|Word||POS||Meaning||Formation process||Word origins||Notes|
Zero-derivation | Semantic shift
|Antifa||n||Borrowing||from German||in German, a Clipping of 'antifaschistisch' ('anti-fascist')|
|bandwidth||n||Semantic shift||The new word having the figurative sense of "emotional or mental capacity".|
From the sense of "the capacity for data transfer of an electronic communications system"
|binge-watch||v||Compounding||binge + watch|
|bitcoin||n||Coinage | Compounding||Coinage: introduced in 2008 by person/group Satoshi Nakamoto|
Compounding: bit + coin
expensive and flashy jewelry, clothing, or other possessions.
|Onomatopoeia?||1995-2000; perhaps imitative of the imaginary sound that light makes when reflecting off a diamond.|
Also bling-bling, by 1997, U.S. rap slang, "wealth, expensive accessories," a sound suggestive of the glitter of jewels and precious metals (cf. German blinken "to gleam, sparkle").
|blockchain||n||Coinage | Compounding||Coinage: introduced in 2008 by person/group Satoshi Nakamoto|
Compounding: block + chain
a website containing a writer's or group of writers' own experiences, observations, opinions, etc., and often having images and links to other websites.
First recorded in 1995–2000; shortening of weblog
|bloomer||n||Eponym||named after Amelia Bloomer, who in the 1850s "had enough of the corsets and petticoats women at that time were expected to wear. She began to wear an outfit that consisted of a loose-fitting blouse, a knee-length skirt, and baggy pants. That led to a “bloomer craze,” and soon bloomers became a symbol of women’s rights."||Quote from here|
|boba||n||Borrowing||borrowed from Chinese (Beijing) bōbà, name for the large tapioca balls found in the tea, perhaps literally, “large breasts, large-breasted woman”|
1. v - to refuse to have dealings with (a person, organization, etc) or refuse to buy (a product) as a protest or means of coercionto boycott foreign produce
2. n - an instance or the use of boycotting
|Eponym||after Captain C. C. Boycott (1832–97), Irish land agent for the Earl of Erne, County Mayo, Ireland, who was a victim of such practices for refusing to reduce rents|
a relationship or friendship between two men that is extremely close but does not involve sex.
|Blending||first recorded in 2000-05; bro + (ro)mance|
a meal that serves as both breakfast and lunch.
|Blending||first recorded in 1895–1900; br(eakfast) + (l)unch|
|bubble butt||n||Compounding||bubble + butt|
|bubbly water||n||Compounding||bubbly + water|
|butt dial||v||Compounding||butt + dial|
|buzzkill||n||Compounding||buzz + kill|
|carbon credit||n||Compounding||carbon + credit|
|carbon offsetting||n||Compounding||carbon + offsetting|
|case-sensitive||adj||Compounding||case + sensitive|
|chillax||v||Blending||chill + relax|
|clopen||v||Blending||close + open|
|conlang||n||Blending||constructed + language|
|cougar||n||Semantic shift||The new word having the sense of "an older woman who dates or goes after younger men".|
From 'cougar' the animal sense
|I didn't mention this one in my word formation post, because I'll probably discuss cases like these in a post on semantic change.|
|cray-cray||adj||Reduplication||of 'cray'||cray' itself being a Clipping of 'crazy'|
|crowdfund||v||Compounding||crowd + fund|
|crunk||adj||Blending||crazy + drunk|
|cryptocurrency||n||Derivation||crypto- + currency|
|cultural appropriation||n||Compounding||cultural + appropriation|
|dahlia||n||Eponym||"bestowed on this colorful, flowery plant in the late 1700s (after it was introduced to Europe) to honor Anders Dahl, an 18th-century Swedish botanist."||Quote from here|
|deglobalization||n||Derivation||de- + globalization|
an automaton in the form of a human being.
|dumpster fire||n||Compounding||dumpster + fire|
|dunce||adj||Eponym||after "John Duns Scotus—a medieval philosopher commonly called John Duns (Scotus identifies him as a Scot)." He "was fond of wearing pointy hats, was well thought of in his time. His followers, called 'Dunsmen,' also sported conical hats. But during the Renaissance, his ideas fell out of favor and were considered behind the times or stupid. So pointy hats, or dunce caps, became symbols of dimwits, dopes, and idiots."||Quote from here|
|eggcorn||n||Phono-semantic error||from 'acorn'||"can be described as an intra-lingual phono-semantic matching" (Wikipedia)|
Similar to Folk Etymology
|emoji||n||Borrowing | Coinage?||1990–95; < Japanese: literally, ‘picture letter’ (or ‘picture character’)|
|environmental health||n||Compounding||environmental + health|
|event horizon||n||Compounding||event + horizon|
|everything bagel||n||Compounding||everything + bagel|
|evidence-based||adj||Compounding||evidence + based|
|face-palm||n, v||Compounding||face + palm|
|n||Compounding | Coinage||Face + book||Simultaneously a Coinage as well|
|fake news||n||Compounding||fake + news|
|fam||n||Semantic shift | Clipping|
a method or device for transmitting documents, drawings, photographs, or the like, by means of radio or telephone for exact reproduction elsewhere.
|first world problem||n||Compounding||first + world + problem|
|flash mob||n||Compounding||flash + mob|
Pathology. an acute, commonly epidemic disease, occurring in several forms, caused by numerous rapidly mutating viral strains and characterized by respiratory symptoms and general prostration.
first recorded in 1830–40; shortened form
|FOMO||n||Acronym||fear of missing out|
|foodie||n, adj||Derivation||food + -ie (-y)|
|n||Compounding||four + dimensional + space + time|
|frenemy||n||Blending||friend + enemy|
a box, room, or cabinet in which food, drink, etc., are kept cool by means of ice or mechanical refrigeration.
1925–30; by shortening of refrigerator or Frigidaire
|friend||v||Zero-derivation||The new word being a verb.|
From the noun 'friend'
a brand of plastic concave disk, used for various catching games by sailing it between two or more players and thrown by making it spin as it is released with a flick of the wrist.
|gargantuan||adj||gigantic; enormous; colossal||Eponym||from Gargantua, name of the giant in Rabelais' novels|
first recorded in 1585–95; Gargantu(a) + -an
|gerrymander||v||Eponym | Blending||after "Governor Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts. In 1812 Gerry reshaped one of his voting districts in the shape of a salamander as a political scheme, so this eponym is also a portmanteau: Gerry + salamander = Gerrymander."||Quote from here|
|ghost||v||Semantic shift||The new word being a verb, and having the sense of "To abruptly cut off all contact with (someone, such as a former romantic partner) by no longer accepting or responding to phone calls, instant messages, etc."|
From the old noun sense
|ginger||n||Semantic shift||The new word having the sense of "a person with red hair".|
From the Asian herb sense.
|glamping||n||Blending||glamour + camping|
1. the brand name of a leading Internet search engine, founded in 1998.
2. v - (often lowercase) to search the Internet for information about (a person, topic, etc.)
|grocery store||n||Compounding||grocery + store|
|hangry||adj||Blending||hungry + angry|
|harissa||n||Borrowing||from (Maghrebi) Arabic|
|hashtag||n||Semantic shift||2005–10; hash (mark) + tag|
|hater||n||Derivation||hate + -er|
|heart||v||Zero-derivation||from the noun 'heart'|
|hippy-dippy||adj||Reduplication||of the 'ippy' part|
|hipsterdom||n||Derivation||hipster + -dom|
|homework||n||Compounding||home + work|
|humblebrag||v||Compounding||humble + brag|
a long commercial that informs or instructs, especially in an original and entertaining manner
|Blending||information + commercial|
|jeggings||n||Blending||jeans + leggings|
a brand of dessert made from a mixture of gelatin, sugar, and fruit flavoring, dissolved in hot water and chilled until firm.
|jumbo||adj||a very large person, animal, or thing.||Eponym||first recorded in 1800–10; after the name of a famous elephant exhibited by P. T. Barnum, from Swahili jumbe chief|
a brand name for a soft, disposable paper tissue, used especially as a handkerchief.
a brand of portable camera introduced by George Eastman in 1888, using a roll of film and intended for taking snapshots.
|kombucha||n||Borrowing||from Japanese||misappropriation of 'konbucha' or 'kobucha' (tea made from kelp)|
|LBD||n||Initialism||little black dress|
|leotard||n||Eponym||after Jules Leotard, who "was a revolutionary French acrobat who developed the art of trapeze in the late 1800s. He often performed in a skin-tight one-piece body suit that now bears his name, the leotard."||Quote from here|
|life hack||n||Compounding||life + hack|