Adaptive Service Model - Meta model - Objects and attributes v0.15
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IdNameDescriptionExamplesRationale and issuesTypeOwnerValue elementsMetricsLifecycle stagesLifecycle transitionsRequired relationsPermissible relationsView pointsObject typeArchiMate concept typeObject ownerObject StatusObject Audit trailAttribute 1Attribute 2Attribute 3Attribute 4Attribute 5Attribute 6Attribute 7
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(Justification of the description and/or the attributes)(Role that typically owns the object)(What constitute the value of the object?)(How do you measure the object?)(Which views include the object in addition to the ArchiMate views?)(Class or Entity?)(Who owns the description of the object?)(Draft / reviewed / approved)NamePossible valuesNamePossible valuesNamePossible valuesNamePossible valuesNamePossible valuesNamePossible valuesNamePossible values
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C01ActorAn entity that can behaveDescription is based on definitions from ArchiMate 2.1 - but simplified to emphasize its abstraction.Person
Organizational unit
Person:
Plan
Recruit
On-board
Manage
Evaluate
Develop
Terminate

Organizational unit:
Plan
Design
Implement
Maintain
Evaluate
Develop
Dissolve
Organizational capability
Role
Governance
Management
Stakeholder
Organization
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Requirements
Management system
Capability
Risk
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
Out-side-in
ClassBusiness actorThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
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C03AttitudeThe way a person views something or tends to behave towards it, often in an evaluative wayDescription is based on definition from Collins English Dictionary

The attribute 'Lifecycle stages' is partly based on COBIT 5
Positive
Negative
Plan
Design
Develop
Use
Evaluate
Update
Dispose
CultureManagement
Organization
Lifecycle
Capability
Risk
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
ClassDriverThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
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C04BehaviorObservable acts or reactions in response to stimuliDescription is partly based on The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language

The attribute 'Lifecycle stages' is partly based on COBIT 5
Plan
Design
Develop
Use
Evaluate
Update
Dispose
CultureManagement
Organization
Lifecycle
Capability
Risk
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
ClassDriverThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
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C05Capability<OBSOLETE>The object was changed (Johann Botha 2022015 RFC) on 20-02.2015 from an independent object to an attribute on the "Service System" object

Old defintion: "Ability to perform. Capabilities require investment of time and effort to develop, unlike resources which can be bought or otherwise easily acquired. Resources are the means that may be necessary to supply the capability"

Description is partly based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection and the Oxford Dictionary

The description assumes that capabilities must be developed, but is that always true? If you outsource it is it then still a capability, or does it then turn into a service?
2015-02-20 RFC Johann Botha 2022015
2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
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C06CaseAn instance or occurrence of a service element. Case management is most suitable for complicated, unfamiliar and exploitative processes, opposed to simple, standardized and predictable service elements that may be handled according to standard procedures.
Description is inspired by the Cynefin model proposed by David Snowden and the Standard+Case approach by Rob England

The attribute 'Lifecycle stages' is partly based on COBIT 5
Define
Create/Develop
Deploy
Evaluate
Improve
Retire
Way of workingManagement
Organization
Goals cascade
Management system
Capability
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
ClassBusiness interactionThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
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C07CompensationSomething, such as money, given or received as indemnity, payment or reparation, as for a service or loss.Description is based on The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language

The attribute 'Type' is partly based on TUDOR Literature Review on Services
Money
Benefits
Contribution
Interest
Services
OutputGovernance
Management
Stakeholder
Goals cascade
Requirements
Risk
Warranty
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
Out-side-in
ClassBusiness objectThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
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C08CompetenceThe ability to apply a skill, experience, qualification and/or knowledge to perform useful workDescription is partly based on SFIA version 5

The attribute 'Lifecycle stages' is partly based on COBIT 5
Skill
Experience
Qualification
Plan
Develop/Acquire
Deploy
Use
Evaluate
Update
Dispose
Organizational capability
Skill
Experience
Qualification
Management
Organization
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Management system
Capability
Risk
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
ClassMeaningThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
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C09ConsumablePhysical resource that is consumed during normal use. A consumable is used up as it is consumed, i.e. it will need to be replaced and is not reusableDescription is based on definition from Wikipedia

The attribute 'Lifecycle stages' is partly based on COBIT 5
Plan
Design
Build/Acquire/Create
Consume
Update
Dispose
Physical resourceManagement
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Management system
Resource
Risk
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
ClassBusiness objectThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
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C10CultureA pattern of basic assumptions, espoused values, attitudes, behaviors, artefacts and ways of doing things that characterize a person or group of peopleDescription is partly based on COBIT5 and partly based on the works of Edgar Shein. 'Ways of doing' is included to reflect the TSF view of this as the 'do' of service.

The attribute 'Type' is based on the work of Deshpande

The attribute 'Lifecycle stages' is partly based on COBIT 5
Clan
Adhocracy
Hierarchy
Market
Plan
Design
Develop
Use
Evaluate
Update
Dispose
Organizational capability
Value
Behavior
Attitude
Management
Organization
Lifecycle
Capability
Risk
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
ClassDriverThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
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C11DurablePhysical resource that do not have to be acquired frequently - in contrast to 'consumable'Description inspired by Investopedia

The attribute 'Lifecycle stages' is based on COBIT 5
Plan
Design
Build/Acquire/Create
Implement
Use/Operate
Evaluate
Update
Dispose
Physical ResourceManagement
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Management system
Resource
Risk
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
ClassBusiness objectThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
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C13ExpectationA belief about the future, which may or may not be realistic. A less advantageous result gives rise to the emotion of disappointment. Expectations may be conscious or unconscious, explicit or tacit.The description is based on Wikipedia

The attribute 'Type' is based on the work of Joseph Luft and Harrington Ingham on the Johari window in psychology. The options may also be labelled open, hidden, blind spot and unknown, but these labels from the theory seems to be less intuitive
Unknown to self - Unknown to others
Known to self - Unknown to others
Unknown to self - Known to others
Known to self - Known to others
Intent
Requirement
Governance
Management
Stakeholder
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Requirements
Risk
Warranty
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
Out-side-in
ClassAssessmentThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
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C14ExperienceAccumulation of knowledge or skill that results from direct participation in or exposure to events or activitiesDescription is partly based on The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language

The attribute 'Type' is based on Wikipedia

The attribute 'Lifecycle stages' is based on COBIT 5
Physical
Mental
Emotional
Spiritual
Religious
Social
Virtual
Plan
Develop/Acquire
Deploy
Use
Evaluate
Update
Dispose
CompetenceManagement
Organization
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Management system
Capability
Risk
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
ClassMeaningThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
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C15External factorAn external driver or constraint that facilitates or restricts the way in which a service is realized. Typical factors are political, economic, social, technological, environmental or legal drivers or constraints.Description is partly based on definitions from ArchiMate 2.1.

The attribute 'Type' is based on strategic management literature. PESTEL is used to describe macro-environmental factors, but the history of the origin of the theory seems to be unknown. 
Political
Economic
Social
Technological
Environmental
Legal
Stakeholder
Requirement
Governance
Stakeholder
Goals cascade
Requirements
Risk
Warranty
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
Out-side-in
ClassConstraintThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
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C16Financial resourceFunds seen as a resource to be used for producing goods or servicesDescription is based on Wikipedia

The attribute 'Lifecycle stages' is based on COBIT 5
Current assets
Investments
Intangible assets
Debt
Equity
Plan
Design
Acquire
Use
Evaluate
Update
Dispose
ResourceGovernance
Management
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Management system
Resource
Risk
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
ClassBusiness objectThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
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C17GoalA desired end state.Description is based on definitions from ArchiMate 2.1.

The attribute 'Type' is called lead/lag indicators or Critical Success Factors/Key Performance Indicators in other frameworks. The BSC dimension attribute is based on the work of Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Norton on performance management.
Outcome
Performance
Conformance
Principle / policy
Requirement
Strategy / plan
Governance
Management
Stakeholder
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Requirements
Management system
Risk
Warranty
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
Out-side-in
ClassGoalThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: CreatedSub-typeTarget
Actual
LevelGovernance
Management
Operation
Balanced Scorecard DimensionCustomer
Financial
Internal
Learning
Metric<metric name>Metric value<measurable value>
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C18GuidanceBody or structure of methods, techniques and tools to shape practicesOwn description

The attribute 'Lifecycle stages' is partly based on COBIT 5
Method
Technique
Standard
Best practice
Plan
Design
Create/Acquire
Adopt
Adapt
Use
Evaluate
Update
Dispose
Way of working
Strategy / plan
Management
Lifecycle
Requirements
Management system
Capability
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
Project
ClassBusiness processThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
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C19Human resourceHuman beings, seen as resources through the labor they provide and the organizations they staff. Description is based on Wikipedia. Name could also be 'Labor' to align with Adam Smith's taxonomy of resources: Land, labor and capital goods.

Labor would be good, better, perhaps, but current fashionable usage seems to prefer 'human resources'.
Plan
Recruit
On-board
Manage
Evaluate
Develop
Terminate
ResourceManagement
Organization
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Management system
Resource
Risk
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
ClassBusiness objectThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
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C20InformationData that are endowed with meaning and purpose. Data are symbols or signs, representing stimuli or signalsDescription is based on Wikipedia

The attribute 'Type' is based on the work of Robert E. Horn in his Information Mapping method

The attributes 'Value elements' and 'Lifecycle stages' are based on COBIT 5 Enabling Information
Unstructured information
Concept
Process
Procedure
Principle
Fact
Structure
Classification
Accuracy
Objectivity
Believability
Reputation
Relevancy
Completeness
Currency
Amount
Concise representation
Consistent representation
Interpretability
Understandability
Ease of manipulation
Availability
Access
Plan
Design
Build/Acquire
Use/Operate (Store, share, use)
Maintain
Archive
Destroy
ResourceGovernance
Management
Stakeholder
Organization
Lifecycle
Management system
Resource
Risk
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
Out-side-in
ClassBusiness objectThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
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C22IntentSomething that creates, motivates, and fuels change. The reason for providing or consuming service and the way it is doneDescription is partly based on definitions from ArchiMate 2.1Expectation
Requirement
Principle
Policy
Goal
Strategy
Plan
Guidance
Service provider / Service consumer
Expectation
Requirement
Principle / policy
Goal
Strategy / plan
Guidance
Stakeholder
Governance
Management
Stakeholder
Goals cascade
Requirements
Management system
Risk
Warranty
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
ClassDriverThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
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C23KnowledgeKnowledge is a fluid mix of framed experience, values, contextual information, expert insight and grounded intuition that provides an environment and framework for evaluating and incorporating new experiences and information. It originates and is applied in the minds of knowers. In organizations it often becomes embedded not only in documents and repositories but also in organizational routines, processes, practices and norms.

Knowledge is needed in order to make appropriate and effective decisions.

As such knowledge is a succinct abstraction of information and data within a specific context
Description is based on Wikipedia

The attribute 'Lifecycle stages' is based in COBIT 5

The attributes 'Tacit/explicit' and 'Individual/social' are derived from the work of by Ikujiro Nonaka et.al. on knowledge creation and knowledge conversion or embedding
There are many ways to categorize knowledge. Here is just a few:

Personal
Procedural
Propositional

Logical
Semantic
Systemic
Empirical

What
Why
When
How
Where
Who

We have to choose one :-)
Plan
Develop/Acquire
Deploy
Use
Evaluate
Update
Dispose
Capability Management
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Management system
Capability
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
ClassMeaningThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: CreatedTacit/explicitTacit
Explicit
Individual/socialIndividual
Social/structural
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C24Logical resourceSemantic resource used for symbolic interpretation, data manipulation and algorithmic processingOwn description - may be improved

The attribute 'Lifecycle stages' is based in COBIT 5
Plan
Design
Build/Acquire/Create
Implement
Use/Operate
Evaluate
Update
Dispose
ResourceManagement
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Management system
Resource
Risk
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
ClassBusiness objectThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
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C25Organizational abilityA grouping of readiness and behavior based on people, structure, competences and cultureThe name was changed (Johann Botha 2022015 RFC) on 20-02.2015 from "Organizational capability"

Description is partly based on definitions from ArchiMate 2.1

The attribute 'Lifecycle stages' is based in COBIT 5
People
Role/responsibility
Culture
Competence
Structure
Plan
Design
Build/emerge
Use
Evaluate
Update
Dispose
Organizational capability
Actor
Role
Culture
Competence
Governance
Management
Organization
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Management system
Capability
Risk
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
ClassBusiness functionThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2015-02-20 RFC Johann Botha 2022015
2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
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C28PatternDiscernible regularity in the world. Pattern management is used to deal with complex, emerging, responsive and unpredictable processes.Description is inspired by the Cynefin model proposed by David Snowden and the complex responsive processes theory by Ralph D. Stacey

The attribute 'Type' is based on the Stacey matrix (by Ralph D. Stacey)

The attribute 'Lifecycle stages' is partly based on the works of Ralph D. Stacey
Simple
Complicated
Complex
Chaotic
Discover
Choose
Act
Way of workingManagement
Organization
Goals cascade
Management system
Capability
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
ClassBusiness interactionThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
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C29Physical resourceTangible resource that has actual physical existence
Description is based on Wikipedia. The issue with the description is, that it also covers Human Resource which is a separate class in the meta model. This issue should be fixed some time.

The attribute 'Lifecycle stages' is based in COBIT 5
Land
Buildings
Equipment
Plan
Design
Build/Acquire/Create
Implement
Use/Operate
Evaluate
Update
Dispose
Resource
Consumable
Durable
Management
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Management system
Resource
Risk
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
ClassBusiness objectThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
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C30Principle/policyA principle expresses the core values of the stakeholder, whereas a policy put principles into practiceDescription inspired by COBIT5. It was proposed also to add guideline to the concept with the following justification:
"The idea of a guideline is important as it is a means of devolving responsibility for decision making to lower levels of the organization and, as such, is a means of empowering staff."
However, guideline is covered in the model by the 'Guidance' object.

The attribute 'Lifecycle stages' is based in COBIT 5
Principle
Policy
Plan
Design
Create
Implement
Use
Evaluate
Update
Dispose
Requirement
Strategy / plan
Governance
Management
Stakeholder
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Requirements
Management system
Risk
Warranty
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
Out-side-in
ClassPrincipleThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
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C31ProcedureStep-by-step instruction to achieve a desired result. Procedures are used for simple, standardized and predictable processes.Description is inspired by the Cynefin model proposed by David Snowden and the Standard+Case approach by Rob England

The attribute 'Type' is inspired by Kepner & Tregoe (Situation Appraisal, Decision analysis, Problem Analysis, Potential Problem Analysis, Potential Opportunity Analysis)

The attribute 'Lifecycle stages' is partly based on COBIT 5
Analysis
Decision
Planning
Change
Problem solving
Operational
Monitoring
. . .

Define
Create/Develop
Deploy
Use
Evaluate
Improve
Retire
Way of workingManagement
Organization
Goals cascade
Management system
Capability
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
ClassBusiness processThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
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C32ProcessSet of interrelated or interacting activities which transforms inputs into outputsDescription based on ISO/IEC 15504. Be aware that the process does not imply the concept of a workflow

The attribute 'Value elements' is partly based on COBIT 5 Enabling Processes and partly based on ITIL 2011 Continual Service Improvement. Alternatively the ISO/IEC 15504 process attributes (PA's) could be used.

The attribute 'Lifecycle stages' is partly based in COBIT 5 Enabling Processes. Alternatively the lifecycle stages from ISO/IEC 15504 ('Establish', 'Assess', 'Improve') may be used
Governance
Management
Operation
Support
Monitor
Fit for purpose
- Meet stakeholder needs
- Achieve goals
Fit for use
- Performance (Effectiveness and Efficiency)
- Compliance
- Quality
Define
Create/Develop
Deploy
Use
Evaluate
Improve
Retire
Process
Capability
Way of working
Role
Governance
Management
Organization
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Management system
Capability
Risk
Warranty
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
ClassBusiness processThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
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C33QualificationA quality, ability, attribute or accomplishment that makes a person suitable for a particular position or task; specifically, completed professional trainingDescription is partly based on Wiktionary and partly on The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language

The attribute 'Lifecycle stages' is based in COBIT 5
Plan
Develop/Acquire
Deploy
Use
Evaluate
Update
Dispose
CompetenceManagement
Organization
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Management system
Capability
Risk
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
ClassMeaningThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
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C35RequirementA statement of need or expectation.Description is partly based on definitions from ArchiMate 2.1

The attribute 'Type' is based on Wikipedia

The attribute 'Lifecycle stages' is based on traditional Requirements Management. The TOGAF requirements lifecycle may be used instead (Identify, Document, Baseline, Prioritize, Identify and resolve conflicts, Identify changes, Assess impact of changes, Implement, Update, Assess, Revise)
Functional requirements (Utility)
Quality-of-service requirements (Warranty)
Implementation requirements (Transition)
Collect
Define
Validate
Document
Manage
Intent
Expectation
External factor
Principle / policy
Goal
Governance
Management
Stakeholder
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Requirements
Management system
Risk
Warranty
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
Out-side-in
ClassRequirementThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
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C36ResourceAn entity to which a service system has access for the purpose of delivering, consuming or managing a service (Those entities may be components within the service system of the provider, or within the service system of the consumer, or any other service system that participates in the delivery, consumption or management of a service.)The definition was changed (Johann Botha 2022015 RFC) on 20-02.2015 from "A source of supply, support, or aid, that can be drawn upon when needed. Resources can be bought or otherwise easily acquired, unlike capabilities which require investment of time and effort to develop."

Description is based on The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language

The attribute 'Lifecycle stages' is partly based on COBIT 5
Plan
Design
Build/Acquire/Create
Implement
Use/Operate
Evaluate
Update
Dispose
Resource
Service provider / service consumer
Service
Human resource
Financial Resource
Physical Resource
Logical Resource
Information
Governance
Management
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Management system
Resource
Risk
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
ClassBusiness objectThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2015-02-20 RFC Johann Botha 2022015
2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
33
C37RoleThe responsibility and/or accountability for performing specific behavior, to which an actor can be assignedDescription is based on definitions from ArchiMate 2.1Internal
External
Organizational capability
Actor
Process
Stakeholder
Governance
Management
Stakeholder
Organization
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Management system
Capability
Risk
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
Out-side-in
Project
ClassBusiness roleThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
34
C37E01CustomerThe entity that defines the requirements of services in order to meet expected outcomesIndividual
Household
Corporation
Government
NGO
Plan
Acquire
Serve
Grow
Retain
Terminate
RoleGovernance
Management
Stakeholder
Organization
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Management system
Capability
Risk
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
Out-side-in
Project
EntityBusiness roleThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
35
C37E02Governing bodyGroup of individuals who, on behalf of the owner, engage Management to execute a job, subject to general control and instruction as well as the monitoring of compliance and performanceDescription is based on definition from the ISACA Taking Governance Forward initiativeRoleGovernance
Management
Stakeholder
Organization
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Management system
Capability
Risk
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
Out-side-in
Project
EntityBusiness roleThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
36
C37E03ManagementServes as a means or instrument by which the governance body achieves a result or objectiveDescription is based on definition from the ISACA Taking Governance Forward initiativeRoleGovernance
Management
Stakeholder
Organization
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Management system
Capability
Risk
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
Out-side-in
Project
EntityBusiness roleThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
37
C37E04OwnerThe individual or group that holds or possesses the rights to an enterprise, entity or assetDescription is based on definition from the ISACA Taking Governance Forward initiativeRoleGovernance
Management
Stakeholder
Organization
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Management system
Capability
Risk
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
Out-side-in
Project
EntityBusiness roleThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
38
C37E05UserThe consumer of services and the direct beneficiary of the output of servicesRoleGovernance
Management
Stakeholder
Organization
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Management system
Capability
Risk
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
Out-side-in
Project
EntityBusiness roleThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
39
C38ServiceAn aggregation of a service engagement with one or more service acts between two or more service systems creating service outcomes
The definition was changed (Chrnis 5062014 RFC) on 20-06-2014 from

"A service supports a consumer's activities and processes by facilitating an outcome that satisfies the need.

Services share the following characteristics:
• Value for consumer is created by the consumer throughout the relationship with the provider - partly in interactions between the consumer and the service provider - value is created in use, not in exchange
• Specific risks and costs are transferred from the consumer to the provider
• Services are enabled by a mix of capabilities and resources
• Intangibility. Because services are performances, rather than objects, they cannot be seen, felt, tasted, or touched the same way like goods. But services may include or use goods
• Heterogeneity. Services have the potential for high variability in the performance from many perspectives, including; provider, consumer and time
• Inseparability of production and consumption. Services are produced and consumed simultaneously
• Perishability. Services cannot be saved or inventoried"

The description is based on a variety of literature, especially the TUDOR literature review on services

Issues with the service description
• Differences between goods and services? Servicification of products and productization of services?
• Do we need to define two different entities: The concept of a service and the instances of a service?

The attribute 'Lifecycle stages' is based on ITIL 2011

The attribute 'Service Functionality Factors' is based on the Kano Model
Consumer-facing
Supporting
Strategize
Design
Transition
Operate
Improve
Service (The relation may be of the type core, enabling or enhancing)
Service provider /service consumer
Engagement
Service offering
Service interaction
Output
Resource
Governance
Management
Stakeholder
Organization
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Requirements
Management system
Capability
Resource
Risk
Warranty
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
Out-side-in
Project
ClassBusiness serviceThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2014-06-20 RFC Chrnis 5062014
2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
Service functionality ("Fit for purpose")Functionality that increases gain
Functionality that decreases loss
Service warranty ("Fit for use")Availability
Reliability
Capacity
Usability
Security
Compliance
Service cost<cost>Service functionality attributesBasic factors
Excitement factors
Performance factors
Indifferent attributes
Reversed attributes
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C40Service act (“moment of truth”) An interaction that achieves value co-creation between service systems

The definition was changed (Chrnis 5062014 RFC) on 20-06-2014 from "Service interactions describe the behavior of service collaboration between service provider and consumer and are the way in which a service operates. Service interactions include activities, events and transactions"

Description is partly based on definitions from ArchiMate 2.1 and the works of Christian Grönroos. According to Grönroos the interaction constitutes service economy where the transaction characterize the goods economy. "This is called a relationship perspective, in contrast to the exchange perspective"

The attribute 'Type' is based on the TUDOR literature review on services
Person to person
Technology enhanced person-to-person
Self-service
Multi-channel
Services on multiple devices or platforms
Location-based and context-aware services
Service interaction
Service
Relationship
Capability
Governance
Management
Stakeholder
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Risk
Warranty
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
Out-side-in
ClassBusiness interactionThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2014-06-20 RFC Chrnis 5062014
2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
41
C02Service agreementFormal or informal specification of agreed expectations, rights and obligations of the parties associated with one or more servicesOwn description

The attribute 'Lifecycle stages' is based on ITIL 2011 Service Design
Legal contract
Formal agreement
Informal agreement
Unilateral conditions
Plan
Determine requirements
Draft
Negotiate
Document
Agree
Review
Revise
Terminate
Engagement
Service offering
Governance
Management
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Requirements
Management system
Risk
Warranty
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
Out-side-in
ClassContractThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2014-06-20 RFC Chrnis 5062014
2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
42
C12Service engagement (collaboration)A formal or informal specification of agreed expectations, rights, obligations and interfaces of two or more service systems


The definition was changed (Chrnis 5062014 RFC) on 20-06-2014 from "The condition of sharing in common with others. Engagement is the ongoing point of access where a service is made available to the consumer; the service encounter or "the moment of truth"."

Description is partly based on WordNet 3.0, Farlex clipart collection, partly on definitions from ArchiMate 2.1, partly on the works of Christian Grönroos and partly on the wisdom of Jan Carlzon

The attribute 'Type' is based on the works of Christian Grönroos
Continuous
Discrete
Relationship
Agreement
Service provider / service consumer
Service
Governance
Management
Stakeholder
Requirements
Risk
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
Out-side-in
ClassBusiness interfaceThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2014-06-20 RFC Chrnis 5062014
2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
43
C41Service offerA proposal from a service provider (service system) to a service consumer (service system) for a potential future service engagement


The definition was changed (Chrnis 5062014 RFC) on 20-06-2014 from "A coherent collection of services, accompanied by a set of agreements, which is offered as a whole to consumers"

Description is partly based on definitions from ArchiMate 2.1. The ITIL concept of a Service Package is covered by the Service Offering class, which is not in line with the understanding in ITIL but fits with general service management theories such as Christian Grönroos etc.
Service offering
Service
Agreement
Governance
Management
Stakeholder
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Requirements
Management system
Risk
Warranty
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
Out-side-in
ClassProductThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2014-06-20 RFC Chrnis 5062014
2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
44
C26Service outcomeThe consequences for the stakeholders involved in a specific service act between one or more service systems

The definition was changed (Colin.Rudd 11062014 RFC) on 06-07-2014 from "The service utility, warranty, output and capability elevation valued by the involved service systems, and possibly other stakeholders, in a specific service act."

The definition was changed (Chrnis 5062014 RFC) on 20-06-2014 from "An observable result of a service. An outcome is an artefact, a significant change of state or the meeting of specified constraints. Outcome might be positive or negative, intended or unintended, directly or indirectly caused by the service. Often outcomes, unlike outputs, are not directly controllable.

The outcome may realize, or destroy, value for the service consumer, service provider and possibly other stakeholders"

Description is based on definition from ISO/IEC 15504 and principles from ITIL 2011 Service Strategy (Money spent -> value added -> value realized)

For example, the desired outcome of a new service might be for the company's market share to increase - but the service can only affect that indirectly and many other factors also affect market share so the actual contribution of the service (through its outputs) to the market share might be difficult, or impossible, to measure.
Benefit realization
Resource optimization
Risk optimization
Capability elevation
Better
Faster
Cheaper
Service provider / Service consumer
Output
State change
Insight
Governance
Management
Stakeholder
Goals cascade
Requirements
Risk
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
Out-side-in
ClassValueThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2014-07-06 RFC Colin.Rudd 11062014
2014-06-20 RFC Chrnis 5062014
2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
45
C27Service outputAn artefact associated with the delivery of a service. The output is intended to add value for the service consumer and service provider.

Outputs are measurable, generally directly controllable and intended to contribute to the desired outcome.

Outputs are designed to produce the outcomes that are required but since the outcomes may not be directly controlled by the outputs they may not be achieved even if all outputs are correct.
Description is based on definitions from ISO/IEC 15504 and COBIT5 as well as the principles from ITIL 2011 Service Strategy (Money spent -> value added -> value realized)Service provider / Service consumer
Service
Compensation
Outcome
Governance
Management
Stakeholder
Goals cascade
Requirements
Management system
Risk
Warranty
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
Out-side-in
ClassBusiness objectThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2014-06-20 RFC Chrnis 5062014
2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
46
C34Service relationshipAn aggregate of two or more roles that work together to perform collective behavior. A relationship represents a latent service engagement.Description is based on definitions from ArchiMate 2.1 and the works of Christian Grönroos

The attribute 'Type' is based on the taxonomy of Rinehart, Handfield, Atkins, and Page, 2004, Journal of Business Logistics
Non-strategic transactions
Administered relationship
Contractual relationship
Partnership
Joint venture
Alliance
Awareness
Nurture
Desire
Engage
Support
Loyalty
Advocacy
Termination
Service provider / Service consumer
Engagement
Service interaction
Governance
Management
Stakeholder
Capability
Risk
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
Out-side-in
ClassBusiness collaborationThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2014-06-20 RFC Chrnis 5062014
2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
47
C39Service system (provider, consumer, integrator etc.)A dynamic configuration of resources and intents whose purpose is to create value with other service systems through co-creationThe definition was changed (Johann Botha 2022015 RFC) on 20-02.2015 from "A dynamic configuration of intents, capabilities and resources that can create value with other service systems through co-creation."

The attribute "Service Capability" was added (Johann Botha 2022015 RFC) on 20-02.2015. Capability was formerly an indenpendent object in the meta model but was changed to an attribute of a Service System as part of the RFC.

The definition was changed (Chrnis 5062014 RFC) on 20-06-2014 from "Role that requests and consumes services / Role that creates and provides services"

Own description. Consider to combine the Service Consumer and Service Provider in one Service Actor object, leaving room for other roles in this place in the model, e.g. Service Broker or Service Aggregator

The attribute 'Life cycle' is based on Adizes organizational life cycle. An alternative could be the traditional lifecycle: Birth, Early growth, Growth, Maturity, Decline, Recovery, Death
Provider
Consumer
Integrator
Broker
Courtship
Infant
Go-go
Adolescence
Prime
Stable
Aristocracy
Early bureaucracy
Bureaucracy
Death
Relationship
Engagement
Service
Output
Outcome
Intent
Capability
Resource
Governance
Management
Stakeholder
Organization
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Management system
Capability
Resource
Risk
Warranty
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
Out-side-in
Project
ClassBusiness roleThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2015-02-20 RFC Johann Botha 2022015
2014-06-20 RFC Chrnis 5062014
2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
Service Capability (I.e. An attribute of a service system describing the potential of that service system for delivering, consuming or managing one or more services. A service capability represents a dynamic configuration of resources of the Service System. A Service System will normally possess more than one service capability.)
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C42SkillProficiency, facility, or dexterity that is acquired or developed through training or experienceDescription is based on The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language

The attribute 'Type' has been changed from Analytical, Social and Physical to the more philosophical categories: Cognitive, Perceptual, Motor and Perceptual motor

The attribute 'Lifecycle stages' is based on COBIT 5 and partly on the SFIA version 5 processes

The attribute 'Skill level' is based on SFIA version 5
Cognitive
Perceptual
Motor
Perceptual motor
Plan
Develop/Acquire
Deploy
Use
Evaluate
Update
Dispose
CompetenceManagement
Organization
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Management system
Capability
Risk
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
ClassMeaningThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: CreatedSkill levelFollow
Assist
Apply
Enable
Ensure/advise
Initiate/Influence
Set strategy, inspire, mobilize
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C43StakeholderAn individual, team or organization that has interests in, or concerns relative to, the targets, activities, capabilities, resources, deliverables or outcomes of the serviceDescription is based on definitions from ArchiMate 2.1 and ITIL 2011External factor
Intent
Role
Governance
Management
Stakeholder
Organization
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Risk
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
Out-side-in
ClassBusiness roleThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
50
C45Strategy/planA strategy is a pattern of decisions leading to one or more goals under conditions of uncertainty whereas a plan is a sequence of intended steps with timing and resources, used to achieve an objectiveDescription is based on Wikipedia

The attribute 'Lifecycle stages' is partly based on COBIT 5
Plan
Design
Create
Implement
Use
Evaluate
Update
Dispose
Intent
Goal
Guidance
Governance
Management
Stakeholder
Goals cascade
Lifecycle
Requirements
Management system
Risk
Warranty
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
Out-side-in
ClassGoalThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
51
C46Value(In this context) A principle, standard, or quality considered worthwhile or desirableDescription is based on The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language

The attribute 'Lifecycle stages' is partly based on COBIT 5
Plan
Design
Develop
Use
Evaluate
Update
Dispose
CultureManagement
Organization
Lifecycle
Capability
Risk
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
ClassDriverThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
52
C47Way of workingA manifested practiceOwn description

Alternative: 'The collection of manifest practice, based on tradition, habit, culture, best practice and the collective knowledge and experience of practitioners of the particular way of working'.

As an example, perhaps, the 'way of working' in accountancy includes the use of tools like calculators, spreadsheets and ledgers but is informed by established rules and guidelines as well as a habit of mind that involves meticulous attention to detail, an intolerance of even minor errors or deviations and a vigilance for evidence that might suggest malpractice or fraud.' - An accountant would give a much better explanation of the practice, but the idea is to show that the 'way of working' is more than just an observation of what is done, but includes, at least, all those things.
Procedure
Case-based
Pattern
Process
Guidance
Procedure
Case
Pattern
Management
Organization
Goals cascade
Management system
Capability
Compliance and controls
Outsourced
Insourced
Service provider
Service consumer
In-side-out
ClassBusiness processThe Taking Service Forward initiative (Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License)Draft2013-12-31 Christian F. Nissen: Created
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© Taking Service Forward. The Adaptive Service Model is licensed under the creative commons license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/)
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