different if you count per-installation instead of per-domain, but FLOSS still dominates. Counting per-platform, we have BIND (72.598%), Microsoft (21.711%), TinyDNS (2.587%), unknown (1.041%), Simple DNS Plus (0.922%), MyDNS (0.314%), PowerDNS (0.26%). Totalling BIND, MyDNS, and PowerDNS produces the trivially smaller figure of 73.172% supported by DNS. This difference in figures shows that about 3 out of 4 organizations choose the FLOSS BIND when installing a DNS server, and the 1 in 4 who don’t and then choose Microsoft tend to be those supporting fewer domains (otherwise the Microsoft count of domains would be larger). In any case, given the critical nature of DNS to the Internet, it’s clear that FLOSS is a critical part of it.<a href="http://mydns.bboy.net/survey/">
Don Moore&#8217;s DNS Server Survey completed May 23, 2004</a>
surveyed DNS servers.
He found that BIND (an FLOSS program) serviced 70.105% of all domains,
followed by TinyDNS (15.571%), Microsoft DNS Server (6.237%),
MyDNS (2.792%), PowerDNS (1.964%), SimpleDNS Plus (1.25%), unknown
(1.138%), and the Pliant DNS Server (0.277%),
with many others trailing.
Since BIND, MyDNS, PowerDNS, and Pliant are all FLOSS, FLOSS programs
service 75.138% of all DNS domains.
<!-- Pliant is released under GPLv2, per
http://pliant.cx/pliant/welcome/copyright.html -->
The figures are different if you count per-installation instead of
per-domain, but FLOSS still dominates.
Counting per-platform, we have BIND (72.598%), Microsoft (21.711%),
TinyDNS (2.587%), unknown (1.041%), Simple DNS Plus (0.922%),
MyDNS (0.314%), PowerDNS (0.26%).
Totalling BIND, MyDNS, and PowerDNS produces the trivially smaller
figure of 73.172% supported by DNS.
This difference in figures shows that about 3 out of 4
organizations choose the FLOSS BIND when installing a DNS server,
and the 1 in 4 who don&#8217;t and then choose Microsoft tend to be those supporting
fewer domains (otherwise the Microsoft count of domains would be larger).
In any case, given the critical nature of DNS to the Internet,
it&#8217;s clear that FLOSS is a critical part of it.
DWDNSTinyDNS, Microsoft DNS Server, MyDNS, PowerDNS, SimpleDNS Plus, Pliant DNShttp://mydns.bboy.net/survey/3
90
PopularityPHP is the web’s #1 Server-side Scripting LanguagePHP: most popular server-side Web scriptingFiona HughesLWN.net20020603 As noted in a June 3, 2002 article, PHP recently surpassed Microsoft’s ASP to become the most popular server-side Web scripting technology on the Internet, and was used by over 24% of the sites on the Internet. Of the 37.6 million web sites surveyed worldwide, PHP is running on over 9 million sites, and over the years 2000 through 2002 PHP has averaged a 6.5% monthly growth rate.PHP, a recursive acronym for &#8220;PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor&#8221;, is an
open source server-side scripting language designed for creating
dynamic Web pages (e.g., such as e-commerce).
<a href="http://lwn.net/Articles/1433">As noted in a June 3, 2002 article</a>,
PHP recently surpassed Microsoft&#8217;s ASP to become the most
popular server-side Web scripting technology on the Internet, and was
used by over 24% of the sites on the Internet.
Of the 37.6 million web sites surveyed worldwide, PHP is running on
over 9 million sites, and over
the years 2000 through 2002 PHP has averaged a 6.5% monthly growth rate.
DWProgram LanguagePHPhttp://lwn.net/Articles/1433/2
91
PopularityPHP is the web’s #1 Server-side Scripting LanguageApache Module Report - PHPSecurity Space20070401PHP has continued to be widely used. (The rates increased through 2003-2003, and then declined slightly, though this is probably due to the many alternative technologies available, such as Python and Ruby.)<a href="http://www.securityspace.com/s_survey/data/man.200703/apachemods.html?mod=UEhQ">PHP has continued to be widely used</a>.
(The rates increased through 2003-2003, and then declined slightly, though
this is probably due to the many alternative technologies available,
such as Python and Ruby.)
DWProgram LanguragePHPhttp://www.securityspace.com/s_survey/data/man.200703/apachemods.html?mod=UEhQ3
92
PopularityOpenSSH is the Internet’s #1 implementation of the SSH security protocol.SSH usage profilingScanSSH200807On April 2002, a survey of 2.4 million Internet addresses found that OpenSSH, an FLOSS implementation of SSH, was the #1 implementation, with 66.8% of the market; the proprietary “SSH” had 28.1%, Cisco had 0.4%, and others totaled 4.7%. By September 2004, OpenSSH had grown to a dominant 87.9% share. You can see general information about the survey, the specific SSH statistics for April 2002, and specific SSH statistics for September 2004. It’s also interesting to note that OpenSSH had less than 5% of the market in the third quarter of 2000, but its use steadily grew. By the fourth quarter of 2001, over half of all users of the SSH protocol were using OpenSSH, and its share has continued to grow since.The Secure Shell (SSH) protocol is widely used to
securely connect to computers and control them remotely
(using either a text or X-Windows graphical interface).
On April 2002, a survey of 2.4 million Internet addresses found that
OpenSSH, an FLOSS implementation of SSH,
was the #1 implementation, with 66.8% of the market;
the proprietary &#8220;SSH&#8221; had 28.1%, Cisco had 0.4%, and others totaled 4.7%.
By September 2004,
OpenSSH had grown to a dominant 87.9% share.
You can see
<a href="http://www.openssh.org/usage/index.html">general information
about the survey</a>, the
<a href="http://www.dwheeler.com/frozen/ssh-stats.html">specific
SSH statistics for April 2002</a>, and
<a href="http://www.dwheeler.com/frozen/ssh-stats-200410.html">specific
SSH statistics for September 2004</a>.
<!-- From http://www.openssh.org/usage/ssh-stats.html -->
It&#8217;s also interesting to note that OpenSSH had less than 5% of the
market in the third quarter of 2000, but its use steadily grew.
By the fourth quarter of 2001, over half of all users of the SSH protocol
were using OpenSSH, and its share has continued to grow since.
DWSSHOpenSSHhttp://www.openssh.org/usage/index.html3
93
PopularityCMP TSG/Insight found that 41% of application development tools were FLOSS, and VARBusiness found 20% of all companies using GNU/Linux.CRNVARBusiness reported in September 2003 on “The Rise of Linux”. In the article, it reports a finding of CMP TSG/Insight: 41% of application development tools in use were FLOSS, second only to Microsoft (76%) and leading Oracle (35%), IBM (26%), Sun (21%), and Borland (18%). They also reported their own finding that 20% of all companies they surveyed were GNU/Linux, presumably less than that of Microsoft, but twice that of Netware and Unix. Indeed, they note that GNU/Linux has transformed “from a curiosity to a core competency.”<a href="http://www.varbusiness.com/sections/technology/tech.asp?ArticleID=44410">VARBusiness reported in September 2003 on &#8220;The Rise of Linux&#8221;</a>.
In the article,
it reports a finding of CMP TSG/Insight:
41% of application development tools in use were FLOSS,
second only to Microsoft (76%) and leading Oracle (35%),
IBM (26%), Sun (21%), and Borland (18%).
They also reported their own finding that
20% of all companies they surveyed were GNU/Linux,
presumably less than that of Microsoft, but twice that of
Netware and Unix.
Indeed, they note that GNU/Linux has transformed
&#8220;from a curiosity to a core competency.&#8221;
DWDevelopment Toolshttp://www.crn.com/index.htm?cid=aspredirect?ArticleID=4441011
94
PopularityMySQL’s usage is growing faster than Windows’ZDNet200401 An Evans Data survey released in January 2004 found that the use of FLOSS database MySQL grew 30% over the year, vs. 6% for Microsoft’s SQL Server and Access databases, according to a survey of 550 developers. Microsoft still has a far greater total share in the database development market, but Evans Data reported that FLOSS’s “price and its ability to integrate with other software mesh well with the priorities of application developers” and that “Concerns over stability, expense and how well a database plays with others are leading a quickly growing number of...companies to seriously consider and implement an open source database solution.” Evans Data noted that “We expect this trend to continue as the open source offerings are continually improved upon.”An Evans Data survey released in January 2004</a> found that the use of
FLOSS database MySQL grew 30% over the year, vs. 6% for
Microsoft&#8217;s SQL Server and Access databases,
according to a survey of 550 developers.
Microsoft still has a far greater total share
in the database development market, but
Evans Data reported that
FLOSS&#8217;s &#8220;price and its ability to integrate with other software
mesh well with the priorities of application developers&#8221; and that
&#8220;Concerns over stability, expense and how well a database plays with others are leading a quickly growing number of...companies to seriously consider and implement an open source database solution.&#8221;
Evans Data noted that &#8220;We expect this trend to continue as the open source offerings are continually improved upon.&#8221;
DWDatabaseMySQL, Microsoft Accesshttp://www.zdnet.com/news/title/513483621
95
PopularityAs of 2004, a CSC study determined that an astonishing 14% of the large enterprise office systems market are using FLOSS OpenOffice.org.Desktop apps ripe turg for open sourceJack LoftusSearch Enterprise Linux20041004Consulting firm Computer Sciences Corp. (CSC) unsurprisingly found that Microsoft dominates the office suite market, with 95% of the overall share and more than 300 million users worldwide. But surprisingly, they found that the FLOSS OpenOffice.org has secured 14% of the large enterprise office systems market, with over 16 million downloads and countless CD installations.Consulting firm Computer Sciences Corp. (CSC)
unsurprisingly found that
Microsoft dominates the office suite market,
with 95% of the overall share and more than 300 million users worldwide.
But surprisingly,
they found that
<a href="http://searchenterpriselinux.techtarget.com/originalContent/0,289142,sid39_gci1011227,00.html">
the FLOSS OpenOffice.org has secured 14% of the
large enterprise office systems market</a>,
with over 16 million downloads and countless CD installations.
DWDesktop ApplicationsOpenOffice.orghttp://searchenterpriselinux.techtarget.com/news/1011227/Desktop-apps-ripe-turf-for-open-source3
96
PopularityA February 2005 survey of developers and database administrators found that 64% use an Open Source database.Winter 2005 Database Development SurveyEvans Data Corporation200510 Evans Data Corporation’s “Winter 2005 Database Development Survey” of developers and database administrators (DBAs), released February 2005, found a strong increase in use of a variety of FLOSS databases throughout corporate U.S. Evans found 64% (about two-thirds) use Open Source databases (up from 58% the previous year), and over 50% use (or plan to use) XQuery and other open web services standards with their data -- Open Source or proprietary.

Two key factors seem to driving this rise: survey respondents indicated that FLOSS databases are increasing their performance and scalability to the point where they are acceptable for use in corporate enterprise environments, and many organizations have tight IT and database development budgets. Evans found that MySQL, PostgreSQL, and Firebird were popular FLOSS databases. Evans found FireBird is the most used database among all database programs for ‘edge’ applications, with Microsoft Access as a close second (at 21%). In addition, MySQL and FireBird are locked in a virtual tie in the FLOSS database space; each are used by just over half of database developers who use FLOSS databases.
<a href="http://oetrends.com/news.php?action=view_record&amp;idnum=392">
Evans Data Corporation&#8217;s &#8220;Winter 2005 Database Development Survey&#8221;
of developers and database administrators (DBAs), released February 2005,</a>
found a strong increase in use
of a variety of FLOSS databases throughout corporate U.S.
Evans found 64% (about two-thirds) use Open Source databases (up from 58%
the previous year),
and over 50% use (or plan to use) XQuery and other open
web services standards with their data -- Open Source or proprietary.
<p>
Two key factors seem to driving this rise:
survey respondents indicated that FLOSS databases are
increasing their performance and scalability to the point
where they are acceptable for use in corporate enterprise environments, and
many organizations have tight IT and database development budgets.
Evans found that MySQL, PostgreSQL, and Firebird were popular FLOSS
databases.
Evans found FireBird is the most used database among <i>all</i>
database programs for &#8216;edge&#8217; applications, with
Microsoft Access as a close second (at 21%).
In addition, MySQL and FireBird are locked in a virtual tie in
the FLOSS database space; each are used by just over
half of database developers who use FLOSS databases.
DWDatabaseXQuery, MySQL, PostgreSQL, Firebirdhttp://www.oetrends.com/news.php?action=view_record&idnum=39221
97
PopularityBusinessWeek reports that hardware companies are selling more than $1 billion in servers to run Linux every quarter.Torvalds' Baby Comes of AgeBloomberg Businessweek20051003BusinessWeek’s article “Torvalds’ Baby Comes of Age” (October 3, 2005) reports that hardware companies are selling “more than $1 billion in servers to run Linux every quarter, while sales of servers running proprietary software continue to fall.” They note that, according to market research company IDC, “Linux is now commonplace on big corporate servers -- posting 11 consecutive quarters of growth.” They also quote IBM stating that 10 million desktops ran Linux in 2004, by their figures a 40% jump from a year ago.<a href="http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/oct2005/tc20050103_7038_tc_218.htm">BusinessWeek&#8217;s article
&#8220;Torvalds&#8217; Baby Comes of Age&#8221;
(October 3, 2005)</a>
reports that hardware companies are selling &#8220;more
than $1 billion in servers to run Linux every quarter,
while sales of servers running proprietary software continue to fall.&#8221;
They note that, according to market research company IDC,
&#8220;Linux is now commonplace on big corporate servers -- posting
11 consecutive quarters of growth.&#8221;
They also quote IBM stating that
10 million desktops ran Linux in 2004, by their figures
a 40% jump from a year ago.
DWServer OSLinuxhttp://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/oct2005/tc20050103_7038_tc_218.htm3
98
PopularityInformationWeek’s February 2005 survey reported significant use of GNU/Linux, and that that 90% of companies anticipate a jump in server licenses for GNU/Linux.InformationWeek Research Brief: Linux OutlookInformationWeek200502InformationWeek Research Brief “Linux Outlook” published February 2005 found that the “open-source movement is growing” and that, given the trends, the expected outcome is “Increased use of Linux and open-source software [and] a decline in the use of Windows NT, 2000, and XP. Two years ago a major hurdle in the use of Linux was reliable support and service, but no more.” Their survey was conducted in January 2005, surveying 439 business technology professionals. They found that “Open-source products are most commonly deployed on server operating systems, Web server applications, application development tools, and application servers.” Four out of five sites use GNU/Linux on Web or Intranet servers. More specifically, when asked “In what areas is your organization using Linux”, the the top areas where GNU/Linux is used include server operating systems (75%), web server applications (75%), application development tools (68%), application server (56%), and desktop/laptop operating system (47%). In the next 12 months, Linux is expected to replace Windows NT or Windows 2000 servers at nearly half of the sites we surveyed. Three in five sites expect to use Linux on servers instead of Windows NT or Windows 2000, and in fact, “nearly 90% of companies surveyed anticipate a jump in server licenses for Linux. No other product comes close to these expectations -- not Windows, Macintosh or Unix.” The top Linux distributions (in order) were Red Hat, Novell/SuSE, and Debian.
Why so much use? “Low cost and the lack of licensing fees are the primary reasons [77%] why companies deploy Linux on PCs and servers... However, concern about the vulnerability of Microsoft products is also speeding up Linux adoption. Of the sites using Linux on PCs, 73% are doing so in response to Windows security issues while 69% seek an alternative to Windows. Two-thirds of sites state that Windows security concerns are driving Linux adoption on servers while nearly three in five server users want another option to Windows... Linux has its edge on Windows, with low cost, reliable performance, secure environment, expected future innovation and confidence in open-source development model.” Looking at their numbers in more detail bears this out. For servers, the primary reasons for using Linux were relatively low cost (77%), reliability (74%), performance (73%), Windows security issues (65%), needing an alternative to Windows (59%), recommendations by technical staff (59%), development tools widely available (46%), ability to modify source code to meet needs (45%), fast software patches and bug fixes (41%), and fulfills company requirements or standards (40%). The primary reasons for using Linux on PCs were similar though with different relative weights: relatively low cost (75%), Windows security issues (73%), need an alternative to Windows (69%), reliability (60%), performance (52%), recommendations by technical staff (45%), fast software patches and bug fixed (44%), development tools widely available (42%), ability to modify source code to meet needs (36%), fulfills company requirements or standards (34%).

InformationWeek does not predict that everyone will be using GNU/Linux in all circumstances within a few years; instead, they believe their data suggests that “A myriad of operating system platforms will continue to typify IT architecture in 2005 and beyond.” And the report certainly does not have rose-colored sunglasses; it discusses some of the challenges that some users have had, too. But the report notes that in spite of this, “Linux is fulfilling the expectations of most users. Eighty-four percent of sites say they are highly satisfied with Linux-server performance [, and half of the sites reported] the same level of satisfaction on PCs.” (my emphasis.)\
<a href="http://i.cmpnet.com/infoweek/1057/IWKLinuxOutlook-2005.pdf">
InformationWeek Research Brief &#8220;Linux Outlook&#8221; published February 2005</a>
found that the &#8220;open-source movement is growing&#8221;
and that, given the trends, the expected outcome
is &#8220;Increased use of Linux and open-source software [and]
a decline in the use of Windows NT, 2000, and XP. Two years ago a major
hurdle in the use of Linux was reliable support and service, but no more.&#8221;
Their survey was conducted in January 2005, surveying
439 business technology professionals.
They found that &#8220;Open-source products are most commonly deployed
on server operating systems, Web server applications,
application development tools, and application
servers.&#8221;
Four out of five sites use GNU/Linux on Web or Intranet servers.
More specifically, when asked
&#8220;In what areas is your organization using Linux&#8221;, the
the top areas where GNU/Linux is used include
server operating systems (75%), web server applications (75%),
application development tools (68%),
application server (56%), and desktop/laptop operating system (47%).
In the next 12
months, Linux is expected to replace Windows NT or
Windows 2000 servers at nearly half of the sites we
surveyed. Three in five sites expect to use Linux on
servers instead of Windows NT or Windows 2000, and in fact,
&#8220;nearly 90% of companies surveyed anticipate a jump in server
licenses for Linux. No other product comes close to these expectations --
not Windows, Macintosh or Unix.&#8221;
The top Linux distributions (in order) were Red Hat, Novell/SuSE, and Debian.

<p>
Why so much use?
&#8220;Low cost and the lack of licensing fees are the
primary reasons [77%] why companies deploy Linux on PCs
and servers...
However, concern about the
vulnerability of Microsoft products is also speeding
up Linux adoption. Of the sites using Linux on PCs,
73% are doing so in response to Windows security
issues while 69% seek an alternative to Windows.
Two-thirds of sites state that Windows security
concerns are driving Linux adoption on servers while
nearly three in five server users want another option
to Windows...
Linux has its edge on Windows, with low cost,
reliable performance, secure environment, expected
future innovation and confidence in open-source
development model.&#8221;
Looking at their numbers in more detail bears this out.
For servers, the primary reasons for using Linux were
relatively low cost (77%), reliability (74%),
performance (73%), Windows security issues (65%),
needing an alternative to Windows (59%),
recommendations by technical staff (59%),
development tools widely available (46%),
ability to modify source code to meet needs (45%),
fast software patches and bug fixes (41%), and
fulfills company requirements or standards (40%).
The primary reasons for using Linux on PCs were similar though
with different relative weights:
relatively low cost (75%), Windows security issues (73%),
need an alternative to Windows (69%),
reliability (60%), performance (52%),
recommendations by technical staff (45%),
fast software patches and bug fixed (44%),
development tools widely available (42%),
ability to modify source code to meet needs (36%),
fulfills company requirements or standards (34%).
<p>
InformationWeek does not predict that everyone will be using GNU/Linux in all
circumstances within a few years; instead, they believe their data suggests
that &#8220;A myriad of operating system platforms will
continue to typify IT architecture in 2005 and beyond.&#8221;
And the report certainly does not have rose-colored sunglasses; it discusses
some of the challenges that some users have had, too.
But the report notes that in spite of this,
&#8220;Linux is fulfilling the expectations of most users. Eighty-four
percent of sites say they are <i>highly satisfied</i> with
Linux-server performance [, and half of the sites reported]
the same level of satisfaction on PCs.&#8221; (my emphasis.)
DWOSGNU/Linuxhttp://i.cmpnet.com/infoweek/1057/IWKLinuxOutlook-2005.pdf3
99
PopularityA 2007 survey claims that around half of all companies making embedded products are using Linux in them, with an increasing trend.Snapshot of embedded linux market -- April 2007Linux Devices20070426 LinuxDevice.com's 2007 survey of companies creating embedded systems, 47% were using Linux and 3.6% were using eCos in at least some of those products in the past 2 years. Both are FLOSS, so that's barely over half of all. The next largest was MS Windows at 12.3%, so Linux was clearly the leader. Even more interestingly, the developers expected that of the OSs in their companies embedded designs in the next 2 years, Linux would be used by 59.3% and eCos 3.7%, so the trend is clearly up for FLOSS use. This survey is from LinuxDevice.com, so there's the risk of number-fudging, but their readership is actually broader than their name might suggest; in much earlier surveys, only a minority of companies were even considering using Linux in 2 years.<a href="http://linuxdevices.com/articles/AT7065740528.html">
LinuxDevice.com's 2007 survey</a> of companies creating embedded systems,
47% were using Linux and 3.6% were using eCos
in at least some of those products in the past 2 years.
Both are FLOSS, so that's barely over half of all.
The next largest was MS Windows at 12.3%, so Linux was clearly the leader.
Even more interestingly, the developers expected that of the
OSs in their companies embedded designs in the next 2 years,
Linux would be used by 59.3% and eCos 3.7%, so the trend is clearly up
for FLOSS use.
This survey is from LinuxDevice.com, so there's the risk of number-fudging,
but their readership is actually broader than their name might suggest;
in much earlier surveys, only a minority of companies were even considering
using Linux in 2 years.
Still, that's an important caveat, and the
the respondents are self-selected (which can often skew surveys).
Still, it's of interest in showing that there is a growing trend of use, and
it has other interesting results about embedded environments.
DWEmbedded OSLinux, Windowshttp://www.linuxfordevices.com/c/a/Linux-For-Devices-Articles/Snapshot-of-the-embedded-Linux-market-April-2007/3
100
PopularityOptaros, a consulting firm, reports that 87% of organizations are now using open-source software; BusinessWeek claims that this demonstrates that FLOSS has greatly expanded into businesses.A Watershed for Open SourceSarah LacyBloomberg Businessweek20051228 BusinessWeek’s December 2005 article “A Watershed for Open Source” reported that in 2005 “open source was the word on the lips of not just early adopters but of an early majority.” In particular, the article noted that “CIOs signed off on open-source projects [and not just] low-level engineers... on their own initiative [, and] venture capitalists woke up to the new business opportunities of open source.” They claimed the major events of 2005 were that Red Hat made lots of money from free software (this “observation” ignores the fact that one of the companies Red Hat bought, Cygnus, had been doing that for many years), Sun Microsystems’ opening much of its software, Motorola bets big on mobile Linux, Firefox went mainstream, and venture capitalists invest in FLOSS (they estimate $400 million was invested in FLOSS startups in 2005). BusinessWeek used as one of its supports a study by Optaros, who reports that 87% of organizations are now using FLOSS. This estimate may be low; many FLOSS deployments are made by lower-level people solving specific problems. <a href="http://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/dec2005/tc20051228_262746.htm">BusinessWeek&#8217;s December 2005 article &#8220;A Watershed for Open Source&#8221;</a>
reported that in 2005 &#8220;open source was the word on
the lips of not just early adopters but of an early majority.&#8221;
In particular, the article noted that
&#8220;CIOs signed off on open-source projects [and not just]
low-level engineers... on their own initiative [, and]
venture capitalists woke up to the new business opportunities of open source.&#8221;
They claimed the major events of 2005 were that
Red Hat made lots of money from free software
(this &#8220;observation&#8221; ignores the fact that one of the
companies Red Hat bought, Cygnus, had been doing that for many years),
Sun Microsystems&#8217; opening much of its software,
Motorola bets big on mobile Linux,
Firefox went mainstream, and
venture capitalists invest in FLOSS (they estimate
$400 million was invested in FLOSS startups in 2005).
BusinessWeek used as one of its supports a study by Optaros, who
reports that 87% of organizations are now using FLOSS.
This estimate may be low; many FLOSS deployments are made by lower-level
people solving specific problems.
Since there&#8217;s usually no requirement to report FLOSS use
(there&#8217;s no particular reason to do so in many cases),
upper management is often not aware when they&#8217;re using it... they just
know that problems are getting solved.
DWGeneralhttp://www.businessweek.com/technology/content/dec2005/tc20051228_262746.htm3
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