Compilation of Emerging Tech for Covid-19
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Leveraging emerging technologies to increase regulatory capacity in the context of the global Covid-19 crisis: A stocktake of existing practices across the world
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A number of initiatives have been launched (or contemplated) by governments, the private sector, and academic institutions across the world. To take stock of these practices, an intiail database have been developed in both OECD and non-OECD countries (32 in all). More information can be found in the published blog here.

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CountryName of the applicationCategoryTechnologyDescriptionReferences
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ArgentinaTesteatePrevention and tracing of symptomsMobile/GISTesteate creates a direct information exchange channel between the authorities and the population. The initiative was carried out in collaboration with the Association of Information and Communication Technologies of Mar del Plata (ATICMA) and the Chamber of Software and Computer Services Companies of Argentina (CESSI). It updates information about the evolution of the coronavirus that can be accessed by city or neighborhoods. It also makes it possible to keep track of quarantines and offers instructions on how to act. The application provides the possibility of know updated and localized prevention measures in each region, be able to control symptoms by alerting them to the authorities, request detection tests, know case maps and obtain constant information on the coronavirus. The app can be accessed by having an email or Facebook account. At the moment, the application is not available for mass download, it will depend on the agreements with various local governments.Infobae, Virtual test on coronavirus: an app tells you how to act according to the symptoms, source: https://www.infobae.com/coronavirus/2020/03/20/test-virtual-sobre-coronavirus-una-app-te-dice-como-actuar-de-acuerdo-a-los-sintomas/
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AustraliaThe COVID-19 Gov't Mobile PlatformOther applicationMobile/GISThe federal government is looking to publish an app to allow the dissemination of COVID-19 virus information, related restrictions, and other supporting advice and directions.https://www.zdnet.com/article/australian-government-readies-covid-19-information-app/
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BelgiumProximus, Telenet and Dalberg Data InsightsPrevention and tracing of symptomsMobile/GISProximus and Telenet telecom operators in principle have agreed to share part of their databases with a private third-party Dalberg Data Insights to help public authorities to better fight the coronavirus pandemic. The details are still to be agreed pending a legal and technical analysis of the proposed project. So far it has been reported that location data and real-time tracking would be used to assess the spread and locate hotspots. They are also reportedly exploring the possibility to de-anonymize data for persons identified as being at risk by the model to be able to send them targeted medical advice via SMS. Privacy International, Belgium: Telecoms location data to be provided to third-party analytics company, source: https://privacyinternational.org/examples/3488/belgium-telecoms-location-data-be-provided-third-party-analytics-company

EN 24, Coronavirus: De Block firm says “yes” to the use of telecom data, source: https://www.en24.news/c/2020/03/coronavirus-de-block-firm-says-yes-to-the-use-of-telecom-data.html
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CanadaBlueDotMonitoring disease spreadAI/Machine LearningBlueDot is a software-as-a-service designed to track, locate and provide insights on the spread of infectious diseases. It uses big data, natural language processing, and machine learning to pull out data from hundreds of thousands of sources, including statements from official public health organizations, digital media, global airline ticketing data, livestock health reports and population demographics. It sends out alerts of unusual disease outbreaks that its AI has discovered and the risks they may pose to health care, government, business, and public health clients. In the case of COVID-19, in addition to sending out an alert, BlueDot was also able to correctly identify the cities that were highly connected to Wuhan using things like global airline ticketing data to help anticipate where the infected might be traveling. Bluedot, https://bluedot.global/

CNBC, How this Canadian start-up spotted coronavirus before everyone else knew about it,source: https://www.cnbc.com/2020/03/03/bluedot-used-artificial-intelligence-to-predict-coronavirus-spread.html
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CanadaMetrolinx Use of Presto payment cards to track patients and contactsTracing of patients and contactsOtherOn request of the Toronto Public Health, Metrolinx, the public transport agency for the Canadian province of Ontario, provided contact information associated with registered Presto payment cards used on specific trips. The request came after a 40-year-old man was diagnosed with COVID-19. The agency revealed the news on Twitter and said that compelling circumstances affecting the health and safety of individuals under the Ontario privacy act (FIPPA) permits the disclosure of personal information provided the individuals are notified. The case is one of a growing number which highlight how officials are faced with finding the balance between individual privacy and the common good amid an urgent public health crisis. Metrolinx also notified Ontario’s Information and Privacy Commissioner about the information provided to Toronto Public Health.Privacy International, Canada: Ontario public transport agency provides payment data for contact tracing, source: https://privacyinternational.org/examples/3472/canada-ontario-public-transport-agency-provides-payment-data-contact-tracing

Smart Cities World, South Korea to step-up online coronavirus tracking, source: https://www.smartcitiesworld.net/smart-cities-news/south-korea-to-step-up-online-coronavirus-tracking-5109
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ChinaThe Alipay Health CodeEnforcing containment measuresComputer visionThe Alipay Health Code, first introduced in the eastern city of Hangzhou, is a project by the local government with the help of Ant Financial, a sister company of the e-commerce giant Alibaba. People in China sign up through Ant’s popular wallet app, Alipay, and are assigned a color code — green, yellow or red — that indicates their health status. The system is already in use in 200 cities and is being rolled out nationwide. According to one analysis, as soon as a user grants the software access to personal data, it sends the person’s location, city name and an identifying code number to a server. The New York Times, As Coronavirus Surveillance Escalates, Personal Privacy Plummets, source: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/23/technology/coronavirus-surveillance-tracking-privacy.html
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ChinaFacial recognition thermometersPrevention and tracing of symptoms
Computer vision;#IoT / Big Data
Facial recognition thermometers have been installed in buses in a Chinese city in an effort to detect symptoms of the coronavirus in passengers. The smart thermometers that are capable of measuring the temperatures of commuters within one second, have been installed on buses on two routes in Guangzhou, the capital of south China’s Guangdong Province. The thermometer scans passenger’s faces at the entrance of the bus while they swipe their transportation cards and notifies the driver if an anomaly has been detected. The temperature data of riders can also be stored in real-time for tracking vehicles, drivers and passengers if needed. The Hill, Changing Amercia, China rolls out facial recognition thermometers on buses amid coronavirus outbreak, source: https://thehill.com/changing-america/well-being/prevention-cures/483669-china-rolls-out-facial-recognition-thermometers

The Hill, Changing Amercia, Chinese authorities launch app to check risk for coronavirus, source: https://thehill.com/changing-america/well-being/prevention-cures/482571-chinese-authorities-launch-app-to-check-risk-for
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ChinaTerraDroneOther applicationDronesThrough its group company Antwork, Japanese company Terra Drone is employing its UAV system to transport medical samples and quarantine supplies in China to fight the coronavirus.https://www.gpsworld.com/china-fights-coronavirus-with-delivery-drones/
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ColombiaMobile app for virus symptomsPrevention and tracing of symptomsMobile/GISColombia has launched a free Android mobile app, developed by the National Health Institute (INS), to help identify and eradicate the virus across the country. The application requests the recording of basic information, including information on participation in any mass events in the prior eight days. The app also provides safety tips, an updated map of drugstores and health institutions, and a daily control intended to identify symptoms. Some analyses showed the app has shortcomings and that the functions are not available without providing much personally identifiable information first, including full name, sex, date of birth, ethnicity, and email, with no clarity in the terms and conditions about how the information will be protected and used. Another challenge is still insufficient mobile broadband coverage and the use of low-end smartphones. Privacy International, Colombia: Coronapp fails at public information purpose, source: https://privacyinternational.org/examples/3435/colombia-coronapp-fails-public-information-purpose

Contxto, As Latam balances protests and pandemics, Colombia launches Coronapp, source: https://www.contxto.com/en/colombia/protests-coronavirus-colombia/
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CroatiaCoronavirus Croatia ("Korona Virus Hrvatska")Monitoring disease spreadMobile/GISThe interactive web portal provides regularly updated information on confirmed cases and brings the number of active cases and outcomes. Data are presented on interactive charts and a map of Croatia. It allows analysis by counties or by day. The portal collects data from all relevant health care organizations and monitors all changes related to virus monitoring by the Civil Protection Headquarters. The source of information used to create and maintain the interactive map is the Government's Official Website for timely and accurate information on coronavirus, koronavirus.hr. The data for other countries, also showed on the map, comes from Johns Hopkins University.GDI Croatia, http://gdi-online.maps.arcgis.com/apps/opsdashboard/index.html#/47451c9cab8649c49ebfad8db4f64aec

Bug magazine, Interactive card for tracking Covid-19, source: https://www.bug.hr/internet/interaktivna-karta-pracenja-zaraze-covid-19-u-hrvatskoj-14401 (https://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=hr&tl=en&u=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.bug.hr%2Finternet%2Finteraktivna-karta-pracenja-zaraze-covid-19-u-hrvatskoj-14401&sandbox=1)
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EcuadorMobile phone trackerEnforcing containment measuresMobile/GISThe Ecuadorian government has authorized tracking mobile phones via GPS satellite to ensure that citizens do not break mandatory quarantine after six violators were identifiedPrivacy International, Ecuador tracks mobile phones to enforce quarantine, source: https://privacyinternational.org/examples/3476/ecuador-tracks-mobile-phones-enforce-quarantine

https://www.ecuadortv.ec/noticias/covid-19/romo-vigilancia-epidemiologico-covid19-?
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FranceUse of drones to track the lockdownEnforcing containment measuresDronesPolice in France are using the latest drone technology, as well as helicopters, to ensure that residents are staying indoors during the lockdown to stem the spread of the coronavirus. Residents are only allowed to leave their homes for grocery shopping, to go to the pharmacy, or light exercise within a two-kilometer radius of their home. Police in Nice have already deployed drones to accompany police and serve as warning loudspeakers to enforce the coronavirus lockdown. The police drone packs a punch: the speaker delivers the power of 100 decibels (by comparison, an Airbus taking off produces 120 decibels)Rfi, French police deploy drones to enforce coronavirus restrictions, source: http://www.rfi.fr/en/france/20200322-french-police-deploy-drones-helicopters-to-enforce-coronavirus-restrictions-covivd-19-lockdown
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FranceCovidomPrevention and tracing of symptoms
AI/Machine Learning, Mobile/GIS
Covidom is an e-health application allowing suspected carriers of the SARS-CoV-2 virus or coronavirus sufferers who do not require hospitalization to benefit from medical monitoring at home. The aim is to limit travel to doctors’ surgeries and hospitals which are already overwhelmed.Rfi, App developed in record time to help monitor French Covid-19 cases, source: http://www.rfi.fr/en/france/20200327-covidom-app-developed-in-record-time-to-help-monitor-french-covid-19-cases-coronavirus-e-health
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Germany GeoHealthTracing of patients and contactsMobile/GISGeoHealth app relies partly on location data that Google already stores for its account holders. Most smartphone users have activated the tracking of their location history, so that the user's whereabouts are stored via the mobile phone's operating system or the location features of apps such as Google Maps. A person who tests positive could use the app to “donate” their location history. The data is then anonymized and stored on a central server. The data would be compared anonymously – manually and locally on their own mobile phone or computer. This way, it wouldn’t leave the device and would not be accessible to anyone else. An exact assessment of their own risk of infection would give everyone another opportunity to react deliberately and informedly to COVID-19. The app is developed through the cooperation of Hannover Medical School and company Ubilabs. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g1gYEL3difY&feature=youtu.be

NewstalkZB, German app could track people who have coronavirus, source: https://www.newstalkzb.co.nz/on-air/heather-du-plessis-allan-drive/audio/maxim-gleser-german-app-geo-health-can-warn-people-about-coronavirus/

Ubilabs, Ubilabs develops prototype for mapping Corona infection chains, source: https://ubilabs.net/en/news/ubilabs-develops-corona-mapping-prototype
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GermanyCorona-BotPrevention and tracing of symptoms
AI/Machine Learning, AI/bots
A German startup DOCYET created an application called Corona-Bot that helps to clarify symptoms typical of a SARS-CoV-2 infection. The free chatbot ask questions about symptoms and other factors to determine the probability of coronavirus infection. Ultimately the patient receives a clear risk assessment and further advice, including a telemedicine consultation with a chosen doctor. It is updated daily, following the latest scientific publications and data provided by the government’s central scientific institution, the Robert Koch Institute, and the Federal Centre for Health Education. https://www.healthcareitnews.com/news/europe/germany-benefits-digital-health-infrastructure-during-covid-19-pandemic
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Hong KongLocation tracking wristbandEnforcing containment measuresOtherIn Hong Kong, location-tracking wristbands are given to those put under quarantine.

Reuters, Taiwan's new 'electronic fence' for quarantines leads wave of virus monitoring, source: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-taiwan-surveillanc/taiwans-new-electronic-fence-for-quarantines-leads-wave-of-virus-monitoring-idUSKBN2170SK
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IcelandSidekick HealthPrevention and tracing of symptomsMobile/GISSidekick Health has built a digital platform which will be shared with everyone in Iceland who suspects they may have Covid-19. It will be used to assess them, via a call with a doctor, and then to monitor their symptoms every 12 hours and to propose next steps where necessary.
Financial Times, How we tech in the coronavirus era: health up, scooters down, source at: https://www.ft.com/content/b5f70a96-6f47-11ea-89df-41bea055720b?
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IndiaAirline data to trace lockdown measuresEnforcing containment measuresOtherIndia has begun stamping the hands of people arriving at airports in the states of Maharashtra and Karnataka to specify the date until which they must remain in quarantine. The government is also using airline and railway reservation data to track suspected infections and find hand-stamped people who had promised not to travel. Kerala authorities have used telephone call records, CCTV footage, and mobile phone GPS systems to trace contracts of COVID-19 patients, and published detailed time and date maps showing the movement of people who have tested positive.Government officials are also pulling out citizen and reservation data from airlines and the railways to track suspected infections.Reuters, Privacy fears as India hand stamps suspected coronavirus case, source: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-privacy/privacy-fears-as-india-hand-stamps-suspected-coronavirus-cases-idUSKBN21716U
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IndiaMyGov Corona HelpdeskOther applicationAI/botsCitizens in the country can text a WhatsApp bot — called MyGov Corona Helpdesk — to get instant authoritative answers to their coronavirus queries such as the symptoms of the viral disease and how they could seek help.https://techcrunch.com/2020/03/21/india-whatsapp-mygov-corona-helpdesk-bot/
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IndiaCoWinTracing of patients and contactsMobile/GISIndia is launching an app to help users check if they have been in close contact with people infected with the coronavirus. The app is called CoWin-20 and is currently being tested on both iOS and Android. It will track people locations and alert if there are near a COVID-19 infected patient.The Next Web, India is building a coronavirus tracker app, fueled by your location data, source: https://thenextweb.com/in/2020/03/25/india-is-building-a-coronavirus-tracker-app-fueled-by-your-location-data/
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IranAC19Tracing of patients and contactsMobile/GISThe mobile app designed by the Ministry of Health, called AC19, claims to be able to detect the likelihood of people having coronavirus. Once downloaded the app asks users to verify their phone number after users are prompted to give the app permission to send precise location data to the government’s servers. The app also collects data on citizens, including names, addresses, dates of birth, and track people's location in real-time. The app asks a series of YES or NO questions about the symptoms users are experiencing. Once these are answered, users click “submit” to send your details to the government for assessment. According to approximates, for the 40% of Android users in Iran who are using an older version of Android, there will be no prompt at all, meaning their location data is shared without their knowledge.Vice, Iran Launched an App That Claimed to Diagnose Coronavirus. Instead, It Collected Location Data on Millions of People, source: https://www.vice.com/en_us/article/epgkmz/iran-launched-an-app-that-claimed-to-diagnose-coronavirus-instead-it-collected-location-data-on-millions-of-people
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IsraelUse of cellphone data to track patient's contactsTracing of patients and contactsMobile/GISPrime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu of Israel has authorized the country’s internal security agency to tap into a vast and previously undisclosed trove of cellphone data to retrace the movements of people who have contracted the coronavirus and identify others who should be quarantined because their paths crossed.

It was supposed to be approved by Parliament’s Secret Services Subcommittee on Monday but the subcommittee ended its discussions after 4 p.m. — when a new Parliament was sworn in — without holding a vote.

Mr. Netanyahu then said the government would approve emergency regulations on Monday night that would allow for the use of the data for a limited period of 30 days, with the permission of the attorney general.
The Verge (2020), available at: https://www.theverge.com/2020/3/17/21183716/coronavirus-covid-19-israel-natanyahu-cellphone-data-tracking
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ItalyFacebook and mobile telecom data for trace all the contacts of an infected personTracing of patients and contactsMobile/GISA team of experts joined the government to leverage big data and technologies in the coronavirus emergency. The largest Italian telephone companies - Tim, Vodafone, Wind Tre and Fastweb - have offered, through their trade association, Asstel, anonymous data sets that aggregate the movements of their users to make contact tracing, i.e. trace all the contacts of an infected person, or other forms of monitoring. The project will involve creating a data team to write the country's policy on data and to support the government in making decisions. Reuters, EU privacy rules no obstacle to coronavirus fight; smartphone tracking a no-no, source: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-privacy-explainer/eu-privacy-rules-no-obstacle-to-coronavirus-fight-smartphone-tracking-a-no-no-idUSKBN20X1MP

Privacy International, Italy: Telcos turn over anonymised location data to aid contact tracing, source: https://privacyinternational.org/examples/3422/italy-telcos-turn-over-anonymised-location-data-aid-contact-tracing
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ItalyVodafone data to track people movement in LombardyEnforcing containment measuresMobile/GISWherever technically possible, and legally permissible, Vodafone will be willing to assist governments in developing insights based on large anonymized data sets. For example, Vodafone are already producing an aggregated and anonymous heat map for the Lombardy region in Italy to help the authorities to better understand population movements in order to help thwart the spread of COVID-19.Vodafone, Vodafone launches five-point plan to help counter the impacts of the COVID-19 outbreak, source: https://www.vodafone.com/news-and-media/vodafone-group-releases/news/vodafone-launches-five-point-plan-to-help-counter-the-impacts-of-the-covid-19-outbreak
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ItalyGhost Data instagram image recognition to force lockdown Enforcing containment measuresComputer visionGhost Data, a research group in Italy and the US, collected more than half a million Instagram posts in March, targeting regions in Italy where residents were supposed to be on lockdown. It provided those images and videos to LogoGrab, an image recognition company that can automatically identify people and places. The social media scraping is not considered as a privacy concern because researchers anonymized the data by removing profile and specific location data before analyzing it. CNET: Governments could track COVID-19 lockdowns through social media posts, Source: https://www.cnet.com/news/governments-could-track-covid-19-lockdowns-through-social-media-posts/
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MalaysiaDrones for enforcing lockdownEnforcing containment measuresDronesUnder Malaysia’s Movement Control Order (MCO), the country will use drones to monitor and control its citizens in a bid to combat the coronavirus outbreak. Malaysia’s armed forces will be running the drone program, and will also be aiding police efforts on the ground to manage the coronavirus situation. The used drones will have an ability to take “live” recordings and pictures of people who gather in groups outdoors and the authorities can take immediate action by going to the site. The drones involved are the government’s own assets as well as units borrowed from local industries so that more can be deployed to cover more areas, he added.Commercial Drone Professional, Malaysia to use drones to control public movement, source: https://www.commercialdroneprofessional.com/coronavirus-malaysia-to-use-drones-to-control-public-movement/

Malaymail, Authorities monitor MCO-compliance from the sky with drones, source: https://www.malaymail.com/news/malaysia/2020/03/24/authorities-monitor-mco-compliance-from-the-sky-with-drones/1849681
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New Zealand
JuplTracing of patients and contactsMobile/GISA local tech company developed Jupl platform can help locate people and provide alert notifications to protect them if they are entering high-risk areas. Also, with regular check-in 'are you ok?' prompts, the app can ensure that people returning to New Zealand are safe and inside their designated quarantine area.Newshub, Coronavirus: World turns to tracking tools to combat COVID-19 spread, source: https://www.newshub.co.nz/home/world/2020/03/coronavirus-world-turns-to-tracking-tools-to-combat-covid-19-spread.html
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PakistanMobile phone trackerTracing of patients and contactsMobile/GISThe initiative, led by the government’s Digital Pakistan program relies on a cell phone tracking system based on call detail records (CDR) data. The system works by first identifying locations visited by a known Covid-19 patient over the last 14 days. When the owner of phone tests positive for Covid-19, authorities use a record of their recent movements to notify owners of any other phones that recently came close to that phone of their risk of infection and advised them to self-isolate. In the absence of clarity, many concerns remain unaddressed such as criteria for selecting a person at risk. Dawn, Govt starts cell phone tracking to alert people at virus risk, source: https://www.dawn.com/news/1543301/govt-starts-cell-phone-tracking-to-alert-people-at-virus-risk
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PeruSymptom checkerPrevention and tracing of symptomsOtherThe Peruvian government set up a website for individuals to check their symptoms so they can be directed towards sources of help. The web form asks for ID number, phone, email and home address. Privacy International, Peru symptom-checker collects personal information, source: https://privacyinternational.org/examples/3514/peru-symptom-checker-collects-personal-information
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PolandHome quarantineEnforcing containment measures
Computer vision, Mobile/GIS
Sidekick Health has built a digital platform that will be shared with everyone in Iceland who suspects they may have Covid-19. It will be used to assess them, via a call with a doctor, and then to monitor their symptoms every 12 hours and to propose the next steps where necessary.The New York Times, In Europe, Tech Battle Against Coronavirus Clashes With Privacy Culture, source: https://www.nytimes.com/reuters/2020/03/26/technology/26reuters-health-coronavirus-europe-tech-poland.html?searchResultPosition=5
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RussiaFacial Recognition NetworksEnforcing containment measuresComputer visionTo enforce rules, authorities are using CCTV cameras in Moscow. The city’s widespread facial-recognition network is utilized for tracking down quarantine procedures.The Moscow Times, How Russia Is Responding to the Coronavirus: Cameras, Deportations and Skepticism, source: https://www.themoscowtimes.com/2020/03/13/how-russia-is-responding-to-the-coronavirus-cameras-deportations-and-skepticism-a69616
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SingaporeTraceTogetherTracing of patients and contactsMobile/GISThe Singaporean government introduced an app that alerts users if they’ve been in close proximity with a confirmed case of the coronavirus. The app, called TraceTogether, works by exchanging short distance Bluetooth signals with other users of the app, giving officials a database to track potential COVID-19 carriers. The app estimates the distance between users, and the duration of such encounters. Records of these encounters are stored locally, in encrypted form, on each user’s phone for 21 days (covering the incubation period of the virus). Users’ identities will be anonymized and that the app doesn’t track location, but proximity between users by using Bluetooth, not GPS or cell signals. The only information stored on government servers is provided by users confirmed to have COVID-19 who agree to share their logs. The app is being offered voluntarily, to promote the app, schools and private companies have advocated the app’s use, calling it a social responsibility, like hand washing. Privacy matters don’t elicit concern, Government surveys show more than three-quarters of Singaporeans trust the way authorities handle personal data.
https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=sg.gov.tech.bluetrace&hl=en

Los Angeles Times, Singapore says its coronavirus app helps the public. Critics say it’s government surveillance, source: https://www.latimes.com/world-nation/story/2020-03-24/coronavirus-singapore-trace-together
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South AfricaMobile app trackerTracing of patients and contactsMobile/GISThe government in collaboration with cellphone companies’ intents for tracking mobile location data. In this instance, and if someone is infected, the government would be able to see who that individual interacted with. This will work regardless of whether you have a smartphone or an older device. South African cellphone companies in principles have agreed to give the government location data to help in the fight against the coronavirus behind Covid-19. Details on regulations that will govern South Africa's national lockdown, and methods of curbing the spread of the virus, have not yet been published. Under South Africa's national state of disaster, the government has broad powers to do what it considers necessary to save lives.The South African, SA government will be tracking mobile phones to curb COVID-19, Source: https://www.thesouthafrican.com/news/government-tracking-mobile-phones-curb-covid-19/

Business Insider South Africa, South Africa will be tracking cellphones to fight the Covid-19 virus, source: https://www.thesouthafrican.com/news/government-tracking-mobile-phones-curb-covid-19/
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South KoreaMobile data for contact trackingTracing of patients and contactsMobile/GISAs Covid-19 case numbers grew, authorities launched a massive contact-tracing and testing regime to identify and then isolate infected people, even setting up drive-through testing centers. When a person tests positive, their city or district might send out an alert to people living nearby about their movements before being diagnosed. A typical alert can contain the infected person’s age and gender, and a detailed log of their movements down to the minute — in some cases traced using closed-circuit television and credit-card transactions, with the time and names of businesses they visited. In some districts, public information includes which rooms of a building the person was in, when they visited a toilet and whether or not they wore a mask. Laws passed since the country's last major disease outbreak, of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in 2015, now specifically allow authorities to publish this information.Nature, South Korea is reporting intimate details of COVID-19 cases: has it helped?, https://www.nature.com/articles/d41586-020-00740-y
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South KoreaCheckup appPrevention and tracing of symptomsMobile/GISThe app allows self-assessment to tell if the user needs to consult a nearby physician based on their symptoms, body temp, or contact with the source of infection.WB compilation of Korea's Disaster and Safety Countermeasure for COVID-19. App available at https://en.ncovcheck.com/checkup
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South KoreaNaverEnforcing containment measuresAI/botsNaver, a dominant search engine in Korea,'s artificial intelligence (AI) platform, 'Clova', provides an AI-based voice bot service that automatically calls those who are self-quarantined in Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do twice a day to check for fever and respiratory symptoms, and provides consultation results at the public health centre. The results are made available by email.WB compilation of Korea's Disaster and Safety Countermeasure for COVID-19
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South KoreaSelf Diagnosis Mobile AppPrevention and tracing of symptomsMobile/GISMandatory requirement for all travelers to Korea is to install the Self Diagnosis Mobile App and record their daily health status on the app for 14 days after arrival in Korea. The app is available in 5 different languages, Korea, English, Chinese, Japanese, French. Government authorities check whether the app is installed during the special immigration process at airports and seaports before giving clearance to enter the country. A text message is sent daily at 10 AM to remind people to enter their diagnostic information, including symptoms such as coughing, sore throat and shortness of breath. Failure to report via the app results in a phone call by quarantine officials and if no contact is made, local authorities and law enforcement will be dispatched to locate violators.South Korea Self Diagnosis Mobile App, available at http://ncov.mohw.go.kr/selfcheck/

TBS FM News, Govt Mandates Travelers From China To Download 'Self-Diagnosis' App, available at: http://tbs.seoul.kr/eFm/newsView.do?typ_800=P&idx_800=2384604&seq_800=
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SpainStop Covid-19Prevention and tracing of symptomsMobile/GISThe mobile app allows tracking the evolution of the symptoms and provides directions and tips to follow in each case. The health care system monitors a case based on the data sent by the application and, if necessary, activate the services of primary health care center or the emergency medical services. The use of the service constitutes acceptance of the terms and privacy policy.Source: http://canalsalut.gencat.cat/ca/salut-a-z/c/coronavirus-2019-ncov/stop-covid19-cat/index.html#googtrans(ca|en)
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SpainMobile app trackerTracing of patients and contactsMobile/GISGoogle, Telefónica, Ferrovial, Goggo Network, Carto, ForceManager and Mendesaltaren will work with the Community of Madrid for the development of the mobile application. The priority objective is to decongest the emergency telephone number (112), which does not stop receiving calls as the force of contagion increases. The application is being designed for the use of GPS of mobile phones to follow the movements of the user. This information allows to generate hot zones and advises on quarantine, in addition to controlling it. It allows reporting to the authorities - at a distance - symptoms of worsening of the disease. Every user of the application affected by coronavirus is monitored by public officials who call twice a day to check their health. Vozpopuli, Madrid will have the app to fight the coronavirus free from Wednesday, https://www.vozpopuli.com/economia-y-finanzas/Comunidad-Madrid-aplicacion-combatir-coronavirus_0_1336666738.html
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TaiwanTaiwan’s "electronic fence"Enforcing containment measuresMobile/GISThe system monitors phone signals to alert police and local officials if those in home quarantine move away from their address or turn off their phones. Reuters, Taiwan's new 'electronic fence' for quarantines leads wave of virus monitoring, source: https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-taiwan-surveillanc/taiwans-new-electronic-fence-for-quarantines-leads-wave-of-virus-monitoring-idUSKBN2170SK
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ThailandAoT Airports applicationTracing of patients and contactsMobile/GISThailand has rolled out a mobile app that anyone arriving at an airport must download to help monitor where they have been in the event that they test positive for the virus. Thailand's National Broadcasting and Telecommunication Commission (NBTC) provided a SIM card to every foreigner and Thai who had traveled from countries that have been designated as "high risk" for COVID-19 infections. The AoT Airports' new application had more than 7,000 downloads in its first five days. The sim card will be used together with the AoT Airports application, to help track the position of users for 14 days to verify that they remain in quarantine. The app will track the phone's location position for 14 days and alert authorities if it leaves the designated quarantine area. After 14 days, it will stop tracking and the system will delete the data immediately.Privacy International, Thailand: SIM card and app to track travellers, source: https://privacyinternational.org/examples/3489/thai-tech-startup-association-works-government-develop-questionnaire
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UKQuantifying the importance and timing of different routes of SARS-COV-2 transmissionyMonitoring disease spreadIoT / Big DataA group of scientists from the Big Data Institute at Oxford University developed mathematical research and a model on whether the epidemic can be closed. They conclude that the epidemic can be stopped if contact tracing is sufficiently fast, sufficiently efficient and happens at scale. They suggest that the best way to achieve this is by using a mobile app. https://bdi-pathogens.shinyapps.io/covid-19-transmission-routes/

https://github.com/BDI-pathogens/covid-19_instant_tracing/blob/master/Manuscript%20-%20Modelling%20instantaneous%20digital%20contact%20tracing.pdf

https://github.com/BDI-pathogens/covid-19_instant_tracing/blob/master/Manuscript%20-%20Modelling%20instantaneous%20digital%20contact%20tracing.pdf

Oxford University, IT IS POSSIBLE TO STOP THE EPIDEMIC, source: https://045.medsci.ox.ac.uk/

Big Data Institute, University of OxfordS, ustainable containment of COVID-19 using smartphones in China: Scientific and ethical underpinnings for implementation of similar approaches in other settings, source: https://int.nyt.com/data/documenthelper/6825-coronavirus-app-proposal-UK/76650ed3f249bf888f1e/optimized/full.pdf#page=1

The New York Times, Translating a Surveillance Tool into a Virus Tracker for Democracies, source: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/03/19/us/coronavirus-location-tracking.html
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UKC-19 COVID Symptom TrackerPrevention and tracing of symptomsMobile/GISThe mobile app called the C-19 COVID Symptom Tracker is looking into the progression of medical conditions by asking people to self-report their symptoms. It is developed by a startup called Zoe in partnership with researchers at Kings College Hospital in London. It’s a research app designed to bring together information that could be useful to medical professionals to better plan their responses. The data security is protected by the European Union's "General Data Protection Regulation" (GDPR). It will only be used for health research and will not be used for commercial purposes. The privacy policy is set and published.TechCrunch, Self-reporting app tracking COVID-19 symptoms in UK sees 750K downloads in 24 hours, source: https://techcrunch.com/2020/03/25/self-reporting-app-for-covid-19-symptoms-for-uk-research-sees-650k-downloads-in-24-hours/
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UKO2 shares aggregated location data to track distancing guidelinesTracing of patients and contactsMobile/GISThe O2 is providing aggregated data to the government so it could observe trends in public movements, particularly in London. The project is not designed to track individuals. Officials believe they can use anonymous mobile phone location data to analyse how Londoners have reacted to its guidance on social distancing and the new transport restrictions.Privacy International: UK: O2 shares aggregated location data with government to test compliance with distancing guidelines, source: https://privacyinternational.org/examples/3466/uk-o2-shares-aggregated-location-data-government-test-compliance-distancing

Sky News: Coronavirus: Government using mobile location data to tackle outbreak, source: https://news.sky.com/story/coronavirus-government-using-mobile-location-data-to-tackle-outbreak-11960050
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USPrivate Kit: Safe PathsTracing of patients and contactsMobile/GISPrivate Kit: Safe Paths is an MIT-led, free, open-source and privacy-first contact-tracing technology that provides individual users with information on their interaction with diagnosed COVID-19 carriers, while also empowering governments’ efforts to contain an epidemic outbreak. The application allows notifying users on crossing paths with published data of diagnosed Corona-19 patients. Using the web interface health officials redacts personally identifiable information from the location trail. Patient's redacted data is released and the app automatically notifies all people who get in contact. Healthy's users data never leaves their phones.http://safepaths.mit.edu/

MIT, Apps Gone Rogue: Maintaining Personal Privacy in an Epidemic, source: https://arxiv.org/pdf/2003.08567.pdf
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USMetabiota’s Epidemic TrackerMonitoring disease spread
AI/Natural Language Processing
Monitoring or outbreaks and infection diseases. Since January 2, 2020, Metabiota has been closely monitoring and analyzing the COVID-19 epidemic. New cases continue to be reported, indicating the epidemic is not yet contained. Metabiota is tracking and analyzing this outbreak in several ways, including through a true-to-source digital surveillance system and a global disease spread model.

Metabiota created a near-term forecasting model of disease spread, which incorporates the
current known characteristics of the virus. Our forecasting model estimates, for March 3rd, a median.

Metabiota collects and structures data from a wide variety of reporting sources to produce a dataset with the finest spatiotemporal resolution data. Currently, Metabiota is monitoring incidence across 37 countries using 39 public data sources for this outbreak, ranging from the Hong Kong Centre for Health Protection to the World Health Organization. An aggregated view of the data is available publicly through Metabiota’s Epidemic Tracker.

Metabiota created a near-term forecasting model of disease spread, which incorporates the current known characteristics of the virus. Our forecasting model estimates, for March 3rd, a median 127,000 cumulative cases within a 95% confidence window of 81,500 and 295,000 cases. We predict that the countries most at-risk of reporting new cases for the upcoming week include China, Japan, Italy, Iran, South Korea, Thailand, United States, Taiwan, Australia, and the Philippines.

Companies like BlueDot and Metabiota use a range of natural-language processing (NLP) algorithms to monitor news outlets and official health-care reports in different languages around the world, flagging whether they mention high-priority diseases, such as coronavirus, or more endemic ones, such as HIV or tuberculosis. Their predictive tools can also draw on air-travel data to assess the risk that transit hubs might see infected people either arriving or departing.
Metabiodata, Metabiota Risk Report No. 3: February 25, 2020, Monitoring and risk analytics for the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) epidemic, source: https://metabiota.com/publications#!metabiota-risk-report-no-3-monitoring-and-risk-268

MIT Technology Review, AI could help with the next pandemic—but not with this one, source: https://www.technologyreview.com/s/615351/ai-could-help-with-the-next-pandemicbut-not-with-this-one/
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USCDC forecast of coronavirus’s spreadMonitoring disease spreadAI/Machine LearningThe CDC is working on techniques to forecast the spread of the coronavirus in an effort to make more informed decisions, involving a group at Carnegie Mellon University. Last year, the group was designated one of two National Centers of Excellence for Influenza Forecasting and asked to lead the design of a community-wide forecasting process. As of lack of historical data in a pandemic situation, the application of a machine learning system is challenging as of “learning” from examples. To compensate for the lack of historical data from previous pandemics, the team is relying on older data from the current pandemic. It’s looking to incorporate data from countries that were hit earlier and will update its machine-learning models as more accurate data is retroactively posted. At the end of every week, the lab will get a report from the CDC with the most current trajectory of cases in the US, including revisions on numbers from previous weeks. The lab will then revise its models to close the gaps between the original predictions and the rolling statistics. Another consideration is the use of crowdsourcing methods which can be more resilient. Flu-testing labs are already beginning to transition to Covid-19 testing and reporting results to the CDC. The CMU lab is also reaching out to other organizations to get as much rich and accurate data as possible—like anonymized, aggregated statistics from electronic health records and purchasing patterns for anti-fever medication—to find sharper signals to train its algorithms.MIT Technology Review, This is how the CDC is trying to forecast coronavirus’s spread, source: https://www.technologyreview.com/s/615360/cdc-cmu-forecasts-coronavirus-spread/
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USUS Bigtech initiative for distance trackingTracing of patients and contactsMobile/GISThe U.S. government is in active talks with Facebook, Google and a wide array of tech companies and health experts about how they can use location data from Americans’ phones to combat the novel coronavirus. It also includes tracking whether people are keeping one another at safe distances to stem the outbreak. Public-health experts are interested in the possibility that private-sector companies could compile the data in anonymous, aggregated form. Such form could then use to map the spread of the infection. The project is in its early stages.
The Washington Post, U.S. government, tech industry discussing ways to use smartphone location data to combat coronavirus, source: https://www.washingtonpost.com/technology/2020/03/17/white-house-location-data-coronavirus/
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USCovidNearYouPrevention and tracing of symptomsMobile/GISThe service crowdsources symptoms people enter, even if they haven’t had a COVID-19 test. It is an initiative of the Boston Children’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School. It records the location of people reported symptoms and those took the Covid-19 test. It also published online the locations on the map searchable by zip number. https://covidnearyou.org/
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VietnamNCOVI mobile appPrevention and tracing of symptomsMobile/GISThe NCOVI mobile app, introduced by the Ministry of Information and Communications, allows Vietnamese citizens to declare their health status. After installing mobile phones, Vietnamese citizens are required to provide their personal information and can update their daily health status. They can also provide information to the best of their knowledge about cases suspected of having the COVID-19 in their residential areas. Data collected through the app is intended to help the nation’s health sector to identify who needs medical assistance in the fastest and most effective manner. The app also serves as an official channel for competent authorities to disseminate the COVID-19 epidemic situation as well as health recommendations to citizens. Vietnam recently announced it would issue a decree on the management of digital sharing. OpenGov Asia, Vietnam launches health app to manage COVID-19, https://www.opengovasia.com/vietnam-launches-health-app-to-manage-covid-19/
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FranceStop Covid-19
Tracing of patients and contacts
Mobile/GIS
The French government is working on mobile app that could warn users if they came into contact with a coronavirus carrier. Users would install the app on a voluntary basis. The app would only use the bluetooth technology.
https://www.reuters.com/article/us-health-coronavirus-france-apps/france-working-on-stopcovid-contact-tracing-app-ministers-say-idUSKBN21Q1D3
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AustraliaCOVID Safe
Tracing of patients and contacts
Mobile/GIS
The federal government is willing to introduce an app which would reportedly be based on TraceTogether developped in Singapore. Users would install the app on a voluntary basis. The app would use the bluetooth technology to warn users if they come into contact with a Covid carrier.
https://which-50.com/contact-tracing-australias-incoming-technology-solution-for-tracking-covid-19/
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AustriaStop Corona
Tracing of patients and contacts
Mobile/GIS
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BulgariaVirus Safe
Tracing of patients and contacts
Mobile/GIS
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Czech Republic
Mapy.cz
Tracing of patients and contacts
Mobile/GIS
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Czech Republic
eRouska
Tracing of patients and contacts
Mobile/GIS
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IcelandRakning C-19
Tracing of patients and contacts
Mobile/GIS
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Slovak Republik
Zostan Zdravy
Tracing of patients and contacts
Mobile/GIS
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Switzerland
DP-3T (Decentralized Privacy-Preserving Proximity Tracing)
Tracing of patients and contacts
Mobile/GIS
On 11 may, the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, will launch contact tracing app. The system has been developed as part of an international consortium, including EPFL and ETH Zurich in particular
https://news.epfl.ch/news/epfl-and-eth-zurich-advance-digital-contact-tracin/
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BelgiumCovid-19 Alert!
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AustraliaCon trace
Tracing of patients and contacts
Mobile/GIS
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