List of Chemicals and Materials Made by Sciencemadness.org Users
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List of Chemicals and Materials Made by Sciencemadness.org Users
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This document is intended to be a collection of chemicals, materials and reagents made by amateur chemists with brief notes about their synthesis. The purpose of this compilation is to:
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1. for users to look for inspiration of what to try out or make;
2. see if someone has beat you to making it and posting it first;
3. contact users about how they successfully made a compound.
If you wish to add to this list do so by following the format bellow: Please use [control + F] to search to make sure you are not adding a reaction that is already added. If you have different method of preparation for already added substance, add a row above/below the substance, sorting by username.
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Chemical/Reagent NameFormula
SM Username
Short notes about preparationLinks:
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2-phenylethanolC8H10O
LearnedAmateur
Produced via the Sandmeyer reaction of phenylethylamine hydrochloride with water, using in situ nitrous acid.

Notes: crude product was an orange layer more dense than water, slightly soluble. No further workup/purification was attempted as it was a proof of concept regarding the Sandmeyer reaction in general.
http://www.sciencemadness.org/talk/viewthread.php?tid=80042#pid505170
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Ammonium permanganateNH4MnO4TheMrbunGee30g of potassium permanganate is dissolved in 120 ml 60°C water, a 50% excess of 15g ammonium chloride is dissolved in 30 ml 60°C water, solutions are combined while stirring. Solution is cooled to 0°C and formed crystals are filtered, washed and dried. With sloppy washings 92% yield. 24g of 26g theoretical. https://youtu.be/yTxoqTeNs3k
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Barium chloride 2-hydrateBaCl2·2H2Owoelenhttp://woelen.homescience.net/science/chem/exps/BaCl2_2H2O/index.htmlhttp://woelen.homescience.net/science/chem/exps/BaCl2_2H2O/index.html
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Benzoic acidC7H6O2
LearnedAmateur
Excess toluene and concentrated potassium permanganate solution are refluxed for a few hours until the purple colouration of the aqueous phase disappears and there is a thick layer of brown-black MnO2 observed in the reaction vessel. After filtration using a fritted Büchner funnel, the aqueous phase is treated with mineral acids (H2SO4 in my case), the same manner as Plunkett’s procedure below, to obtain a quantitative mass of white precipitate. Upon recrystallisation from hot water, benzoic acid forms needle-like crystals which can be collected easily and are of high purity.

Note: no other solvent is required - in fact, water is likely the best option available due to the vast difference in solubility at near-boiling and room temperature solvent.
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Benzoic acidC7H6O2PlunkettA saturated solution of sodium benzoate was combined with a stoichiometric amount of hydrochloric acid, causing benzoic acid to fall out of solution because of its poor solubility in water. The benzoic acid was filtered and rinsed twice with cold distilled water before drying it on a glass plate under a heat lamp.
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Boric AcidH3PO3AbrominationDissolve 120g Borax in 200mL boiling water and add around 70mL 9M hydrochloric acid. Let crystals fully form, filter, rinse and dry.
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Brass, various ratiosCu·Zn
MrHomeScientist
Created by adding zinc to molten copper. Brasses with estimated zinc content of 6%, 11%, and 17% have been made, each with a different color.http://www.sciencemadness.org/talk/viewthread.php?tid=81819
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BromineBr2woelenhttp://woelen.homescience.net/science/chem/exps/OTC_bromine/index.htmlhttp://woelen.homescience.net/science/chem/exps/OTC_bromine/index.html
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Carbon, AmorphousCfussoHeat sugar until all turned black and no more gas evolution
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Carbon Refractory FoamC
elementcollector1
Single slice of bread was wrapped in aluminum foil and baked at 500 F for 1 hour. End product was a light, carbon-black foam block that was brittle but mechanically resilient. Easily withstood heat from a butane microtorch without noticeable effect. Note: DO NOT underbake. Bread will catch on fire. See “Carbon Foam Refractory Made From Bread” in Chemistry in General.
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CharcoalCVSEPR_VOIDWood scraps were placed into a soup can and heated by means of a fire pit with the aid of a hot air gun as a bellows.http://www.sciencemadness.org/talk/viewthread.php?tid=82077
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Chromium (III) hydroxideCr(OH)3CobaltChlorideReaction of stainless steel forks with HCl followed by filtration to remove Ni and C.The solution resulting was treated with NaOH
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Concentrated Sulfuric AcidH2SO4VSEPR_VOIDFAILURE: Sulfuric acid of unknown concentration was boiled. This, even with boiling chips, resulted in a steam-acid explosion which scorched the ceiling of the lab. This researcher does not recommend this.
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Copper (II) AcetateCu(CH3COO)2AbrominationHeat a 1:1 mixture of acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide. It does not need to boil. Add an excess of copper metal SLOWLY to the hot mixture and let sit for 3 hours. Filter out the the copper and boil down to about 10 mL and let cool.

Place copper acetate into the fridge. Scoop out crystals of copper acetate and let dry.
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Copper (II) AcetylsalicylateC36H28Cu2O16AbrominationAdd 2.01g sodium bicarbonate to 30mL water. With stirring, add 3.6 grams of isopropanol recrystallized acetylsalicylic acid to a flask and slowly add sodium bicarbonate. Add 2.5g copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate to 20mL water and add slowly to the reaction flask. Let react for several hours and filter, rinse and dry your copper (II) acetylsalicylate.
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Copper (II) ChlorideCuCl2JJayPrecipitation reaction. Saturated copper sulfate (aq.) was mixed with an equimolar quantity of saturated calcium chloride (aq.), and the mixture was vacuum filtered. The solution was evaporated to dryness in an oven.
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Copper (II) Nitrate TrihydrateCu(NO3)2·3H2OTheMrbunGeeReaction of Calcium nitrate and Copper sulfate solutions. CaSO4 is then filtered off and water is evaporated off at room temperature. Some calcium sulfate may crystallize out, so additional purification and filtration must be done.
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Copper (II) Nitrate TrihydrateCu(NO3)2·3H2OVSEPR_VOIDFW nitric acid w/ copper scrap from wires. Slightly light sensitive: Do not dry by means of a desk lamp
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Copper (II) OxideCuOAbrominationMade in the reaction of concentrated sodium hydroxide and copper sulfate (after decomposition). Using 2:1 ratio of sodium hydroxide and copper sulfate, the NaOH was dissolved into water making about a 70% solution. The copper sulfate pentahydrate was added undissolved into the solution and was left for a week. The copper (II) hydroxide decomposed into Cu(OH)2 and was filtered and rinsed 3 times.
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Copper (II) OxideCuOTheMrbunGeeProduced by reaction of copper sulfate and sodium hydroxide solutions, then heating copper hydroxide. CuO was then washed, filtered and dried. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ji75TO2D0Rc
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Copper (II) OxideCuOVSEPR_VOIDProduced by the electrolysis of a weak solution of sodium hydroxide using copper electrodes made from copper wire scraps.
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Copper SlagCuVSEPR_VOIDCopper wire was melted in a forge and poured onto sand. It was cleaned by submerging the slag in vinegar, salt, and hydrogen peroxide.
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Cupric FerrocyanideCu2[Fe(CN)6]VSEPR_VOIDHydroferrocyanic acid reacted with copper carbonate.
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D-LimoneneC10H16AbrominationRemove the 'zest' from 3 oranges. Charge a 1L two necked flask with 300mL water and the orange zest. Set up for distillation and add a pressure-equalizing addition funnel to the the second opening on the flask and fill with water. Carry out a distillation, occasionaly replenishing from the addition funnel until most of the water is depleted. Add distillate to a seperation funnel and collect top organic layer.
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Dinitrosopentamethylenetetramine
C5H10N6O2RhodanideHexamine is dissolved in Acetic acid of varying concentration, and a solution of NaNO2 in water is added. The mixture is set in an ice bath for an hour, wherein the DNPMT precipitates as a pale yellow crystalline solid.
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Holmium HydroxideHo(OH)3VSEPR_VOIDHolmium metal was dissolved in a solution of HCl and hydrogen peroxide. This was treated with NaOH solution and filtered. The material that collected in the filter was dried by steam.
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Hydroferrocyanic AcidH4Fe(CN)6VSEPR_VOIDPotassium Ferrocyanide was treated with a strong excess of HCl and the H4Fe(CN)6 separated by filtration
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Iron (II) sulfateFeSO4·xH2OCobaltChlorideThe reaction of steel wool and sulfuric acid. Product precipitated by refrigeration
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Isopropyl nitriteC3H7NO2
LearnedAmateur
Esterification of propan-2-ol with in situ nitrous acid. Product was collected as a pale yellow layer less dense than water, and purification involved shaking with aqueous sodium carbonate in order to neutralise nitrogen oxides followed by manual separation of the (presumably) pure product.

Notes: burns with a pale yellow-grey flame and is extremely volatile, no residue after evaporation.
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Lead acetatePb(CH3COO)2fussoAdding slight excess glacial acetic acid to lead carbonate slurry and heat to boiling until all solids dissolved and all gases expelled. Then filter to remove insoluble impurities. cover vessel with tissue paper to prevent dust entering during crystallization.
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Lead oxalatePbC2O4fussoAdding slight excess oxalic acid slurry to the lead acetate solution to precipitate lead oxalate. Filter out the solids. Wash solids with a little cold water to remove remaining acetic and oxalic acids.
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Methyl benzoateC8H8O2Plunkett80 mL of methanol (HEET gas line antifreeze), 10 g of benzoic acid and 2.2 mL of drain cleaner sulfuric acid (~93%) were combined into a flask and refluxed for 90 minutes. After cooling, the reaction mixture was added to a separatory funnel along with 30 mL of a saturated NaCl solution and 35 mL of naphtha (Coleman camping fuel). The aqueous layer was drained and discarded, then 30 mL of a saturated sodium bicarbonate solution was added to the separatory funnel. The aqueous layer was again discarded and the organic layer transferred to a beaker where it was gently heated to drive off the naptha leaving slightly discolored methyl benzoate. Based on this procedure, using naptha instead of diethyl ether: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B2HdN4gcVychttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=B2HdN4gcVyc
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Nitric AcidHNO3Chem ScienceNitric acid can be made by dry distillation of stoichiometric amounts of Sodium bisulfate and nitrate salt, sulfuric acid and nitrate salt, oxalic acid and nitrate salt. But the best is using sulfuric acid, second best is bisulfate and third is oxalic ( But the acid comes out contaminated with oxalic ) A cheaper procedure is to mix solutions of calcium nitrate and oxalic acid ( both hot ) let the mixture cool and precipitate Calcium oxalate,Filter and distil the filtrate ( Fractional ) to remove 80% of the water, Stop. put mixture on freezer and filter the oxalic that precipitates, put back to fractionation and get nitric acid boiling at 120-121 degrees yield is 50% or around 200ml of azeotropic acid (65%) For more info search the post.
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Phenyl IsocyanideC7H5NRhodanide15mLs of Chloroform and 15mLs Aniline are dissolved in separate mixtures containing anhydrous Ethanol. In another beaker, NaOH is dissolved in Ethanol. The two solutions of Aniline & CHCl3 are combined in a flask. Quick addition of the base solution starts the reaction. Heating to 70C for one hour completes the reaction. Distilling off the Ethanol leaves the crude final product which has an unbelievably foul odor.
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Potassium bromateKBrO3woelenhttp://woelen.homescience.net/science/chem/exps/KBrO3_synth/index.htmlhttp://woelen.homescience.net/science/chem/exps/KBrO3_synth/index.html
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Potassium periodateKIO4woelenhttp://woelen.homescience.net/science/chem/exps/KIO4_synth/index.htmlhttp://woelen.homescience.net/science/chem/exps/KIO4_synth/index.html
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Potassium tetraperoxochromate(V)
K3[Cr(O2)4]woelenhttp://woelen.homescience.net/science/chem/exps/K3CrO8_synth/index.htmlhttp://woelen.homescience.net/science/chem/exps/K3CrO8_synth/index.html
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Prussian Blue (Iron(III) hexacyanoferrate(II))
C18Fe7N18VelzeeAn arbitrary amount of K3[Fe(CN)6] in water was added to an amount of FeCl2 in water, and a brilliant dark blue precipitate was observed and then filtered; a very small amount of this product in terms of dyeing goes a very long way, as the product easily stains almost any surface.
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Silver MethylacetylideC3H3Ag
Rhodanide & Axt
Silver Nitrate is dissolved in distilled water. Next, a bottle of MAPP (Methyacetylene-Propadiene-Propane)

which has been purchased from the hardware store is set up with a modified welding gas adapter connected to a rubber tube. A glass tube is fitted to the end of the tube and is led into the AgNO3 soln. Gas flow is started, however precipitate may not immediately appear. Within minutes or less, a flocculent white precipitate of AgC3H3 forms. Continue gas flow for a further few minutes, then turn it off. Filter the white solid, further referred to as SMADS. A fair yield should be obtained if all goes well, as there is little to no AgCl precipitate when NaCl is added to the filtrate. Use a small volume of filtrate to test this. If AgCl is observed, continue gas flow for a further

few minutes through the filtrate to improve yield. SMADS is a fluffy white to grey powder with no odor. SMADS

decomposes violently upon heating, friction or impact with a deep, but not deafening report. Note: “The name ‘SMADS’ refers to the related compound SADS. It is not known whether this compound is a singular component or a double-salt - hence the ‘DS’ in SMADS & SADS for clarity and recognition - as opposed to the acronym ‘SMA’ which may have many meanings.” -Rhodanide
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Silver NitrateAgNO3VSEPR_VOID FW nitric acid w/ 1 oz apmex silver 99.9% round. The solution was slightly blue from copper in the coin
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Sodium iodideNaI
LearnedAmateur
A small lump (0.05-0.1g) of sodium metal is placed with a few prills of iodine in a test tube. Both are heated together using a blowtorch until ignition is achieved, where a large volume of white smoke (sodium iodide) is observed. Easy and fast to conduct because both elements change states at relatively low temperatures hence react within a few seconds. There is also some sodium peroxide or superoxide generated as pale yellow masses.

A proof of concept reaction akin to other related demonstrations, such as aluminium and chlorine, or fluorine and steel wool to show reactivities of elements.
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Sodium orthoperiodateNa2H3IO6woelenhttp://woelen.homescience.net/science/chem/expsNa2H3IO6/index.htmlhttp://woelen.homescience.net/science/chem/expsNa2H3IO6/index.html
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Tetraamine Copper (II) Hydroxide
[Cu(NH3)4(H2O)2](OH)2
VSEPR_VOIDThe electrolysis of copper (both electrodes made of Cu wire from scrap) in a solution of 1:1 tap water and household ammonia. Copper metal in the form of a fluffy clumps was also produced at the cathode along with small amounts of copper hydroxide
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Tetraethyl orthosilicateSiC8H20O412thealchemistEthanolysis of silicon sulphide, itself prepared by union of the elements.http://www.sciencemadness.org/talk/viewthread.php?tid=82809
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Tetraphenylethylammine copper nitrate
I'm too old for this
LearnedAmateur
An experiment into copper complexes using basified phenylethylamine mixed with copper nitrate solution, following the rules of amine complexes.

Notes: is not explosive and takes some effort to ignite - does not sustain combustion but produces a smell similar to burning plastic, with a residue of copper oxides (red-black powder). Product is collected as a green coloured powder which is insoluble in water.
http://www.sciencemadness.org/talk/viewthread.php?tid=79783#pid504067
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TrinitrophenolC6H3N3O7Velzee11.44g of salicylic acid was added to 48mL of 95% H2SO4 and then heated between 115°-120°C for one hour. After the hour, it was allowed to cool to 85°C and then 25.8g of KNO3 was slowly added so that the temperature remained between 95°—100°C; if the temperature rises above this, NO2 is generated profusely. After all KNO3 is added, the mixture is allowed to cool down to room temperature for around 25 mins. When sufficiently cool, ice water is added (if not cool enough, NO2 is generated), precipitating the rest of the yellow foamy product. A recrystallization is done that yields either beautiful long yellow crystals when cooled slowly, or a pale yellow ‘flaky’ powder. The product should remain submerged in water until desired time of use.
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White PhosphorusP4VSEPR_VOIDHeating red phosphorus. (Note: Please exclude oxigen from this reaction or white phosphorus pentoxide will be made instead.)
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Potassium (bis)Tricyanonickelate(I)
K4[Ni2(CN)6]RhodanideAqueous solutions of Potassium Cyanide & Nickel(II) Chloride are combined, with Cyanide in excess to form a yellow solution of Potassium Tetracyanonickelate(II). This solution is made strongly basic with the addition of solid Potassium Hydroxide. (Alternatively, Sodium amalgam can be used for the reduction and the Hydroxide excluded.) The basic Cyanonickelate(II) solution is added to a test tube and Toluene is added to form a protective layer on top. Zinc granules are added and Hydrogen is formed. The formed Potassium (bis)Tricyanonickelate(I) will go into solution where it can be identified by its blood-red coloration. Atmospheric O2 oxidizes the compound.
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