TR2016 Captions, Translations, Annotations
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Number
Start time (hh:mm:ss:ff)
End time (hh:mm:ss:ff)
English
2
100:00:00:0500:00:04:18
2L bottle of water, put a little bit of water
in the bottom, now try to balance it.
3
200:00:04:1800:00:08:08
And I couldn't because the weight was really low,
I couldn't-
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300:00:08:0800:00:11:11
-maneuver it fast enough. Then he filled it
all the way up. Now it was much heavier it
5
400:00:11:1100:00:14:05
was much more unstable but
the center of gravity was higher
6
500:00:14:0500:00:16:12so yeah I was totally able to balance it.
7
600:00:16:1200:00:18:07Rockets are the same way.
They're unstable,
8
700:00:18:0700:00:21:03
but you want them to be
unstable in a particular kind of way.
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800:00:21:0300:00:24:05
You want them to be unstable
in a way you can control it.
10
900:00:24:0500:00:28:00
I'm an aerospace engineer by training, went
to Geogia Tech got my masters degree there.
11
1000:00:28:0000:00:33:02
Now I spent 10 years working at NASA. This
is the kind of community I was thinking of.
12
1100:00:33:0200:00:36:22
It had all the same needs
a community on Earth would have
13
1200:00:36:2200:00:39:18but it had some very unique constraints.
14
1300:00:39:1800:00:45:01
He grew up talking space, living space, did
his 4th grade state report on Alabama because
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1400:00:45:0100:00:50:07
of the rocket center. Even from our first
date I knew he was passionate about space.
16
1500:00:50:0700:00:55:15
Harrison Schmitt was the first trained geologist,
and only trained geologist, to go to the moon.
17
1600:00:55:1500:01:00:06
So he was a guy who knew what the heck to
look for. And so the scientific take was so
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1700:01:00:0600:01:03:22
vast, it almost eclipses all the other missions
put together.
19
1800:01:03:2200:01:09:01
During the Apollo era you didn't need government
programs to try convince people
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1900:01:09:0100:01:14:02
that doing science and engineering was
good for the country. It was self evident.
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2000:01:14:0200:01:17:10
And even those not formally
trained in technical fields
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2100:01:17:1000:01:20:22
embraced what those fields meant
to the collective national future.
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2200:01:20:2200:01:26:02
We choose to go to the moon.
We choose to go to the moon in this decade
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2300:01:26:0200:01:30:02
and do the other things, not because
they are easy, but because they're hard.
25
2400:01:30:0200:01:35:14
Who wants to be an aerospace engineer so that
you can design a plane that's a few percent
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2500:01:35:1400:01:40:03
more fuel efficient. That doesn't really work.
Saying who wants to be an aerospace engineer
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2600:01:40:0300:01:44:00
because we need a plane that can navigate
the rarified atmosphere of Mars-
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You're going to attract the very best of those students.
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2800:01:47:0000:01:49:05
And the solutions to that problem,
in every case I've ever seen,
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2900:01:49:0500:01:52:17have improved life back
here on Earth.
31
3000:01:52:1700:01:57:18Zero, and liftoff of the Atlas 5 with Curiosity.
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3100:02:06:0000:02:11:19
It had, like, heat shields and a
hypersonic drogue chute.
33
3200:02:11:1900:02:16:00I said this is not going to work.
34
3300:02:18:1600:02:21:18Retro-rockets and then a hoist.
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3400:02:23:0000:02:26:18
It was something Rube Goldberg
would have designed.
36
3500:02:27:1700:02:35:07An SUV sized rover was plunked down on Mars.
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3600:02:36:0500:02:40:21
How confident were you that this whole sequence
of landing devices would work?
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I wasn't confident at all I was
shitting bricks. It was scary.
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This lander has more than 10 times
as much scientific instrumentation
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3900:02:48:1500:02:50:05
than anything we've sent
onto the surface of Mars.
41
4000:02:50:0500:02:52:01So it needs more power?
Needs more power,
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4100:02:52:0200:02:54:18
-as Kirk would say to Scotty.
Well the last one was solar
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4200:02:54:1800:02:56:07this one's got nukes.
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4300:02:56:0700:02:58:14
Wait, wait. So you've got a
nuclear power plant on the rover?
45
4400:02:58:1400:03:02:03It's not a power plant,
it's a power source.
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4500:03:02:0400:03:05:14
We're touchy about this because
when you use the nuclear word-
47
4600:03:05:1400:03:08:02One of the two verboten n-words-
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4700:03:08:0200:03:09:14That's right, that's right.
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4800:03:09:1400:03:10:18Just saying.
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So when we use THAT n-word,
we try to speak carefully.
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And it's not like a nuclear
power plant with the cooling towers
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and the turbines and all that.
It's a bunch of Plutonium that's
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5200:03:20:1100:03:22:05
giving off heat and we use that
to generate electricity.
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5300:03:22:0500:03:25:17
So you found another thing to call it to not
spook people when it's launched?
55
5400:03:25:1700:03:26:21Yeah.
Okay.
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5500:03:26:2100:03:32:00
Apollo astronauts used plutonium RTG
to power their science equipment.
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5600:03:32:0000:03:37:03
The Mars rover Curiosity
is entirely powered by RTG.
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5700:03:37:0300:03:40:03And it can run at night.
It can run in any season.
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5800:03:40:0300:03:43:07
The other ones had solar panels
they could only run in the daytime?
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5900:03:43:0700:03:43:19Yup.
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6000:03:43:1900:03:46:04
Couldn't you charge a battery
and keep working at night?
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In the Martian winter,
your monopower goes down
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6200:03:49:0800:03:50:23if your solar panels
get covered with dust.
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6300:03:50:2300:03:52:20
So in the Martian winter
the Sun is very low in the sky?
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6400:03:52:2000:03:53:08Yeah.
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6500:03:53:0800:03:55:20
The Martian exploration rovers often
found themselves short on power
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6600:03:55:2000:03:58:07as dust settled
on their solar panels.
68
6700:03:58:0700:04:00:15They were the only
source of energy,
69
6800:04:00:1500:04:03:04and the Martian winter
was approaching.
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6900:04:03:0400:04:05:06
The part of the it that really
breaks my heart is that
71
7000:04:05:0600:04:08:01we just didn't have power
to drive any more.
72
7100:04:08:0200:04:09:22Well, one of them did die,
because of the winter-
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7200:04:09:2200:04:11:05One of the two rovers?
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7300:04:11:0500:04:14:22
Yeah, if the power goes down enough
so that you can't run the heaters at night,
75
7400:04:14:2200:04:15:11then you die.
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7500:04:15:1100:04:20:16
That already happened to one of our previous
rovers, so, if you want to do a lot of science,
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7600:04:20:1600:04:22:12you want a lot of power
a lot of instrumentation,
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7700:04:22:1200:04:25:01
you want to last a long time
and run anywhere on Mars-
79
7800:04:25:0100:04:26:12Send nukes.
Send nukes.
80
7900:04:26:1200:04:33:00Exploring space requires energy.
81
8000:04:33:0000:04:36:13Energy to run experiments.
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8100:04:36:1300:04:42:09
Energy to scrub carbon dioxide
from Astronauts oxygen supply.
83
8200:04:42:0900:04:47:12
The carbon dioxide removal assembly is being
worked on today inside the destiny laboratory.
84
8300:04:47:1200:04:51:19
A short was seen in one of the heating elements
that you see Mike Barratt there.
85
8400:04:51:1900:04:55:13
He put a filter in there that
helps keep the water pure.
86
8500:04:55:1400:04:57:09That system uses water because
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8600:04:57:0900:04:59:17
obviously water is made of
hydrogen and oxygen.
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8700:04:59:1700:05:03:07
It uses electrolysis, which is passing
an electrical current through that water
89
8800:05:03:0700:05:08:12to split the water into
hydrogen and its oxygen.
90
8900:05:08:1200:05:12:12
The hydrogen is dumped overboard,
the oxygen is used to pump into the air-
91
9000:05:12:1200:05:14:23of the station for the
crew members to breathe.
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9100:05:14:2300:05:18:19
You go to the moon and there's no oxygen atmosphere
there's no lakes of water or anything.
93
9200:05:18:1900:05:21:14
So it really comes down to
nuclear and solar power.
94
9300:05:21:1400:05:27:04
They called it the n-word at NASA.
They're like- we can't even talk about nuclear.
95
9400:05:27:0400:05:29:20And I said-
how can we not talk about it?
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9500:05:29:2000:05:34:09
We have exactly two options for how to make
power in space and this is one of them.
97
9600:05:49:1200:05:51:10Europa!
98
9700:05:51:2300:05:54:01Another Europa.
99
9800:05:54:0100:05:59:00A black and white picture
of a ring of Jupiter!
100
9900:06:13:0600:06:16:17
Why is the Earth round?
Why isn't it square or any other shape?
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