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EVO-1Evolution is characterized by a change in the genetic makeup of a population over time and is supported by multiple lines of evidence.EVO-1.ADescribe similarities and/or differences in compartmentalization between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.2.11Origins of Cell Compartmentalization
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EVO-1.BDescribe the relationship between the functions of endosymbiotic organelles and their free-living ancestral counterparts.2.11Origins of Cell Compartmentalization
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EVO-1.CDescribe the causes of natural selection.7.1Introduction to Natural Selection
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EVO-1.DExplain how natural selection affects populations.7.1Introduction to Natural Selection
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EVO-1.EDescribe the importance of phenotypic variation in a population.7.2Natural Selection
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EVO-1.FExplain how humans can affect diversity within a population.7.3Artificial Selection
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EVO-1.GExplain the relationship between changes in the environment and evolutionary changes in the population.7.3Artificial Selection
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EVO-1.HExplain how random occurrences affect the genetic makeup of a population.7.4Population Genetics
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EVO-1.IDescribe the role of random processes in the evolution of specific populations.7.4Population Genetics
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EVO-1.JDescribe the change in the genetic makeup of a population over time.7.4Population Genetics
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EVO-1.KDescribe the conditions under which allele and genotype frequencies will change in populations.7.5Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
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EVO-1.LExplain the impacts on the population if any of the conditions of Hardy- Weinberg are not met.7.5Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium
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EVO-1.MDescribe the types of data that provide evidence for evolution.7.6Evidence of Evolution
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EVO-1.NExplain how morphological, biochemical, and geological data provide evidence that organisms have changed over time.7.6Evidence of Evolution
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EVO-1.OExplain the interaction between the environment and random or preexisting variations in populations.8.7Disruptions to Ecosystems
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EVO2Organisms are linked by lines of descent from common ancestry.EVO-2.AExplain how shared, conserved, fundamental processes and features support the concept of common ancestry for all organisms.5.3Mendelian Genetics
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EVO-2.BExplain how morphological, biochemical, and geological data provide evidence that organisms have changed over time.7.6Evidence of Evolution
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EVO-2.CDescribe structural and functional evidence on cellular and molecular levels that provides evidence for the common ancestry of all eukaryotes.7.7Common Ancestry
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EVO-3Life continues to evolve within a changing environment.EVO-3.AExplain how evolution is an ongoing process in all living organisms.7.8Continuing Evolution
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EVO-3.BDescribe the types of evidence that can be used to infer an evolutionary relationship.7.9Phylogeny
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EVO-3.CExplain how a phylogenetic tree and/or cladogram can be used to infer evolutionary relatedness.7.9Phylogeny
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EVO-3.DDescribe the conditions under which new species may arise.7.10Speciation
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EVO-3.EDescribe the rate of evolution and speciation under different ecological conditions.7.10Speciation
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EVO-3.FExplain the processes and mechanisms that drive speciation.7.10Speciation
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EVO-3.GDescribe factors that lead to the extinction of a population.7.11Extinction
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EVO-3.HExplain how the risk of extinction is affected by changes in the environment.7.11Extinction
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EVO-3.IExplain species diversity in an ecosystem as a function of speciation and extinction rates.7.11Extinction
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EVO-3.JExplain how extinction can make new environments available for adaptive radiation.7.11Extinction
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ENE-1 The highly complex organization of living systems requires constant input of energy and the exchange of macromolecules.ENE-1.ADescribe the composition of macromolecules required by living organisms.1.2Elements of Life
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ENE-1.BExplain the effect of surface area-to-volume ratios on the exchange of materials between cells or organisms and the environment.2.3Cell Size
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ENE 1.CExplain how specialized structures and strategies are used for the efficient exchange of molecules to the environment.2.3Cell Size
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ENE 1.DDescribe the properties of enzymes.3.1Enzyme Structure
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ENE 1.EExplain how enzymes affect the rate of biological reactions.3.2Enzyme Catalysis
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ENE-1.FExplain how changes to the structure of an enzyme may affect its function.3.3Environmental Impacts on Enzyme Function
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ENE-1.GExplain how the cellular environment affects enzyme activity.3.3Environmental Impacts on Enzyme Function
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ENE-1.HDescribe the role of energy in living organisms.3.4Cellular Energy
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ENE-1.IDescribe the photosynthetic processes that allow organisms to capture and store energy.3.5Photosynthesis
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ENE1.JExplain how cells capture energy from light and transfer it to biological molecules for storage and use.3.5Photosynthesis
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ENE-1.KDescribe the processes that allow organisms to use energy stored in biological macromolecules.3.6Cellular Respiration
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ENE-1.LExplain how cells obtain energy from biological macromolecules in order to power cellular functions.3.6Cellular Respiration
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ENE-1.MDescribe the strategies organisms use to acquire and use energy.8.2Energy Flow Through Ecosystems
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ENE-1.NExplain how changes in energy availability affect populations and ecosystems.8.2Energy Flow Through Ecosystems
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ENE-1.OExplain how the activities of autotrophs and heterotrophs enable the flow of energy within an ecosystem.8.2Energy Flow Through Ecosystems
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ENE-2Cells have membranes that allow them to establish and maintain internal environments that are different from their external environments.ENE-2.ADescribe the roles of each of the components of the cell membrane in maintaining the internal environment of the cell.2.4Plasma Membranes
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ENE-2.BDescribe the Fluid Mosaic Model of cell membranes.2.4Plasma Membranes
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ENE-2.CExplain how the structure of biological membranes influences selective permeability.2.5Membrane Permeability
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ENE-2.DDescribe the role of the cell wall in maintaining cell structure and function.2.5Membrane Permeability
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ENE-2.EDescribe the mechanisms that organisms use to maintain solute and water balance.2.6Membrane Transport
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ENE-2.FDescribe the mechanisms that organisms use to transport large molecules across the plasma membrane.2.6Membrane Transport
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ENE-2.GExplain how the structure of a molecule affects its ability to pass through the plasma membrane.2.7Facilitated Diffusion
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ENE-2.HExplain how concentration gradients affect the movement of molecules across membranes.2.8Tonicity and Osmoregulation
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ENE-2.IExplain how osmoregulatory mechanisms contributeto the health and survival of organisms.2.8Tonicity and Osmoregulation
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ENE-2.JDescribe the processes that allow ions and other molecules to move across membranes.2.9Mechanisms of Transport
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ENE-2.KDescribe the membrane- bound structures of the eukaryotic cell.2.10Compartmentalization
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ENE-2.LExplain how internal membranes and membrane- bound organelles contribute to compartmentalization of eukaryotic cell functions.2.10Compartmentalization
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ENE-3Timing and coordination of biological mechanisms involved in growth, reproduction, and homeostasis depend on organisms responding to environmental cues.ENE-3.ADescribe positive and/ or negative feedback mechanisms.4.5Feedback
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ENE-3.BExplain how negative feedback helps to maintain homeostasis.4.5Feedback
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ENE-3.CExplain how positive feedback affects homeostasis.4.5Feedback
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ENE-3.DExplain how the behavioral and/or physiological response of an organism is related to changes in internal or external environment.8.1Responses to the Environment
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ENE-4Communities and ecosystems change on the basis of interactions among populations and disruptions to the environment.ENE-4.ADescribe the structure of a community according to its species composition and diversity.8.5Community Ecology
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ENE-4.BExplain how interactions within and among populations influence community structure.8.5Community Ecology
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ENE-4.CExplain how community structure is related to energy availability in the environment.8.5Community Ecology
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IST-1Heritable information provides for continuity of life.IST-1.ADescribe the structural similarities and differences between DNA and RNA.1.6Nucleic Acids
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IST-1.BDescribe the events that occur in the cell cycle.4.6Cell Cycle
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IST-1.CExplain how mitosis results in the transmission of chromosomes from one generation to the next.4.6Cell Cycle
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IST-1.DDescribe the role of checkpoints in regulating the cell cycle.4.7Regulation of the Cell Cycle
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IST-1.EDescribe the effects of disruptions to the cell cycle on the cell or organism.4.7Regulation of the Cell Cycle
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IST-1.FExplain how meiosis results in the transmission of chromosomes from one generation to the next.5.1Meiosis
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IST-1.GDescribe similarities and/ or differences between the phases and outcomes of mitosis and meiosis.5.1Meiosis
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IST-1.HExplain how the process of meiosis generates genetic diversity.5.2Meiosis and Genetic Diversity
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IST-1.IExplain the inheritance of genes and traits as described by Mendel’s laws.5.3Mendelian Genetics
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IST-1.JExplain deviations from Mendel’s model of the inheritance of traits.5.4Non-Mendelian Genetics
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IST-1.KDescribe the structures involved in passing hereditary information from one generation to the next.6.1DNA and RNA Structure
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IST-1.LDescribe the characteristics of DNA that allow it to be used as the hereditary material.6.1DNA and RNA Structure
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IST-1.MDescribe the mechanisms by which genetic information is copied for transmission between generations.6.2Replication
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IST-1.NDescribe the mechanisms by which genetic information flows from DNA to RNA to protein.6.3Transcription and RNA Processing
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IST-1.ODescribe how the phenotype of an organism is determined by its genotype.6.4Translation
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IST-1.PExplain the use of genetic engineering techniques in analyzing or manipulating DNA.6.8Biotechnology
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IST-2Differences in the expression of genes account for some of the phenotypic differences between organisms.IST-2.ADescribe the types of interactions that regulate gene expression.6.5Regulation of Gene Expression
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IST-2.BExplain how the location of regulatory sequences relates to their function.6.5Regulation of Gene Expression
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IST-2.CExplain how the binding of transcription factors to promoter regions affects gene expression and/or the phenotype of the organism.6.6Gene Expression and Cell Specialization
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IST-2.DExplain the connection between the regulation of gene expression and phenotypic differences in cells and organisms.6.6Gene Expression and Cell Specialization
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IST-2.EDescribe the various types of mutation.6.7Mutations
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IST-3Cells communicate by generating, transmitting, receiving, and responding to chemical signals.IST-3.ADescribe the ways that cells can communicate with one another.4.1Cell Communication
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IST-3.BExplain how cells communicate with one another over short and long distances.4.1Cell Communication
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IST-3.CDescribe the components of a signal transduction pathway.4.2Introduction to Signal Transduction
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IST-3.DDescribe the role of components of a signal transduction pathway in producing a cellular response.4.2Introduction to Signal Transduction
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IST-3.EDescribe the role of the environment in eliciting a cellular response.4.3Signal Transduction
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IST-3.FDescribe the different types of cellular responses elicited by a signal transduction pathway.4.3Signal Transduction
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IST-3.GExplain how a change in the structure of any signaling molecule affects the activity of the signaling pathway.4.4Changes in Signal Transduction Pathways
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IST-4The processing of genetic information is imperfect and is a source of genetic variation.IST-4.AExplain how changes in genotype may result in changes in phenotype.6.7Mutations
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IST-4.BExplain how alterations in DNA sequences contribute to variation that can be subject to natural selection.6.7Mutations
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IST-5Transmission of information results in changes within and between biological systems.IST-5.AExplain how the behavioral responses of organisms affect their overall fitness and may contribute to the success of the population.8.1Responses to the Environment
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SYI-1Living systems are organized in a hierarchy of structural levels that interact.SYI-1.AExplain how the properties of water that result from its polarity and hydrogen bonding affect its biological function.1.1Structure of Water and Hydrogen Bonding
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SYI-1.BDescribe the properties of the monomers and the type of bonds that connect the monomers in biological macromolecules.1.3Introduction to Biological Molecules
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1.4Properties of Biological Macromolecules
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SYI-1.CExplain how a change in the subunits of a polymer may lead to changes in structure or function of the macromolecule.1.5Structure and Function of Biological Macromolecules
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SYI-1.DDescribe the structure and/ or function of subcellular components and organelles.2.1Cell Structure: Subcellular Components
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SYI-1.EExplain how subcellular components and organelles contribute to the function of the cell.2.2Cell Structure and Function
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