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PieceSubsectionsFunctionInputs ("Main")Outputs ("Main")rostral (forhead)Sources
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Trigeminal Nerve nuclei: Spinal Trigeminal Nucleusnucleus oralisFine (discriminitive) Touch*Touch and Pressure Aβ neurons *"Dental pain" Aδ neuronsThalamusOverall order of structure“THE ROLE OF TRIGEMINAL INTERPOLARIS-CAUDALIS TRANSITION ZONE IN PERSISTENT OROFACIAL PAIN”
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A series of three ganglia that process touch, pain, and temperature for the face. There are distinct parallels with the cuneate and gracile nuclei. (Yes two Wikipedia links)nucleus interpolarisFine (discriminitive) Touch*Touch and Pressure Aβ neuronsThalamusganglia"long descending fibers"Mechanoreceptor*touch(Aβ) *pressure(Aβ)VoDCC (cell type?)VPM (thalamus)"KCNQ4 K(+) channels tune mechanoreceptors for normal touch sensation in mouse and man."
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Trigeminal NerveGCZ: Vi/Vc Processing differential pain responses.Pain from Masseter, Cornea, TMJ, Skin, and ViscreaThalamus, HypothalamusGCZ: Vo/Vi *UnConF*Wikipedia
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GSA innervation (touch, pressure, nociception, and thermal sense) to part of the scalp, most of the dura mater, the conjuctiva and cornea of the eye, the face, nasal cavities, paranasal sinuses, palate, temporomandibular joint, lower jaw, oral cavity, and teeth.nucleus caudalisPain/Temperature (facial receptive field. Inc. eye, U/L teeth, mouth, nasal, skin)1' pseudounipolar neurons whose cell bodies are housed in the trigeminal ganglion (Aδ, C). 2' > DECC (trigeminal lemniscus) VPM (thalamus)ganglia"long descending fibers"Mechanoreceptor*touch(Aβ) *pressure(Aβ)ViDCC (cell type?)VPM (thalamus)posterior /dorsal
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SVE (branchiomotor) innervation to the muscles of mastication (temporalis, masseter, medial pterygoid, lateral pterygoid), and the mylohyoid, anterior belly of the digastric, tensor tympani, and tensor veli palatini muscles.NociceptorFree nerve endings (confirm)Reciprocal regulationGCZanterior /ventralInputs*Masseter pain *Cornea pain *TMJ pain *Skin pain *Viscrea pain (CNX)GCZ:Vi/Vc*nucleus submedius of the thalamus 40%(Sm) (orofacial injury)*parabrachial nucleus 20% *lateral hypothalamus 5% *medial ventroposterior thalamic nucleus 5%Outputs*rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) (deep injury, hyperalgesia)Reciprocal Interactions
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Note: No parasympathetic ganglia. "Hitchhikes" on CN III, VII, IX. "sympathetic fibers originating from the cervical sympathetic ganglia. Parasympathetic innervation is also present"ThermoceptorFree nerve endings (confirm)GCZ: Vi/Vc [Rostral Ventromedial Medulla (RVM)Need to find the nature of the cells and receptors for the above GCZ inputNeed to find the nature of the cells and receptors for the above GCZ output.Need to find the nature of the cells and receptors for the above GCZ reciprocal regulation.
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MechanoreceptorMeissner's corpusclesgangliaTrigeminal NerveThermoceptor and Nociceptor*Pain [Aδ/C] *Temp [C]Vc (MDH)DCC (cell type?)VPM (thalamus)Note: Face is VPM, Body is VPL
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Pain and irritation in generalSpinalTract of the Trigeminal TucleusFree nerve endingCNV ganglion pseuuniAnterior CN V lemniscus (ventral trigeminal lemniscus)
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Facial innervation allNote: This also carries GSA/GVA from cranial nerves V, VII, IX, and X.
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EX) Human premolor: 2300 apex axons, 87% unmylenated.caudal (brainstem)
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Note: Vi/Vo do not do "discriminitive touch. The main sensory nucleus (trigeminal) does discrimination (both VPM's)
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