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Citation AuthorsYearTitleJournalVol(Issue):PagesDOIPMIDLinkFree?AbstractArticle TypeStudy TypeAnimalCropTrait (general)Trait (specific)EventCountry or StateDeclared COI, FundingFundingAnalysisFindingsVolunteerImport noteFile Link
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Aalhus, J.L., M.E.R. Dugan, K.A. Lien, I.L. Larsen, F. Costello, D.C. Roland, D.R. Best and R.D. Thacker, 2003, Effects of feeding glyphosate-tolerant canola meal on swine growth, carcass composition and meat quality. Journal of Animal Science, 81:3267, Aalhus, J.L., M.E.R. Dugan, K.A. Lien, I.L. Larsen, F. Costello, D.C. Roland, D.R. Best and R.D. Thacker2003Effects of feeding glyphosate-tolerant canola meal on swine growth, carcass composition and meat quality. Journal of Animal Science81:3267In Canada, glyphosate-tolerant (Roundup-Ready) canola (RRC) is the predominant transgenic crop, accounting for 52% of all transgenic canola seeded (Faust, 2000). The present study is the first study of the feeding value of meal from RRC and only the second study to offer an evaluation of effects of the protein introduced by glyphosate tolerance, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (Padgette et al., 1996) on swine carcasses (Cromwell et al., 2002). One hundred forty-four pigs (72 gilts and 72 barrows) were housed split sex, three to a pen, blocked by weight, and fed test diets beginning at 30 ± 3 kg. Both grower and finisher diets were fed and treatments included diets formulated with transgenic canola meal (RRC), the parental line of the transgenic canola meal (PAR), or two commercially available canola varieties of canola meal (COM1 and COM2). Grower and finisher diets were formulated according to NRC (1998) guidelines to be isocaloric and have equal ileal lysine apparent digestibilities. Pigs were fed a grower ration containing 7.5% canola meal until the pen average was 60.5 ± 4.0 kg. Pigs continued on a finisher ration (15% canola meal) until the pen average reached 108.6 ± 7.3 kg. Pigs were slaughtered using commercially simulated procedures and full-grade, carcass cut-out, and meat quality measurements were determined. Average daily gains, daily feed intakes, and feed conversion efficiencies were similar when feeding the PAR and RRC diets, but some differences from the COM diets were noted (P ≥ 0.05), particularly during the finisher phase. Postmortem pH and temperature declines were similar across diets indicating postmortem metabolism proceeded normally in carcasses from all diets. Carcass and meat quality evaluation indicated only small differences amongst dietary treatment, and no differences between the PAR and RRC diets. Collectively, results from feeding RRC meal to growing and finishing pigs were similar to those found when feeding the PAR variety and only differed marginally when compared to results from the two commercial varieties tested. journal articlefeeding study swinecanolaherbicide tolerance
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Aeschbacher, K; Messikommer, R; Meile, L; Wenk, C, 2005, Bt176 corn in poultry nutrition: Physiological characteristics and fate of recombinant plant DNA in chickens. British Poultry Science, 84:385-394, Aeschbacher, K; Messikommer, R; Meile, L; Wenk, C2005Bt176 corn in poultry nutrition: Physiological characteristics and fate of recombinant plant DNA in chickens. British Poultry Science84:385-39415782906http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15782906yesA genetically modified Bt176 corn hybrid, which contains an insecticidal protein against the European corn borer, and its conventional, nonmodified counterpart were evaluated in 4 separate trials to verify substantial equivalence in feeding value and animal performance. Thirty-six individually kept laying hens and 3 replicates of 94 broiler chickens each, assigned to 12 cages, were fed 2 different hen and broiler diets containing either 60% conventional or 60% Bt176 corn. The nutrient compositions of the 2 corn hybrids and the 2 corn diets revealed no major differences. Furthermore, metabolism and performance data revealed no significant differences between the birds that received the conventional, nonmodified corn, and those that received the modified corn diets. The detection of the genetic modification, by PCR, in feed obtained from insect-resistant Bt corn, in tissues and products from animals fed Bt corn is described. In all evaluated chicken tissues of muscle, liver, and spleen, the corn-chloroplast ivr gene fragment was amplified. It can be deduced from these findings and from other studies that the transfer of DNA fragments into the body is a normal process that takes place constantly. Nevertheless, no recombinant plant DNA fragments such as recombinant bla or cry1A(b) fragments could be found. Bt-gene specific constructs from the Bt corn were not detected in any of the poultry samples, neither in organs, meat, nor eggs.journal articlefeeding studypoultrymaizeinsect resistanceAnastasia
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Aeschbacher, K., L. Meile, R. Messikommer and C. Wenk, 2002, Influence of genetically modified maize on performance and product quality of chickens. Proceedings of the Society of Nutrition Physiology, 11:196, Aeschbacher, K., L. Meile, R. Messikommer and C. Wenk2002Influence of genetically modified maize on performance and product quality of chickens. Proceedings of the Society of Nutrition Physiology11:196journal article
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Aeschbacher, K., L. Meile, R. Messikommer and C. Wenk, 2002, Influence of genetically modified maize on performance and product quality of chickens. Proceedings of the Society of Nutritional Physiology, 11:196, Aeschbacher, K., L. Meile, R. Messikommer and C. Wenk2002Influence of genetically modified maize on performance and product quality of chickens. Proceedings of the Society of Nutritional Physiology11:196journal articlefeeding studymaizeAnastasiawas not able to find this paper
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Aeschbacher, K., L. Meile, R. Messikommer and C. Wenk. 2001. Genetically modified maize in diets for chickens and laying hens: influence on performance and product quality. Proceedings: International Symposium on Genetically Modified Crops and Co-products as Feeds for Livestock, pp 41-42, September, Nitra, Slovak Republic., Aeschbacher, K., L. Meile, R. Messikommer and C. Wenk2001Genetically modified maize in diets for chickens and laying hens: influence on performance and product quality. Proceedings: International Symposium on Genetically Modified Crops and Co-products as Feeds for Livestockpp 41-42journal articlefeeding study poultrymaizeinsect resistance
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Aeschbacher, K., R. Messikommer and C. Wenk. 2001. Physiological characteristics of Bt-176 corn in poultry and destiny of recombinant plant DNA in poultry products. Annals of Nutr. And Metab.45(Suppl. 1):376., Aeschbacher, K., R. Messikommer and C. Wenk.2001Physiological characteristics of Bt-176 corn in poultry and destiny of recombinant plant DNA in poultry products. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism45(Suppl. 1):376.journal articlefeeding study poultrymaizeinsect resistance
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Alexander, T.W., R. Sharma, E.K. Okine, W.T. Dixon, R.J. Forster, K. Stanford and T.A. McAllister. 2002. Impact of feed processing and mixed ruminal culture on the fate of recombinant EPSP synthase and endogenous canola plant DNA. FEMS Microbiology Letters 214:263-269., Alexander, T.W., R. Sharma, E.K. Okine, W.T. Dixon, R.J. Forster, K. Stanford and T.A. McAllister.2002Impact of feed processing and mixed ruminal culture on the fate of recombinant EPSP synthase and endogenous canola plant DNA. FEMS Microbiology Letters214:263-269.journal articlefeeding study sheepcanolaherbicide tolerance
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Alexander, T.W., T. Reuter, E. Okine, R. Sharma, and T.A. McAllister. 2006. Conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction assessment of the fate of transgenic DNA in sheep fed Roundup Ready rapeseed meal. Br J Nutr 96(6):997-1005., Alexander, T.W., T. Reuter, E. Okine, R. Sharma, and T.A. McAllister.2006Conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction assessment of the fate of transgenic DNA in sheep fed Roundup Ready rapeseed meal. British Journal of Nutrition96(6):997-1005.journal articlefeeding study sheepcanolaherbicide tolerance
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Alexander, T.W., T. Reuter, K. Aulrich, R. Sharma, E.K. Okine, W.T. Dixon, and T.A. McAllister. 2007. A review of the detection and fate of novel plant molecules derived from biotechnology in livestock production. Animal Feed Science and Technology 133(1-2):31-62., Alexander, T.W., T. Reuter, K. Aulrich, R. Sharma, E.K. Okine, W.T. Dixon, and T.A. McAllister.2007A review of the detection and fate of novel plant molecules derived from biotechnology in livestock production. Animal Feed Science and Technology133(1-2):31-62.journal article
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Alexander, TW; Sharma, R; Deng, MY; Whetsell, AJ; Jennings, JC; Wang, YX; Okine, E; Damgaard, D; McAllister, TA, 2004, Use of quantitative real-time and conventional PCR to assess the stability of the cp4 epsps transgene from Roundup Ready (R) canola in the intestinal, ruminal, and fecal contents of sheep. , Journal of Biotechnology, 112:255-266, Alexander, TW; Sharma, R; Deng, MY; Whetsell, AJ; Jennings, JC; Wang, YX; Okine, E; Damgaard, D; McAllister, TA2004Use of quantitative real-time and conventional PCR to assess the stability of the cp4 epsps transgene from Roundup Ready (R) canola in the intestinal, ruminal, and fecal contents of sheep. Journal of Biotechnology112:255-26610.1016/j.jbiotec.2004.04.02615313003http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15313003noThe stability of transgenic DNA encoding the synthetic cp4 epsps protein in a diet containing Roundup Ready (RR) canola meal was determined in duodenal fluid (DF) batch cultures from sheep. A real-time TaqMan PCR assay was designed to quantify the degradation of cp4 epsps DNA during incubation in DF at pH 5 or 7. The copy number of cp4 epsps DNA in the diet declined more rapidly (P < 0.05) in DF at pH 5 as compared to pH 7. The decrease was attributed mainly to microbial activity at pH 7 and perhaps to plant endogenous enzymes at pH 5. The 62-bp fragment of cp4 epsps DNA detected by real-time PCR reached a maximum of approximately 1600 copies in the aqueous phase of DF at pH 7, whereas less than 20 copies were detected during incubations in DF at pH 5. A 1363-bp sequence of cp4 epsps DNA was never detected in the aqueous fraction of DF. Additionally, genomic DNA isolated from RR canola seed was used to test the persistence of fragments of free DNA in DF at pH 3.2, 5, and 7, as well as in ruminal fluid and feces. Primers spanning the cp4 epsps DNA coding region amplified sequences ranging in size from 300 to 1363 bp. Free transgenic DNA was least stable in DF at pH 7 where fragments less than 527 bp were detected for up to 2 min and fragments as large as 1363 bp were detected for 0.5 min. This study shows that digestion of plant material and release of transgenic DNA can occur in the ovine small intestine. However, free DNA is rapidly degraded at neutral pH in DF, thus reducing the likelihood that intact transgenic DNA would be available for absorption through the Peyer's Patches in the distal ileum.journal articlegene stabilitycanolaherbicide toleranceAnastasia
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Álvarez-Alfageme F, von Burg S, Romeis J, 2011 Infestation of Transgenic Powdery Mildew-Resistant Wheat by Naturally Occurring Insect Herbivores under Different Environmental Conditions. PLoS ONE 6(7): e22690. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022690, Álvarez-Alfageme F, von Burg S, Romeis J2011Infestation of transgenic powdery mildew-resistant wheat by naturally occurring insect herbivores under different environmental conditions.10.1371/journal.pone.0022690journal articlefrom independent list
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Ames, JM, 2007, Evidence against dietary advanced glycation endproducts being a risk to human health, Molecular Nutrition and Food Research, 51(9):1085-1090, Ames, JM2007Evidence against dietary advanced glycation endproducts being a risk to human healthMolecular Nutrition and Food Research51(9):1085-109010.1002/mnfr.20060030417854004http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17854004noIn vivo, advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) are linked to various diseases, particularly those associated with diabetes. AGEs are also formed when many foods are thermally processed. The extent to which dietary AGEs are absorbed by the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and their possible role in the onset and promotion of disease are currently of considerable interest. This paper reviews information that supports the argument that dietary AGEs are not a risk to human health.journal articlereviewAnastasiathis study isn't about GM. Why reaction of dietary lysine with sugars is not a health issue.
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Anilkumar, B; Reddy, A Gopala; Kalakumar, B; Rani, M Usha; Anjaneyulu, Y; Raghunandan, T; Reddy, Y Ramana; Jyothi, K; Gopi, K S, 2010, Sero-biochemical Studies in Sheep Fed with Bt Cotton Plants, Toxicology International, 17(2):99-101, Anilkumar, B; Reddy, A Gopala; Kalakumar, B; Rani, M Usha; Anjaneyulu, Y; Raghunandan, T; Reddy, Y Ramana; Jyothi, K; Gopi, K S2010Sero-biochemical Studies in Sheep Fed with Bt Cotton PlantsToxicology International17(2):99-10110.4103/0971-6580.7268021170255http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21170255/yesAn experimental study was conducted to evaluate the toxicological effects, if any, due to feeding of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) cotton plants to sheep. A total of 32 sheep of one year of age belonging to Deccani breed were randomly divided into four groups, consisting of eight sheep in each group. Group 1 was maintained on basal diet (concentrate feed at the rate of 300 g + green fodder at the rate of 3 kg/sheep/day), group 2 on non-Bt cotton plant at the rate of 1.5 kg + green fodder at the rate of 1.5 kg + concentrate feed at the rate of 300 g/sheep/day, group 3 on Bt cotton plants (50%) at the rate of 1.5 kg + green fodder at the rate of 1.5 + concentrate feed at the rate of 300 g/sheep/day, and group 4 on Bt cotton plants ad libitum + concentrate feed at the rate of 300 g/sheep/day. All the groups of sheep were maintained for three months and various hemato-biochemical parameters were studied at monthly intervals. The activity of aspartate transaminase, gamma glutamyltransferase, and creatine kinase in sera samples, and the concentration of blood urea nitrogen and creatinine did not differ significantly among different groups at different time intervals. The histological examination of liver and kidney did not reveal any significant changes in Bt and non-Bt cotton-fed groups. In conclusion, the results of the present investigation enunciated that feeding of genetically modified (Bt) cotton plants to sheep was without detrimental effects in the biological system of sheep.journal articlefeeding studysheepcottoninsect resistanceIndianonefrom independent list32 sheep, 3 month time frame. Blood tests 30, 60, 00 days. Histopathology described but not shown; no significant differences. "In conclusion, the study did not reveal significant alterations in various sero-biochemical markers for organ damage following feeding of genetically modified cotton to sheep."Ann-Julie Rheaume (Mary Mangan on analysis paragraph)
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Apgar, G.A. T.A. Guthrie, K.S. Griswold, M.P. Martin, J.S. Radcliffe, and M. D. Lindemann. 2004.Nutritional value of a corn containing a glutamate dehydrogenase gene for growing pigs. J.Anim. Sci. 82(Suppl. 1):456-457. Abstract 912., Apgar, G.A. T.A. Guthrie, K.S. Griswold, M.P. Martin, J.S. Radcliffe, and M. D. Lindemann2004Nutritional value of a corn containing a glutamate dehydrogenase gene for growing pigs.journal articlefeeding study swinemaizeGlutamate Dehydrogenase
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Appenzeller, LM; Munley, SM; Hoban, D; Sykes, GP; Malley, LA; Delaney, B, 2008, Subchronic feeding study of herbicide-tolerant soybean DP-356Ø43-5 in Sprague-Dawley rats, Food Chemistry Toxicology, 46(6):2201-2213, Appenzeller, LM; Munley, SM; Hoban, D; Sykes, GP; Malley, LA; Delaney, B2008Subchronic feeding study of herbicide-tolerant soybean DP-356Ø43-5 in Sprague-Dawley ratsFood Chemistry Toxicology46(6):2201-221310.1016/j.fct.2008.02.01718403083http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18403083yesOptimum GAT1 soybean is a genetically modified (GM) soybean containing event DP-356Ø43-5 (356043) that was produced by integration of the coding sequences of the GAT4601 and GM-HRA proteins. In planta expression of these proteins confers tolerance to glyphosate and sulfonylurea/imidazolinone herbicides, respectively. This paper reports the results from a subchronic rat feeding study conducted with 356043 soybeans. Dehulled/defatted toasted meal and toasted ground hulls were prepared from soybeans from untreated plants (356043), herbicide-treated plants (356043+Gly/SU), non-transgenic isoline control (091), and three commercial non-transgenic reference varieties (93B86, 93B15, and 93M40). Individual diets conforming to standard certified rodent chow formulation (Purina Rodent LabDiet) 5002) were prepared with 20% meal (w/w) and 1.5% hulls (w/w). Diets were fed to young adult Sprague-Dawley rats (12/sex/group) for at least 93 days. Compared with rats fed the isoline control or conventional reference diets, no biologically-relevant, adverse effects were observed in rats fed diets containing 356043 or 356043+Gly/SU soybean with respect to body weight/gain, food consumption/efficiency, clinical signs, mortality, ophthalmology, neurobehavioral assessments (sensory response, grip strength, motor activity), clinical pathology (hematology, coagulation, serum chemistry, urinalysis), organ weights, and gross and microscopic pathology. The results from this study indicate that 356043 soybeans are as safe and nutritious as conventional non-GM soybeans.journal articlefeeding studysoybeanherbicide toleranceDP-356Ø43-5 (356043)Anastasia
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Arencibia, A; Gentinetta, E; Cuzzoni, E; Castiglione, S; Kohli, A; Vain, P; Leech, M; Christou, P; Sala, F, 1998, Molecular analysis of the genome of transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants produced via particle bombardment or intact cell electroporation, Molecular Breeding, 4:99-109, Arencibia, A; Gentinetta, E; Cuzzoni, E; Castiglione, S; Kohli, A; Vain, P; Leech, M; Christou, P; Sala, F1998Molecular analysis of the genome of transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants produced via particle bombardment or intact cell electroporationMolecular Breeding4:99-10910.1023/A:1009627409668http://www.springerlink.com/content/r16l64067353m5j2/yesIn the present work we utilised some of the most discriminative molecular tools, such as RAPD, AFLP, AFRP and RAMP, to analyse the genome of independently derived transgenic plants from three elite Italian cultivars (cv. Lido, Carnaroli and Thaibonnet) and found that two methods for direct gene transfer, namely particle bombardment and intact cell electroporation (the latter being a procedure set up in this work), result in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants that exhibit negligible genomic changes. This is in contrast with recently published results showing relevant changes in the DNA of transgenic rice plants generated through protoplasts electroporation and of transgenic poplar plants engineered through Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. Implications of these findings are discussed in the context of selecting appropriate gene transfer methodologies to produce transgenic plants expressing genes of interest while retaining their genomic integrity and, thus, their superior agronomic and/or industrial traits.journal articlericeItalyfrom independent listAnastasianot on PubMed
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Asanuma, Y; Jinkawa T, Tanaka H, Gondo T, Zaita N, Akashi R. Assays of the production of harmful substances by genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plants in accordance with regulations for evaluating the impact on biodiversity in Japan. Transgenic Res. 2011 Feb;20(1):91-7., Asanuma, Y; Jinkawa T, Tanaka H, Gondo T, Zaita N, Akashi R.2011Assays of the production of harmful substances by genetically modified oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.) plants in accordance with regulations for evaluating the impact on biodiversity in Japan.journal articlecomposition
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Ash, J; Novak, C; Scheideler, SE , 2003, The fate of genetically modified protein from Roundup Ready Soybeans in laying hens., Journal of Applied Poultry Research , 12(2):242-245, Ash, J; Novak, C; Scheideler, SE 2003The fate of genetically modified protein from Roundup Ready Soybeans in laying hens.Journal of Applied Poultry Research 12(2):242-245http://japr.fass.org/content/12/2/242yesA study was conducted to determine the extent of genetically modified (GM) protein from Roundup Ready Soybeans in tissues and eggs of laying hens. Because a breakdown of the modified portion of protein was expected due to the digestive process of the hen, an immunoassay test was run. By using a double antibody sandwich format specific for the CP4 EPSPS protein, a qualitative test was performed to determine the presence of modified proteins in various samples. Raw soybeans, soybean meal, complete diet, whole egg, egg albumen, liver, and feces from laying hens were collected from two independent commercial egg producers. Roundup Ready soybeans, soybean meal, and complete diets were determined to contain the GM proteins. Whole egg, egg albumen, liver, and feces were all negative for GM protein. In conclusion, the digestive process of the laying hen effectively broke down the GM protein from the soybean meal portion of the diet, hence no modified protein was found in the liver, egg, or feces in this brief field trial.journal articlefeeding studysoybeanherbicide toleranceProtein detection via antibody (ELISA) attempted in numerous tissues and egg. Replicates performed and duplicate samples provided to 2 outsourced testing companies."No Roundup Ready soybean GM protein was detectable in whole egg, egg albumen, liver, orexcreta tissue. These results were confirmed by two separate labs for egg protein."David S.
(Mary Mangan on analysis/finding column)
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Ash, J.A., S.E. Scheideler and C.L. Novak. 2000. The Fate of Genetically Modified Protein from Roundup Ready Soybeans in the Laying Hen. Poultry Sci. 79 (Suppl. 1):26. Abstract 111., Ash, J.A., S.E. Scheideler and C.L. Novak.2000The Fate of Genetically Modified Protein from Roundup Ready Soybeans in the Laying Hen.journal articlefeeding study poultrysoybeanherbicide tolerance
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Atkinson, H J; Johnston, K A; Robbins, M, 2004, Prima facie evidence that a phytocystatin for transgenic plant resistance to nematodes is not a toxic risk in the human diet, Journal of Nutrition, 134:431–434, Atkinson, H J; Johnston, K A; Robbins, M2004Prima facie evidence that a phytocystatin for transgenic plant resistance to nematodes is not a toxic risk in the human dietJournal of Nutrition134:431–43414747684http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14747684yesA protein-engineered rice cystatin (OcIDeltaD86) provides transgenic, partial crop resistance to plant nematodes. This study determined whether its oral uptake has adverse effects on male Sprague-Dawley rats when they are administered by oral gavage 0.1-10 mg OcIDeltaD86/kg body weight daily for 28 d. Body weight and water and food intakes were unaltered for most of the study. The only significant changes in fresh weight of nine organs were for the liver (4% decrease; P < 0.05) and the empty cecum (14% increase; P < 0.05) at the two lowest doses and the highest dose of OcIDeltaD86, respectively. No abnormalities in either organ were detected by histochemistry. There were no changes in the urine or in hematological variables measured, and blood serum revealed no dose-dependent responses for any of 17 variables measured. OcIDeltaD86 was degraded by boiling with a 50% loss of its inhibition of papain after 9.2 +/- 8.0 min. It also showed >95% loss of such inhibition after 15 s in simulated gastric fluid. The results suggest that the no effect level (NOEL) for OcIDeltaD86 is >10 mg/(kg. d). This provides a range of dietary exposure >200-2000 fold depending upon the promoter used to control its expression in potato.journal articlefeeding studypotatonematode resistanceOcIDeltaD86from independent listAnastasia
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Aulrich, K; Bohme, H; Daenicke, R; Halle, I; Flachowsky, G, 2001, Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition 1st communication: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in poultry, pig and ruminant nutrition, Archiv für Tierernaehrung (Archives of Animal Nutrition), 54:183-195, Aulrich, K; Bohme, H; Daenicke, R; Halle, I; Flachowsky, G2001Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition 1st communication: Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) corn in poultry, pig and ruminant nutritionArchiv für Tierernaehrung (Archives of Animal Nutrition)54:183-19510.1080/1745039010938197711865766http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11865766noDuring the last few years, animal nutrition has been confronted with genetically modified organisms (GMO), and their significance will increase in the future. The study presents investigations on the substantial equivalence of the transgenic Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn and the corresponding nontransgenic hybrid Cesar and parameters of nutrition physiology such as digestibility and energy content for poultry, pigs and ruminants. The results of the analysed corn samples as well as of the silage samples illustrated substantial equivalence in all investigated ingredients, such as crude nutrients, amino acids, fatty acids, minerals and non-starch polysaccharides. The results of the experiments using poultry, pigs, wethers and fattening bulls were not influenced by the genetic modification of corn. The determined values for the digestibilities and the energy contents for poultry, pigs and wethers were not affected by the used corn variety. Neither the examined parameters of the fattening experiments with bulls nor the slaughter results showed any significant differences between the bulls fed on silages made from the nontransgenic or transgenic corn.journal articlefeeding studyswine; poultry; cattlemaizeinsect resistancefrom independent listAnastasia
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Aulrich, K., I. Halle and G. Flachowsky. 1998. Inhaltsstoffe und Verdaulichkeit von Maiskörnen der Sorte Cesar und der gentechnisch veränderten Bt-hybride bei Legenhennen. Proc Einfluss von Erzeugung und Verarbeitung auf die Qualität laudwirtschaftlicher Produkte (VDLUFA) Kongreband 1998 110. VDLUFA-Kongre. 14.-18.09.1998. Gieen, 465-468. Gieen, Deutchland., Aulrich, K., I. Halle and G. Flachowsky.1998Aulrich, K., I. Halle and G. Flachowsky. 1998. Inhaltsstoffe und
Verdaulichkeit von Maiskörnen der Sorte Cesar und der gentechnisch
veränderten Bt-hybride bei Legenhennen. Proc Einfluss von Erzeugung und
Verarbeitung auf die Qualität laudwirtschaftlicher Produkte (VDLUFA)
feeding study poultrymaizeinsect resistance
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Aumaitre, A; Aulrich, K; Chesson, A; Flachowsky, G; Piva, G, 2002, New feeds from genetically modified plants: substantial equivalence, nutritional equivalence, digestibility, and safety for animals and the food chain, Livestock Production Science, 74(3):223-38, Aumaitre, A; Aulrich, K; Chesson, A; Flachowsky, G; Piva, G2002New feeds from genetically modified plants: substantial equivalence, nutritional equivalence, digestibility, and safety for animals and the food chainLivestock Production Science74(3):223-3810.1016/S0301-6226(02)00016-7http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301622602000167noThe introduction by recombinant DNA technology of new genes into major crops used by animals has raised important questions about the safety of novel feeds. The recently amended European Council Directive 2001/18/EC requires an assessment of risks for human, animals and the environment before viable seeds can be imported or the plant itself can be cultivated in Europe. In addition, the Novel Food and the Novel Food Ingredient Regulation (EC Council Directive, 1997) covers the use of non-viable products of any genetically modified (GM) plant intended for food purposes. The conceptual basis for the analysis of risks remains that of substantial equivalence. In practice, compositional analysis of key nutrients and key toxicants used to compare a GM plant with its conventional counterpart is the major source of data used to establish substantial equivalence. Although laboratory animals are used in toxicological studies of the products of introduced genes, animals are rarely fed the entire transformed plants or their by-products. Despite not being required or recommended by the existing legislation, many new products have been intensively tested with farm animals to measure effects on performance and animal health, digestibility of key nutrients, wholesomeness and feeding value. In this paper, we consider the value of such studies for establishing the safety of GM feedstuffs for the target animals and whether animal feeding studies are always necessary to establish the safety for the consumer of products of animals fed GM material. Compositional analysis has always shown the genetically modified plants to fall within the range of established values. The equivalence in digestible energy and crude protein between isogenic and transformed plants expressing a wide range of modifications (insect resistance, herbicide tolerance, or the barnase/barstar system of sterility/fertility restoration genes) also has been clearly demonstrated in different species. In none of these experiments was animal performance, whether measured as growth rate, feed efficiency and carcass merit in beef cattle, egg mass in laying hens, milk production, composition and quality in dairy cows or digestibility in rabbits, affected by feeding transformed plants compared to animals fed control or isogenic plants. Detection of chloroplasts-specific gene fragments by polymerase chain reaction showed the presence of plant DNA fragments (199 base pairs) in lymphocytes and duodenal juice of the dairy cow, and in muscle, liver, kidney and spleen of broilers. However, tDNA expressing Bt, usually found as a single copy gene, could not be detected in milk, tissues sample or eggs of livestock fed Bt maize and is probably not cause for concern.journal articlefeeding studymaizeinsect resistanceFranceAndrew Tomes
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Bakan, B; Melcion, D; Richard-Molard, D; Cahagnier, B, 2000, Fungal growth and Fusarium mycotoxin content in isogenic traditional maize and genetically modified maize grown in France and Spain, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 50(4):728–731, Bakan, B; Melcion, D; Richard-Molard, D; Cahagnier, B2000Fungal growth and Fusarium mycotoxin content in isogenic traditional maize and genetically modified maize grown in France and SpainJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry50(4):728–73110.1021/jf010825811829636http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11829636noFungi of the genus Fusarium are common fungal contaminants of maize and are also known to produce mycotoxins. Maize that has been genetically modified to express a Bt endotoxin has been used to study the effect of insect resistance on fungal infection of maize grains by Fusarium species and their related mycotoxins. Maize grain from Bt hybrids and near-isogenic traditional hybrids was collected in France and Spain from the 1999 crop, which was grown under natural conditions. According to the ergosterol level, the fungal biomass formed on Bt maize grain was 4-18 times lower than that on isogenic maize. Fumonisin B(1) grain concentrations ranged from 0.05 to 0.3 ppm for Bt maize and from 0.4 to 9 ppm for isogenic maize. Moderate to low concentrations of trichothecenes and zearalenone were measured on transgenic as well as on non-transgenic maize. Nevertheless, significant differences were obtained in certain regions. The protection of maize plants against insect damage (European corn borer and pink stem borer) through the use of Bt technology seems to be a way to reduce the contamination of maize by Fusarium species and the resultant fumonisins in maize grain grown in France and Spain.journal articletoxicitymaizeinsect resistanceFrance; Spainfrom independent listAnastasia
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Baker, J M; Hawkins, N D; Ward, J L; Lovegrove, A; Napier, J A; Shewry, P R; Beale, M H, 2006, A metabolomic study of substantial equivalence of field-grown genetically modified wheat, Plant Biotechnology Journal, 4(4):381, Baker, J M; Hawkins, N D; Ward, J L; Lovegrove, A; Napier, J A; Shewry, P R; Beale, M H2006A metabolomic study of substantial equivalence of field-grown genetically modified wheatPlant Biotechnology Journal4(4):38110.1111/j.1467-7652.2006.00197.x17177804http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17177804noThe 'substantial equivalence' of three transgenic wheats expressing additional high-molecular-weight subunit genes and the corresponding parental lines (two lines plus a null transformant) was examined using metabolite profiling of samples grown in replicate field trials on two UK sites (Rothamsted, Hertfordshire and Long Ashton, near Bristol) for 3 years. Multivariate comparison of the proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra of polar metabolites extracted with deuterated methanol-water showed a stronger influence of site and year than of genotype. Nevertheless, some separation between the transgenic and parental lines was observed, notably between the transgenic line B73-6-1 (which had the highest level of transgene expression) and its parental line L88-6. Comparison of the spectra showed that this separation resulted from increased levels of maltose and/or sucrose in this transgenic line, and that differences in free amino acids were also apparent. More detailed studies of the amino acid composition of material grown in 2000 were carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The most noticeable difference was that the samples grown at Rothamsted consistently contained larger amounts of acidic amino acids (glutamic, aspartic) and their amides (glutamine, asparagine). In addition, the related lines, L88-6 and B73-6-1, both contained larger amounts of proline and gamma-aminobutyric acid when grown at Long Ashton than at Rothamsted. The results clearly demonstrate that the environment affects the metabolome and that any differences between the control and transgenic lines are generally within the same range as the differences observed between the control lines grown on different sites and in different years.journal articlemetabolomicswheatUnited KingdomAnastasia
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Bakke-McKellep AM, M. Sanden, A. Danieli, R. Acierno, G-I Hemre, M. Maffia, and Å Krogdahl. 2008. Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr fed genetically modified soybeans and maize: histological, digestive, metabolic, and immunological investigations. Research in Veterinary Science 84, 395-408., Bakke-McKellep AM, M. Sanden, A. Danieli, R. Acierno, G-I Hemre, M. Maffia, and Å Krogdahl.2008Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) parr fed genetically modified soybeans and maize: histological, digestive, metabolic, and immunological investigations.feeding study salmonsoybeanherbicide tolerance
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Bakke-McKellep, A.M., E.O. Koppang, G. Gunnes, M. Sanden, G-I. Hemre, T. Landsverk, and A. Krogdahl. 2007. Histological, digestive, metabolic, hormonal and some immune factor responses in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., fed genetically modified soybeans. J of Fish Diseases 30:65-79., Bakke-McKellep, A.M., E.O. Koppang, G. Gunnes, M. Sanden, G-I. Hemre, T. Landsverk, and A. Krogdahl.2007Histological, digestive, metabolic, hormonal and some immune factor responses in Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., fed genetically modified soybeans.feeding study salmonsoybeanherbicide tolerance
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Barriere, Y; Verite, R; Brunschwig, P; Surault, F; Emile, J C, 2001, Feeding value of corn silage estimated with sheep and dairy cows is not altered by genetic incorporation of Bt176 resistance to Ostrinia nubilalis, Journal of Dairy Science, 84:1863-1871, Barriere, Y; Verite, R; Brunschwig, P; Surault, F; Emile, J C2001Feeding value of corn silage estimated with sheep and dairy cows is not altered by genetic incorporation of Bt176 resistance to Ostrinia nubilalisJournal of Dairy Science84:1863-187111518312http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11518312yesA genetically modified Bt176 corn hybrid (Rh208Bt)--providing control of European corn borer damage--and the conventional isogenic hybrid (Rh208)--harvested as whole plant silage--were evaluated in three separate feeding trials to verify that the in vivo feeding value was substantially equivalent among modified and conventional hybrids. In the first trial, after a week of preexperiment, two sets of six Texel sheep, housed in digestibility crates, were fed silage sources of Rh208 and Rh208Bt hybrids, and silage of three additional control varieties of low, intermediate, and high feeding value (Rh289, Adonis, and Adonis bm3) for 1 wk. Feed offered to sheep was adjusted to maintenance requirements based on metabolic body weight. Agronomic and biochemical traits were similar among the Rh208 and Rh208Bt hybrids. Organic matter digestibility (67.1 and 67.6%), crude fiber digestibility (52.9 and 54.2%), and neutral detergent fiber digestibility (50.2 and 49.0%) were not significantly different among Rh208 and Rh208Bt hybrids. In the second trial, two sets of 24 Holstein cows were fed silage from Rh208 and Rh208Bt corn hybrids for 13 wk, 9 wk after calving, and including 2 wk of preexperiment. Fat-corrected milk yield (31.3 and 31.4 kg/d), protein content (31.7 and 31.6 g/kg) and fat content (36.7 and 37.0 g/kg) in milk of dairy cows were unaffected by hybrid source. Body weight gains of cattle were not different. However, intake was significantly higher in cows fed Rh208Bt silage. In the third trial, five midlactation multiparous Holstein cows were successively fed the silage from Rh208 and Rh208Bt corn hybrids 2 or 3 wk. Data were considered only for the last week of each period. There were no significant effects on protein fractions, fatty acid composition, or coagulation properties of milk between Rh208 and Rh208Bt fed cattle. Cattle and sheep can perform equally well with a conventional or a genetically modified Bt176 corn silage.journal articlefeeding studymaizeinsect resistanceBtBt176Anastasia
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Barrière, Y., R.Vérité, P. Brunschwig, F. Surault, and J.C. Emile. 2001. Feeding value of silage maize estimated with sheep and dairy cows is not altered by genetic incorporation of Bt 176 resistance to Ostrinia nubilalis. J. Dairy Sci. 84:1863-1871., Barrière, Y., R.Vérité, P. Brunschwig, F. Surault, and J.C. Emile.2001Feeding value of silage maize estimated with sheep and dairy cows is not altered by genetic incorporation of Bt 176 resistance to Ostrinia nubilalis.feeding study sheepmaizeinsect resistance
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Barros, E; Lezar, S; Anttonen, M J; van Dijk, J P; Röhlig, R M; Kok, E J; Engel, K-H , 2010, Comparison of two GM maize varieties with a near isogenic non-GM variety using transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics, Plant Biotechnology Journal, 8(4):436-451, Barros, E; Lezar, S; Anttonen, M J; van Dijk, J P; Röhlig, R M; Kok, E J; Engel, K-H 2010Comparison of two GM maize varieties with a near isogenic non-GM variety using transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomicsPlant Biotechnology Journal8(4):436-45110.1111/j.1467-7652.2009.00487.x20132517http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20132517noThe aim of this study was to evaluate the use of four nontargeted analytical methodologies in the detection of unintended effects that could be derived during genetic manipulation of crops. Three profiling technologies were used to compare the transcriptome, proteome and metabolome of two transgenic maize lines with the respective control line. By comparing the profiles of the two transgenic lines grown in the same location over three growing seasons, we could determine the extent of environmental variation, while the comparison with the control maize line allowed the investigation of effects caused by a difference in genotype. The effect of growing conditions as an additional environmental effect was also evaluated by comparing the Bt-maize line with the control line from plants grown in three different locations in one growing season. The environment was shown to play an important effect in the protein, gene expression and metabolite levels of the maize samples tested where 5 proteins, 65 genes and 15 metabolites were found to be differentially expressed. A distinct separation between the three growing seasons was also found for all the samples grown in one location. Together, these environmental factors caused more variation in the different transcript/protein/metabolite profiles than the different genotypes.journal articlemetabolomicsmaizeinsect resistanceAnastasia
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Barros, G; Magnoli, C; Reynoso, M M; Ramirez, M L; Farnochi, M C; Torres, A; Dalcero, A; Sequeira, J; Rubinstein, C; Chulze, S, 2009, Fungal and mycotoxin contamination in Bt maize and non-Bt maize grown in Argentina, World Mycotoxin Journal, 2(1):53-60, Barros, G; Magnoli, C; Reynoso, M M; Ramirez, M L; Farnochi, M C; Torres, A; Dalcero, A; Sequeira, J; Rubinstein, C; Chulze, S2009Fungal and mycotoxin contamination in Bt maize and non-Bt maize grown in ArgentinaWorld Mycotoxin Journal2(1):53-6010.3920/WMJ2008.1029http://wageningenacademic.metapress.com/content/cm0741m1k6j400u5/noA Bt maize hybrid and its non-transgenic counterpart harvested during 2002/2003 and 2003/2004 harvest seasons from different locations within the maize-growing area in Argentina were compared for fungal and mycotoxin contamination. Fusarium species were the most prevalent on both genotypes with an isolation frequency >60% across all locations. The percentage of infection was lower in Bt maize than in non-Bt maize (P<0.05). There were no statistical differences in infection percentage due to genotype, fungicide treatment and their interactions. Fumonisins were detected in all of the samples from all locations and genotypes. Total fumonisin levels (fumonisins B1, B2 and B3) in the Bt and the non-Bt hybrid were significantly different (P<0.001), with lower toxin levels in the Bt maize in all locations but one evaluated during the two harvest season. There was no significant difference in deoxynivalenol levels between Bt and non-Bt maize. Application of the fungicide tebuconazole did not alter either the infection or the toxin levels in the Bt and non-Bt maize hybrid.journal articletoxicitymaizeinsect resistanceArgentinaAnastasianot on PubMed
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Batista, R; Martins, I; Jeno, P; Ricardo, C P; Oliveira, M M, 2007, A proteomic study to identify soya allergens--the human response to transgenic versus non-transgenic soya samples, International Archives of Allergy and Immunology, 144(1):29-38, Batista, R; Martins, I; Jeno, P; Ricardo, C P; Oliveira, M M2007A proteomic study to identify soya allergens--the human response to transgenic versus non-transgenic soya samplesInternational Archives of Allergy and Immunology144(1):29-3810.1159/00010261117496424http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17496424noBACKGROUND: In spite of being among the main foods responsible for allergic reactions worldwide, soybean (Glycine max)-derived products continue to be increasingly widespread in a variety of food products due to their well-documented health benefits. Soybean also continues to be one of the elected target crops for genetic modification. The aim of this study was to characterize the soya proteome and, specifically, IgE-reactive proteins as well as to compare the IgE response in soya-allergic individuals to genetically modified Roundup Ready soya versus its non-transgenic control. METHODS: We performed two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of protein extracts from a 5% genetically modified Roundup Ready flour sample and its non-transgenic control followed by Western blotting with plasma from 5 soya-sensitive individuals. We used peptide tandem mass spectrometry to identify soya proteins (55 protein matches), specifically IgE-binding ones, and to evaluate differences between transgenic and non-transgenic samples. RESULTS: We identified 2 new potential soybean allergens--one is maturation associated and seems to be part of the late embryogenesis abundant proteins group and the other is a cysteine proteinase inhibitor. None of the individuals tested reacted differentially to the transgenic versus non-transgenic samples under study. CONCLUSION: Soybean endogenous allergen expression does not seem to be altered after genetic modification. Proteomics should be considered a powerful tool for functional characterization of plants and for food safety assessment.journal articleallergenicitysoybeanherbicide toleranceAnastasia
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Batista, R; Nunes, B; Carmo, M; Cardoso, C, 2005, Lack of detectable allergenicity of transgenic maize and soya samples, Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 116(2):403–410, Batista, R; Nunes, B; Carmo, M; Cardoso, C2005Lack of detectable allergenicity of transgenic maize and soya samplesJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology116(2):403–41016083797http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16083797yesBACKGROUND: The safety issues regarding foods derived from genetically modified (GM) plants are central to their acceptance into the food supply. The potential allergenicity of proteins newly introduced in GM foods is a major safety concern. OBJECTIVE: We sought to monitor, in potentially sensitive human populations, the allergenicity effects of 5 GM materials obtained from sources with no allergenic potential and already under commercialization in the European Union. METHODS: We have performed skin prick tests with protein extracts prepared from transgenic maize (MON810, Bt11, T25, Bt176) and soya (Roundup Ready) samples and from nontransgenic control samples in 2 sensitive groups: children with food and inhalant allergy and individuals with asthma-rhinitis. We have also tested IgE immunoblot reactivity of sera from patients with food allergy to soya (Roundup Ready) and maize (MON810, Bt11, Bt176) samples, as well as to the pure transgenic proteins (CryIA[b] and CP4 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase). RESULTS: None of the individuals undergoing tests reacted differentially to the transgenic and nontransgenic samples under study. None of the volunteers tested presented detectable IgE antibodies against pure transgenic proteins. CONCLUSION: The transgenic products under testing seem to be safe in terms of allergenic potential. We propose postmarket testing as an important screening strategy for putative allergic sensitization to proteins introduced in transgenic plants.journal articleallergenicitymaize; soybeaninsect resistance; herbicide tolerenceAnastasia
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Batista, Rita; Saibo, Nelson; Lourenço, Tiago; Oliveira, Maria Margarida, 2008, Microarray analyses reveal that plant mutagenesis may induce more transcriptomic changes than transgene insertion., PNAS, 105(9):3640-5, Batista, Rita; Saibo, Nelson; Lourenço, Tiago; Oliveira, Maria Margarida2008Microarray analyses reveal that plant mutagenesis may induce more transcriptomic changes than transgene insertion.PNAS105(9):3640-510.1073/pnas.0707881105 18303117http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18303117/yesControversy regarding genetically modified (GM) plants and their potential impact on human health contrasts with the tacit acceptance of other plants that were also modified, but not considered as GM products (e.g., varieties raised through conventional breeding such as mutagenesis). What is beyond the phenotype of these improved plants? Should mutagenized plants be treated differently from transgenics? We have evaluated the extent of transcriptome modification occurring during rice improvement through transgenesis versus mutation breeding. We used oligonucleotide microarrays to analyze gene expression in four different pools of four types of rice plants and respective controls: (i) a gamma-irradiated stable mutant, (ii) the M1 generation of a 100-Gy gamma-irradiated plant, (iii) a stable transgenic plant obtained for production of an anticancer antibody, and (iv) the T1 generation of a transgenic plant produced aiming for abiotic stress improvement, and all of the unmodified original genotypes as controls. We found that the improvement of a plant variety through the acquisition of a new desired trait, using either mutagenesis or transgenesis, may cause stress and thus lead to an altered expression of untargeted genes. In all of the cases studied, the observed alteration was more extensive in mutagenized than in transgenic plants. We propose that the safety assessment of improved plant varieties should be carried out on a case-by-case basis and not simply restricted to foods obtained through genetic engineering.journal articletranscriptomicsriceanticancer antibody; abiotic stress improvementPortugalfrom independent listAnn-Julie Rheaume
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Baudo, María Marcela; Lyons, Rebecca; Powers, Stephen; Pastori, Gabriela M; Edwards, Keith J; Holdsworth, Michael J; Shewry, Peter R, 2006, Transgenesis has less impact on the transcriptome of wheat grain than conventional breeding., Plant Biotechnology Journal, 4(4):369-80, Baudo, María Marcela; Lyons, Rebecca; Powers, Stephen; Pastori, Gabriela M; Edwards, Keith J; Holdsworth, Michael J; Shewry, Peter R2006Transgenesis has less impact on the transcriptome of wheat grain than conventional breeding.Plant Biotechnology Journal4(4):369-8010.1111/j.1467-7652.2006.00193.x17177803http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17177803/noDetailed global gene expression profiles have been obtained for a series of transgenic and conventionally bred wheat lines expressing additional genes encoding HMW (high molecular weight) subunits of glutenin, a group of endosperm-specific seed storage proteins known to determine dough strength and therefore bread-making quality. Differences in endosperm and leaf transcriptome profiles between untransformed and derived transgenic lines were consistently extremely small, when analysing plants containing either transgenes only, or also marker genes. Differences observed in gene expression in the endosperm between conventionally bred material were much larger in comparison to differences between transgenic and untransformed lines exhibiting the same complements of gluten subunits. These results suggest that the presence of the transgenes did not significantly alter gene expression and that, at this level of investigation, transgenic plants could be considered substantially equivalent to untransformed parental lines.journal articletranscriptomicswheatenhanced gluteninUnited Kingdomfrom independent listAnn-Julie Rheaume
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Beagle, J.M., G.A. Apgar, K.L. Jones, K.E. Griswold, J.S. Radcliffe, X. Qiu, D.A. Lightfoot, and M.J. Iqbal. 2006. The digestive fate of Escherichia coli glutamate dehydrogenase deoxyribonucleic acid from transgenic corn in diets fed to weanling pigs. J. Anim. Sci. 84:597-607., Beagle, J.M., G.A. Apgar, K.L. Jones, K.E. Griswold, J.S. Radcliffe, X. Qiu, D.A. Lightfoot, and M.J. Iqbal.2006The digestive fate of Escherichia coli glutamate dehydrogenase deoxyribonucleic acid from transgenic corn in diets fed to weanling pigsfeeding study swinemaizeGlutamate Dehydrogenase
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Beagle, J.M., G.A. Apgar, K.L. Jones, K.E. Griswold, X. Qiu, and M.P. Martin. 2004. The digestive fate of the gdh A transgene in corn diets fed to weanling swine. J. Anim. Sci. 82(Suppl. 1):457. Abstract 913., Beagle, J.M., G.A. Apgar, K.L. Jones, K.E. Griswold, X. Qiu, and M.P. Martin.2004The digestive fate of the gdh A transgene in corn diets fed to weanling swine.feeding study swinemaizeGlutamate Dehydrogenase
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Beever, D.E., K. Glenn, and R.H. Phipps. 2003. A safety evaluation of genetically modified feedstuffs for livestock production; the fate of transgenic DNA and proteins. Asia-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 16(5):764-772., Beever, D.E., K. Glenn, and R.H. Phipps.2003A safety evaluation of genetically modified feedstuffs for livestock production; the fate of transgenic DNA and proteins.DNA digestion
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Benedict J; Fromme, D; Cosper, J; Correa, C; Odvody, G; Parker, R, 1998, Efficacy of Bt Corn Events MON810, Bt11 and E176 in Controlling Corn Earworm, Fall Armyworm, Sugarcane Borer and Aflatoxin, , , Benedict J; Fromme, D; Cosper, J; Correa, C; Odvody, G; Parker, R1998Efficacy of Bt Corn Events MON810, Bt11 and E176 in Controlling Corn Earworm, Fall Armyworm, Sugarcane Borer and Aflatoxinjournal articleefficacyAnastasiaBad link [http://lubbock.tamu.edu/ipm/AgWeb/r_and_d/1998/Roy%20Parker/Bt%20Corn/BtCorn.html] paper not found on PubMed or via Google
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Berberich, S A; Ream, J E; Jackson, T L; Wood, R; Stipanovic, R; Harvey, P; Patzer, S; Fuchs, R L , 1996, The composition of insect-protected cottonseed is equivalent to that of conventional cottonseed, Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 44(1):365–371, Berberich, S A; Ream, J E; Jackson, T L; Wood, R; Stipanovic, R; Harvey, P; Patzer, S; Fuchs, R L 1996The composition of insect-protected cottonseed is equivalent to that of conventional cottonseedJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry44(1):365–37110.1021/jf950304inoCotton plants have been developed that control the major lepidopteran insect pests of cotton by the stable introduction of a gene encoding an insecticidal protein from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. These plants provide season-long protection against cotton bollworm, tobacco budworm, and pink bollworm. An important component of the safety and product assessment of these lines was the comparison of the nutrient and antinutrient levels in the seed both to the parental variety and to published values for other commercial cotton varieties. Compositional equivalence confirms the appropriateness of these cotton lines for use in food and feed products. The insect-protected lines and the parental control were shown to contain levels of nutrients comparable to those of other commercial varieties. Nutrients included protein, fat, carbohydrate, moisture, ash, amino acids, and fatty acids. The levels of the antinutrients gossypol, cyclopropenoid fatty acids, and aflatoxin in the seed from the insect-protected lines were similar to or lower than the levels present in the parental variety and reported for other commercial varieties. These analyses demonstrate that seed from the insect-protected cotton lines is compositionally equivalent to and as nutritious as seed from the parental and other commercial cotton varieties.journal articlecompositioncottoninsect resistanceAnastasia
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Berger, L.L., N.D. Robbins and E.P. Stanisiewski. 2002. Effect of feeding diets containing corn grain with Roundup (event GA21 or NK603), control, or conventional varieties on steer feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 80(Suppl. 1):270. Abstract 1080., Berger, L.L., N.D. Robbins and E.P. Stanisiewski.2002Effect of feeding diets containing corn grain with Roundup (event GA21 or NK603), control, or conventional varieties on steer feedlot performance and carcass characteristics.feeding study cattlemaizeherbicide tolerance
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Berger, L.L., N.D. Robbins, J.R. Sewell, E.P. Stanisiewski, and G.F. Hartnell. 2003. Effect of feeding diets containing corn grain with corn rootworm protection (event MON863), control, or conventional varieties on steer feedlot performance and carcass characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 81(Suppl. 1):214. Abstract M150., Berger, L.L., N.D. Robbins, J.R. Sewell, E.P. Stanisiewski, and G.F. Hartnell.2003Effect of feeding diets containing corn grain with corn rootworm protection (event MON863), control, or conventional varieties on steer feedlot performance and carcass characteristics.feeding study cattlemaizeinsect resistance
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Betz F S, Hammond B G , Fuchs R L, 2000, Safety and advantages of Bacillus thuringiensis-protected plants to control insect pests., Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol., 32(2):156-173, Betz F S, Hammond B G , Fuchs R L2000Safety and advantages of Bacillus thuringiensis-protected plants to control insect pests.Regul. Toxicol. Pharmacol.32(2):156-17310.1006/rtph.2000.142611067772http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11067772noPlants modified to express insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (referred to as Bt-protected plants) provide a safe and highly effective method of insect control. Bt-protected corn, cotton, and potato were introduced into the United States in 1995/1996 and grown on a total of approximately 10 million acres in 1997, 20 million acres in 1998, and 29 million acres globally in 1999. The extremely rapid adoption of these Bt-protected crops demonstrates the outstanding grower satisfaction of the performance and value of these products. These crops provide highly effective control of major insect pests such as the European corn borer, southwestern corn borer, tobacco budworm, cotton bollworm, pink bollworm, and Colorado potato beetle and reduce reliance on conventional chemical pesticides. They have provided notably higher yields in cotton and corn. The estimated total net savings to the grower using Bt-protected cotton in the United States was approximately $92 million in 1998. Other benefits of these crops include reduced levels of the fungal toxin fumonisin in corn and the opportunity for supplemental pest control by beneficial insects due to the reduced use of broad-spectrum insecticides. Insect resistance management plans are being implemented to ensure the prolonged effectiveness of these products. Extensive testing of Bt-protected crops has been conducted which establishes the safety of these products to humans, animals, and the environment. Acute, subchronic, and chronic toxicology studies conducted over the past 40 years establish the safety of the microbial Bt products, including their expressed insecticidal (Cry) proteins, which are fully approved for marketing. Mammalian toxicology and digestive fate studies, which have been conducted with the proteins produced in the currently approved Bt-protected plant products, have confirmed that these Cry proteins are nontoxic to humans and pose no significant concern for allergenicity. Food and feed derived from Bt-protected crops which have been fully approved by regulatory agencies have been shown to be substantially equivalent to the food and feed derived from conventional crops. Nontarget organisms exposed to high levels of Cry protein are virtually unaffected, except for certain insects that are closely related to the target pests. Because the Cry protein is contained within the plant (in microgram quantities), the potential for exposure to farm workers and nontarget organisms is extremely low. The Cry proteins produced in Bt-protected crops have been shown to rapidly degrade when crop residue is incorporated into the soil. Thus the environmental impact of these crops is negligible. The human and environmental safety of Bt-protected crops is further supported by the long history of safe use for Bt microbial pesticides around the world.journal articlemeta-analysismaize, cotton, potatoinsect resistanceBtUS, EUAndrew Tomes
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Bohme H, Aulrich K, Daenicke R, Flachowsky G, 2001, Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition 2nd communication: Glufosinate tolerant sugar beets (roots and silage) and maize grains for ruminants and pigs, Archives of Animal Nutrition, 54(3):197-207, Bohme H, Aulrich K, Daenicke R, Flachowsky G2001Genetically modified feeds in animal nutrition 2nd communication: Glufosinate tolerant sugar beets (roots and silage) and maize grains for ruminants and pigsArchives of Animal Nutrition54(3):197-20711865767http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11865767noTo analyse substantial equivalence of genetically modified sugar-beets and maize, in which the glufosinate-tolerant (Pat) gene is inserted, crude nutrients, the amino acid and the fatty acid profiles as well as the composition of the NDF-fraction of maize grains were determined and compared with those of the corresponding non-transgenic cultivars. Due to the genetic manipulation differences in crude nutrient contents including sugar and starch were not detected. The amino acid profile of maize grains was analysed to be the same. Fatty acid profile and composition of cell wall constituents did not show any influences as well. Digestibility of Pat-sugar-beets and maize grains for pigs did not demonstrate meaningful differences as compared to the corresponding non-transgenic cultivars. Digestibility of sugar-beet roots and sugar-beet top silage for ruminants proved to be also in the scope of natural variance. As the digestibility of the macro nutrients remained unaffected, the Pat-gene introduction into both crops did not show an influence on the energetic feeding value. For pigs the ME-content of Pat-sugar-beets was determined to be 14.1 MJ/kg DM versus 13.7 MJ of the non-transgenic cultivars. ME-content of Pat-maize grains was 16.0 MJ/kg DM versus 15.8 MJ for controls. For ruminants the feeding value of Pat-sugar-beets was found to be 8.5 MJ NEL/kg DM or 13.2 MJ ME/kg DM, regardless of whether the Pat-gene was inserted or not. The corresponding energy values of sugar-beet top silage ranged between 5.2 and 5.5 MJ NEL/kg DM or 8.6 and 9.1 MJ ME/kg DM, with differences considered in the biological range.journal articlefeeding studyswine; cattlemaize, sugar beetsherbicide resistanceGermanyfrom independent listAndrew Tomes
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Böhme H, Rudloff E, Schöne F, Schumann W, Hüther L, Flachowsky G. 2007. Nutritional assessment of genetically modified rapeseed synthesizing high amounts of mid-chain fatty acids including production responses of growing-finishing pigs.Archives of animal nutrition 61(4):308-16. 2007., Böhme H, Rudloff E, Schöne F, Schumann W, Hüther L, Flachowsky G.2007Nutritional assessment of genetically modified rapeseed synthesizing high amounts of mid-chain fatty acids including production responses of growing-finishing pigs.compositionfrom independent list
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Böhme, H. and K. Aulrich. 1999. Inhaltsstoffe und Verdaulichkeit von transgenen Zuckerrben bzw. Krnermais im Vergleich zu den isogenen Sorten beim Schwein. (Ingredients and digestibility of transgenic sugar beets and corn in comparision to the isogenic varieties in the case of pigs). VDLUFA Conference Proceedings 1999, 111th VDLUFA Conference, 13-17 September 1999, Halle/Saale, pp. 289-292., Böhme, H. and K. Aulrich.1999Inhaltsstoffe und Verdaulichkeit von transgenen Zuckerrben bzw. Krnermais im Vergleich zu den isogenen Sorten beim Schwein. (Ingredients and digestibility of transgenic sugar beets and corn in comparision to the isogenic varieties in the case of pigs).feeding study swinesugar beetherbicide tolerance
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Böhme, H., B. Hommel, and G. Flachowsky. 2005. Nutritional assessment of silage from transgenic inulin synthesizing potatoes for pigs. J Animal and Feed Sci. 14(Suppl. 1):333-336., Böhme, H., B. Hommel, and G. Flachowsky.2005Nutritional assessment of silage from transgenic inulin synthesizing potatoes for pigs.feeding study swinemaizeGlutamate Dehydrogenase
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Bondzio, A., Stumpff, F., Schoen, J., Martens, H., Einspanier, R., (2008) Impact of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry1Ab on rumen epithelial cells (REC) - a new in vitro model for safety assessment of recombinant food compounds, Food and Chemical Toxicology (2008), doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2008.01.038, Bondzio, A., Stumpff, F., Schoen, J., Martens, H., Einspanier, R.2008Impact of Bacillus thuringiensis Toxin Cry1Ab on rumen epithelial cells (REC) - a new in vitro model for safety assessment of recombinant food compoundsinsect resistanceBt
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Borejsza-Wysocka, Ewa; Norelli, John L; Aldwinckle, Herb S; Malnoy, Mickael, 2010, Stable expression and phenotypic impact of attacin E transgene in orchard grown apple trees over a 12 year period, BMC Biotechnology, 10:41, Borejsza-Wysocka, Ewa; Norelli, John L; Aldwinckle, Herb S; Malnoy, Mickael2010Stable expression and phenotypic impact of attacin E transgene in orchard grown apple trees over a 12 year periodBMC Biotechnology10:4110.1186/1472-6750-10-4120525262http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20525262/yesTransgenic trees currently are being produced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and biolistics. The future use of transformed trees on a commercial basis depends upon thorough evaluation of the potential environmental and public health risk of the modified plants, transgene stability over a prolonged period of time and the effect of the gene on tree and fruit characteristics. We studied the stability of expression and the effect on resistance to the fire blight disease of the lytic protein gene, attacin E, in the apple cultivar 'Galaxy' grown in the field for 12 years.journal articlegene stabilityapplebacterial resistanceNew Yorkfrom independent listAnn-Julie Rheaume
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Brake DG, Evenson DP 2004 A generational study of glyphosate-tolerant soybeans on mouse fetal, postnatal, pubertal and adult testicular development. Food Chem Toxicol. 42:29-36., Brake DG, Evenson DP2004A generational study of glyphosate-tolerant soybeans on mouse fetal, postnatal, pubertal and adult testicular development.feeding studyrodentsoybeanherbicide toleranceglyphosate tolerance
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Brake DG, Thaler R, Evenson DP. 2004. Evaluation of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn on mouse testicular development by dual parameter flow cytometry. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry 52(7):2097-2102., Brake DG, Thaler R, Evenson DP2004Evaluation of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn on mouse testicular development by dual parameter flow cytometry.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry52(7):2097-2102.15053558http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15053558noThe health safety of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) corn (Zea mays L.) was studied using mouse testes as a sensitive biomonitor of potential toxic effects. Pregnant mice were fed a Bt corn or a nontransgenic (conventional) diet during gestation and lactation. After they were weaned, young male mice were maintained on the respective diets. At 8, 16, 26, 32, 63, and 87 days after birth, three male mice and an adult reference mouse were killed, the testes were surgically removed, and the percentage of germ cell populations was measured by flow cytometry. Multigenerational studies were conducted in the same manner. There were no apparent differences in percentages of testicular cell populations (haploid, diploid, and tetraploid) between the mice fed the Bt corn diet and those fed the conventional diet. Because of the high rate of cell proliferation and extensive differentiation that makes testicular germ cells highly susceptible to some toxic agents, it was concluded that the Bt corn diet had no measurable or observable effect on fetal, postnatal, pubertal, or adult testicular development. If data from this study were extrapolated to humans, Bt corn is not harmful to human reproductive development.feeding studyrodentmaizeinsect resistanceBtThis research was funded by the South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station Grant SD00891-S and is South Dakota Agricultural Experiment Station Publication Number 3354 of the journal series.independentJames Foley
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Brake, Denise G; Evenson, Donald P, 2004, A generational study of glyphosate-tolerant soybeans on mouse fetal, postnatal, pubertal and adult testicular development., Food and Chemical Toxicology, 42(1):29-36, Brake, Denise G; Evenson, Donald P2004A generational study of glyphosate-tolerant soybeans on mouse fetal, postnatal, pubertal and adult testicular development.Food and Chemical Toxicology42(1):29-3610.1016/j.fct.2003.08.00314630127http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14630127/noThe health safety of transgenic soybeans (glyphosate-tolerant or Roundup Ready) was studied using the mammalian testis (mouse model) as a sensitive biomonitor of potential toxic effects. Pregnant mice were fed a transgenic soybean or a non-transgenic (conventional) diet through gestation and lactation. After weaning, the young male mice were maintained on the respective diets. At 8, 16, 26, 32, 63 and 87 days after birth, three male mice and an adult reference mouse were killed, the testes surgically removed, and the cell populations measured by flow cytometry. Multi-generational studies were conducted in the same manner. The results showed that the transgenic foodstuffs had no effect on macromolecular synthesis or cell growth and differentiation as evidenced by no differences in the percentages of testicular cell populations (haploid, diploid, and tetraploid) between the transgenic soybean-fed mice and those fed the conventional diet. Additionally, there were no differences in litter sizes and body weights of the two groups. It was concluded that the transgenic soybean diet had no negative effect on fetal, postnatal, pubertal or adult testicular development.journal articlefeeding studyrodentssoybeanherbicide tolerenceglyphosate toleranceSouth Dakotafrom independent listAnn-Julie Rheaume
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Brake, J; Faust, M A; Stein, J, 2003, Evaluation of transgenic event Bt11 hybrid corn in broiler chickens., Poultry Science, 82(4):551-9, Brake, J; Faust, M A; Stein, J2003Evaluation of transgenic event Bt11 hybrid corn in broiler chickens.Poultry Science82(4):551-912710473http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12710473/yesA feeding study evaluated whether standard broiler diets prepared with grain derived from Syngenta Seeds NK Brand Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) Corn hybrids had any adverse effects on male or female broiler chickens. Four kinds of corn grain were used in this study: (1) grain from the Bt-expressing field corn hybrid N7070Bt, (2) grain from the N7070Bt hybrid that had been sprayed with Liberty brand herbicide (glufosinate) according to manufacturer's instructions (N7070Bt + Liberty), (3) grain from standard N7070 (non-Bt isoline of N707OBt) grain, and (4) a lot of North Carolina grown grain from the 2000 growing season (NC2000). The amino acid balance for the four lots of corn was similar relative to their crude protein content; however, the NC2000 corn had higher protein content. Diets with the higher protein NC2000 season corn were amended with a combination of sand, ground cardboard (Solka Floc), and poultry fat so that the metabolizable energy and crude protein content of the diluted diets would be similar to that of the isoline and transgenic diets. Growth of broilers was excellent with males being significantly heavier than females (2,497 g vs. 2,103 g) at 42 d of age. BW of live birds at 42 d was within 26 g for the three treatment groups fed corn that was from the same genetic background, i.e., the two Bt transgenic groups (N7070Bt, N7070Bt + Liberty), and the non-Bt N7070 isoline corn group, while BW for the NC2000 group was significantly lower by 93 g. There was no overall corn source effect on feed conversion ratio (FCR) among the isoline and transgenic corn sources to 42 d of age, but FCR was poorer for broilers consuming the commercial NC2000 corn. There was no overall effect of corn source on survivability to 42 d. Carcass analysis at 48 d demonstrated no differences in percentage carcass yield due to corn source among males and females. The transgenic N7070Bt and N7070Bt + Liberty hybrid diets supported excellent broiler chicken growth with mortality and FCR that were similar to that supported by the N7070 isoline control and better than rates from the commercial NC2000 corn without significant differences among treatment groups in carcass yield. It was clear that the transgenic corn had no deleterious or unintended effects on production traits of broiler chickens in this study.journal articlefeeding studymaizeinsect resistanceBtBt11North CarolinaAnn-Julie Rheaume
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Brake, J; Faust, M; Stein, J, 2005, Evaluation of transgenic hybrid corn (VIP3A) in broiler chickens., Poultry Science, 84(3):503-12, Brake, J; Faust, M; Stein, J2005Evaluation of transgenic hybrid corn (VIP3A) in broiler chickens.Poultry Science84(3):503-1215782922http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15782922/yesA 49-d feeding study evaluated whether standard broiler diets prepared with Syngenta Seeds VIP3A transgenic derived corn grain had any unanticipated adverse effects on male or female broiler chickens as compared with diets prepared with nontransgenic (isoline) control corn grain. Two commercial lots of grain grown in North Carolina during the 1999 (NC 1999) and 2000 (NC 2000) seasons were included for reference purposes. Broiler growth was excellent with males reaching 3466 g and females reaching 2882 g at 49 d of age. Final BW of the VIP3A, isoline, and NC 1999 corn groups were within 21.1 g, whereas the NC 2000 group was 42.4 g lower than the lowest of this group. There was no overall corn source effect on adjusted feed conversion ratio (FCR) or mortality to 49 d of age. Carcass analysis demonstrated no differences in percentage yield due to corn source among males and females other than percentage wings in females. Comprehensive clinical chemical analyses of blood taken from representative birds at 49 d of age showed no differences due to corn sources. The transgenic VIP3A hybrid diets numerically supported the most rapid broiler chicken growth, the second lowest mortality rate and best FCR, without practical differences in carcass yield. The few differences found in this study were not unique to a given corn source but instead appeared to be distributed equally across the diet groups evaluated in the study. Although it was not clear whether small differences in performance were attributable to the transgenic corn per se or were due to possible slight differences in overall composition of the formulated diets, it was clear that the transgenic corn had no deleterious effects on broiler performance and carcass yield in this study.journal articlefeeding studymaizeinsect resistanceNorth CarolinaAnn-Julie Rheaume
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Brake, J; Vlachos, D, 1998, Evaluation of transgenic event 176 "Bt" corn in broiler chickens., Poultry Science, 77(5):648-53, Brake, J; Vlachos, D1998Evaluation of transgenic event 176 "Bt" corn in broiler chickens.Poultry Science77(5):648-539603350http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9603350/yesA 38-d feeding study evaluated whether standard broiler diets prepared with transgenic Event 176-derived "Bt" corn (maize) grain had any adverse effects on male or female broiler chickens as compared to diets prepared with nontransgenic (isogenic) control corn grain. No statistically significant differences in survival or BW were observed between birds reared on mash or pelleted diets prepared with transgenic corn and similar diets prepared using control corn. Broilers raised on diets prepared from the transgenic corn exhibited significantly better feed conversion ratios and improved yield of the Pectoralis minor breast muscle. Although it is not clear whether this enhanced performance was attributable to the transgenic corn per se, or due to possible slight differences in overall composition of the formulated diets, it was clear that the transgenic corn had no deleterious effects in this study.journal articlefeeding studymaizeinsect resistanceBtBt176North CarolinaAnn-Julie Rheaume
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Bressner, G. E., Y. Hyun, E. P. Stanisiewski, G. F. Hartnell and M. Ellis. 2003. Performance comparison of growing-finishing pigs fed diets containing Corn Root Worm Protected corn (Event MON 863) or conventional corn hybrids. J. Anim. Sci. 81(Suppl. 1):207. Abstract M119., Bressner, G. E., Y. Hyun, E. P. Stanisiewski, G. F. Hartnell and M. Ellis.2003feeding study swinemaizeinsect resistance
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Bressner, G., Y. Hyun, E. Stanisiewski, G. Hartnell and M. Ellis. 2002. A comparison of swine performance when fed diets containing Roundup Ready (event NK603) or conventional corn lines. J. Anim. Sci. 80(Suppl. 2):63. Abstract 128., Bressner, G., Y. Hyun, E. Stanisiewski, G. Hartnell and M. Ellis.2002feeding study swinemaizeherbicide toleranceglyphosate resistance
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Brewster, D W; Warren, J; Hopkins, W E, 1991, Metabolism of glyphosate in Sprague-Dawley rats: tissue distribution, identification, and quantitation of glyphosate-derived materials following a single oral dose., Fundamental and Applied Toxicology, 17(1):43-51, Brewster, D W; Warren, J; Hopkins, W E1991Metabolism of glyphosate in Sprague-Dawley rats: tissue distribution, identification, and quantitation of glyphosate-derived materials following a single oral dose.Fundamental and Applied Toxicology17(1):43-5110.1016/0272-0590(91)90237-X1916078http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1916078/noFive groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally administered a mixture of [14C]- and [12C]-glyphosate (N-phosphonomethylglycine) at a dose level of 10 mg/kg body weight. The majority of radioactivity 2 hr after administration was associated with the gastrointestinal contents and small intestinal tissue. Approximately 35-40% of the administered dose was absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract, and urine and feces were equally important routes of elimination. The total body burden 7 days after administration was approximately 1% of the administered dose and was primarily associated with the bone. Total recovery for this study ranged from 95 to 102% of the administered dose. Metabolic profiles of tissues containing greater than 1% of the administered dose at various times after administration indicated that nearly 100% of the body burden of radioactivity was present as unmetabolized parent glyphosate. A minor component constituting less than 0.1% of the administered dose (less than 0.4 ppm) was observed in colon tissue from animals 2 hr after the administration of glyphosate and was also present in the GI contents of one animal 28 hr after administration of the radiolabel. The retention time for this metabolite was similar, but not identical, to the retention time for AMPA (aminomethylphosphonic acid), the major bacterial metabolite of glyphosate found in soil. Tissue extraction efficiency was always greater than 90% and stability assays indicated no significant effect of storage on either parent glyphosate or AMPA. The results from this study indicate that virtually no toxic metabolites of glyphosate were produced since there was little evidence of metabolism and essentially 100% of the body burden was parent compound with no significant persistence of material.journal articlefeeding studyrodentsMissouriAnn-Julie Rheaume
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Broll H, Zagon J, Butschke A, Leffke A, Spiegelberg A, Bohme H, Flachowsky G (2005) The fate of DNA of transgenic inulin synthesizing potatoes in pigs. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences 14:337-340, Broll H, Zagon J, Butschke A, Leffke A, Spiegelberg A, Bohme H, Flachowsky G2005
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Brouk, M., B. Cvetkovic, D. Rice, B. Smith, M. Hinds, F. Owens, and T. Sauber. 2008. Performance of lactating dairy cows fed corn as whole plant silage and grain produced from a genetically modified event DAS-59122-7 or a nontransgenic, near isoline control. J Anim. Sci, (Sectional Meeting Abstracts) 86(e-Suppl. 3):89 Abstract 276., Brouk, M., B. Cvetkovic, D. Rice, B. Smith, M. Hinds, F. Owens, and T. Sauber.2008feeding study cattlemaizeinsect resistance
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Brown PB, Wilson KA, Jonker Y, Nickson TE. 2003 Glyphosate tolerant canola meal is equivalent to the parental line in diets fed to rainbow trout. J Agric Food Chem. 51:4268-72., Brown PB, Wilson KA, Jonker Y, Nickson TE.2003
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Brown, N M; Setchell, K D, 2001, Animal models impacted by phytoestrogens in commercial chow: implications for pathways influenced by hormones., Laboratory Investigation, 81(5):735-47, Brown, N M; Setchell, K D2001Animal models impacted by phytoestrogens in commercial chow: implications for pathways influenced by hormones.Laboratory Investigation81(5):735-4711351045http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11351045/yesIt is generally not known that most commercial rodent diets are formulated with soy protein and deliver large daily doses of isoflavones to animals throughout their lifespan, including the in utero period. Here, we demonstrate that isoflavones are bioavailable and show that commercial rodent diets universally used by animal facilities lead to very high steady-state serum isoflavone concentrations in adult rats (2613 +/- 873 ng/mL) and mice (2338 +/- 531 ng/mL), exceeding the animal's endogenous estrogen level by 30,000- to 60,000-fold. We demonstrate the maternal-fetal intrauterine transfer of isoflavones in animals fed a standard Purina 5001 soy-containing diet and show that newborn rat pups have high serum isoflavones levels (540 +/- 174 ng/mL) that are maintained throughout the suckling period by passage of isoflavones into maternal milk. These findings have profound implications for all animal experiments, including multigenerational studies and studies of transgenic animals, especially if biochemical or morphological end-points are influenced by the hormonal or nonhormonal properties of phytoestrogens. These compounds have the potential to modulate genotypic and phenotypic expression in general, and therefore, all investigators should be vigilant to the phytoestrogen composition of commercial rodent diets because there is a history of potent biological effects in larger animals and in humans from high circulating isoflavone concentrations.journal articlefeeding studyrodentsOhiofrom independent listAlthough not directly about GM, this paper is crucial towards assuring GM safetyAnn-Julie Rheaume
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Brown, Paul B; Wilson, Keith A; Jonker, Yolanda; Nickson, Thomas E, 2003, Glyphosate tolerant canola meal is equivalent to the parental line in diets fed to rainbow trout., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 51(15):4268-72, Brown, Paul B; Wilson, Keith A; Jonker, Yolanda; Nickson, Thomas E2003Glyphosate tolerant canola meal is equivalent to the parental line in diets fed to rainbow trout.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry51(15):4268-7210.1021/jf034018f12848496http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12848496/noTwo separate studies were conducted to evaluate the utility of glyphosate tolerant canola (GTC) as a feed ingredient in diets fed to rainbow trout. In the first study, two forms of GTC were compared to a parental line, Westar. In the second study, one line of GTC was reevaluated to Westar. In each study, processed canola meals were incorporated at 5, 10, 15, or 20% of the dry diet and a diet containing no canola was fed for comparison. All diets were fed to triplicate groups of fish in each study. In the first study, weight gain, feed efficiency (FE), protein efficiency ratio (PER), and protein retention (PR) were not significantly different in fish fed either Westar or GT200 at any level of substitution. Fish fed GT73 exhibited a gradual reduction in weight gain, FE, and PER as the level of GTC increased. However, the only significant reduction was in weight gain of fish fed 20% GT73 as compared to fish fed 5% GT73. Because of an error in preparing samples prior to the experiment, samples GT200 and GT73 were essentially equivalent in composition. The differences were explained by differences in processing temperatures that occurred after the sample mixing error occurred. In the second study, mean weight gain, PR, and survival were not significantly different among forms of canola. FE and PER values were significantly lower in fish fed 15% Westar as compared to fish fed 10% Westar; other FE and PER values were not significantly different. On the basis of these results, GTC processed into a toasted meal and incorporated into diets for rainbow trout is equivalent to a parental line of canola.journal articlefeeding studytroutcanolaherbicide tolerenceGT200, GT73IndianaAnn-Julie Rheaume
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Bub A, Möseneder J, Wenzel G, Rechkemmer G, Briviba K. 2008. Zeaxanthin is bioavailable from genetically modified zeaxanthin-rich potatoes. European journal of nutrition 47(2):99-103. , Bub A, Möseneder J, Wenzel G, Rechkemmer G, Briviba K.2008The study was supported by a grant from the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF-0312248H). None of the authors had any conflict of interest.from independent listThis article demonstrates improved human nutrition with GM potatoes. One of the risks postulated to be associated with genetically engineered crops is that they have poorer nutrition. In this case nutrition was improved.
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Cahagnier B and Melcion D, Mycotoxines de Fusarium dans les mais-grains `a la re´colte: relation entre la pr´esence d’insectes (pyrale, s´esamie) et la teneur en mycotoxines, in Food Safety: Current Situation and Perspectives in the European Community, Proc 6th International Feed Production Conf, ed by Piva G and Masoero F, pp 237–249 (2000). Cited by Cleveland et al. 2003, Cahagnier B and Melcion D
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Caine, W.R., J.L. Aalhus, M.E.R. Dugan, K.A. Lien, I.L. Larsen, F. Costello, T.A. McAllister, K. Stanford, and R. Sharma. 2007. Growth performance, carcass characteristics and pork quality of pigs fed diets containing meal from conventional or glyphosate-tolerant canola. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 87:517-526., Caine, W.R., J.L. Aalhus, M.E.R. Dugan, K.A. Lien, I.L. Larsen, F. Costello, T.A. McAllister, K. Stanford, and R. Sharma.feeding study swinecanolaherbicide tolerance
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Calsamiglia, S., B. Hernandez, G.F. Hartnell, and R. Phipps. 2007. Effects of corn silage derived from a genetically modified variety containing two transgenes on feed intake, milk production, and composition, and the absence of detectable transgenic deoxyribonucleic acid in milk in Holstein dairy cows. J Dairy Sci 90: 4718-4723., feeding study cattlemaizeherbicide tolerance
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Calsamiglia, S., B. Hernandez, G.F. Hartnell, and R.H. Phipps. 2003. Effects of feeding corn silage produced from corn containing MON810 and GA21 genes on feed intake, milk production and composition in lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 86(Suppl. 1):62. Abstract 247., feeding study cattlemaizeherbicide tolerance
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Cao, Sishuo ; Wentao Xu, YunBo Luo, Xiaoyun He, Yanfang Yuan, Wenjun Ran, Lixing Lianga and Kunlun Huang.Metabonomics study of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis rice (T2A-1) meal in a 90-day dietary toxicity study in rats. Mol. BioSyst., 2011, DOI: 10.1039/C1MB05076A (May 19, 2011), from independent list
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Castillo, A R; Gallardo, M R; Maciel, M; Giordano, J M; Conti, G A; Gaggiotti, M C; Quaino, O; Gianni, C; Hartnell, G F, 2004, Effects of feeding rations with genetically modified whole cottonseed to lactating Holstein cows., Journal of Dairy Science, 87(6):1778-85, Castillo, A R; Gallardo, M R; Maciel, M; Giordano, J M; Conti, G A; Gaggiotti, M C; Quaino, O; Gianni, C; Hartnell, G F2004Effects of feeding rations with genetically modified whole cottonseed to lactating Holstein cows.Journal of Dairy Science87(6):1778-8510.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73333-015453492http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15453492/noTwo experiments were conducted to evaluate dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield, and milk composition from feeding rations that contained different sources of genetically modified whole cottonseed to Argentinean Holstein dairy cows. Twenty-four lactating multiparous Argentinean Holstein dairy cows were used in 2 experiments with a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design, with cows averaging 565 kg body weight and 53 d in milk at the beginning of the experiments. Treatments in Experiment 1 were: Bollgard cotton containing the cry1Ac gene, Bollgard II cotton containing cry1Ac and cry2Ab genes, Roundup Ready cotton containing the cp4 epsps gene, and a control nongenetically modified but genetically similar cottonseed. In Experiment 2, two commercial sources, a parental control line, and the transgenic cotton containing both cry1Ac and cp4 epsps genes were used as treatments. All cows received the same total mixed ration but with different whole cottonseed sources. Cottonseed was included to provide 2.50 kg per cow daily (dry matter [DM] basis) or about 10% of the total diet DM. The ingredient composition of the total mixed ration was 32% alfalfa hay, 28% corn silage, 22% corn grain, 17% soybean meal, and 2% minerals and vitamins. In addition, genomic DNA was extracted from a subset of milk samples and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction followed by Southern blot hybridization for small fragments of the cry1Ac transgene and an endogenous cotton gene, acp1. No sample was positive for transgenic or plant DNA fragments at the limits of detection for the assays following detailed data evaluation criteria. The DMI, milk yield, milk composition, body weight, and body condition score did not differ among treatments. Cottonseed from genetically modified varieties used in these studies yielded similar performance in lactating dairy cows when compared to non-transgenic control and reference cottonseed.journal articlefeeding studycattlecottoninsect resistance; herbicide tolerenceArgentinaAnn-Julie Rheaume
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Castillo, A.R., M.R. Gallardo, M. Maciel, J. M. Giordano, G.A.Conti, M.C. Gaggiotti, O. Quaino, C. Gianni, and G.F. Hartnell. 2004. Effects of feeding rations with genetically modified whole cottonseed to lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 87:1778-1785., feeding study cattlecottonherbicide tolerance; insect resistance
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Castillo, A.R., M.R. Gallardo, M. Maciel, J.M. Giordano, G.A. Conti, M.C. Gaggiotti, O. Quaino, C. Giani, and G.F. Hartnell. 2001. Effect of feeding dairy cows with cottonseeds containing BollGard® and Roundup Ready® genes or control non-transgenic cottonseeds on feed intake, milk yield and milk composition. J. Dairy Sci. 84(Suppl. 1)413. Abstract 1713., feeding study cattlecottonherbicide tolerance; insect resistance
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Castillo, A.R., M.R. Gallardo, M. Maciel, J.M. Giordano, G.A. Conti, M.C. Gaggiotti, O. Quaino, C. Gianni, and G.F. Hartnell. 2001. Effect of feeding dairy cows with either BollGard®, BollGard II®, Roundup Ready® or control cottonseeds on feed intake, milk yield and milk composition. J. Dairy Sci. 84(Suppl. 1)413. Abstract 1712., feeding study cattlecottonherbicide tolerance; insect resistance
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Catchpole, Gareth S; Beckmann, Manfred; Enot, David P; Mondhe, Madhav; Zywicki, Britta; Taylor, Janet; Hardy, Nigel; Smith, Aileen; King, Ross D; Kell, Douglas B; Fiehn, Oliver; Draper, John, 2005, Hierarchical metabolomics demonstrates substantial compositional similarity between genetically modified and conventional potato crops., PNAS, 102(40):14458-62, Catchpole, Gareth S; Beckmann, Manfred; Enot, David P; Mondhe, Madhav; Zywicki, Britta; Taylor, Janet; Hardy, Nigel; Smith, Aileen; King, Ross D; Kell, Douglas B; Fiehn, Oliver; Draper, John2005Hierarchical metabolomics demonstrates substantial compositional similarity between genetically modified and conventional potato crops.PNAS102(40):14458-6210.1073/pnas.050395510216186495http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16186495/yesThere is current debate whether genetically modified (GM) plants might contain unexpected, potentially undesirable changes in overall metabolite composition. However, appropriate analytical technology and acceptable metrics of compositional similarity require development. We describe a comprehensive comparison of total metabolites in field-grown GM and conventional potato tubers using a hierarchical approach initiating with rapid metabolome "fingerprinting" to guide more detailed profiling of metabolites where significant differences are suspected. Central to this strategy are data analysis procedures able to generate validated, reproducible metrics of comparison from complex metabolome data. We show that, apart from targeted changes, these GM potatoes in this study appear substantially equivalent to traditional cultivars.journal articlemetabolomicspotatoGermanyfrom independent listDiscussed in a GMO Pundit Post about a letter by Chris Preston to Agbioview. -- http://gmopundit.blogspot.com/2005/11/new-results-verifying-major-argument_12.htmlAnn-Julie Rheaume
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Cattaneo, Manda G; Yafuso, Christine; Schmidt, Chris; Huang, Cho-ying; Rahman, Magfurar; Olson, Carl; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Orr, Barron J; Marsh, Stuart E; Antilla, Larry; Dutilleul, Pierre; Carrière, Yves, 2006, Farm-scale evaluation of the impacts of transgenic cotton on biodiversity, pesticide use, and yield., PNAS, 103(20):7571-6, Cattaneo, Manda G; Yafuso, Christine; Schmidt, Chris; Huang, Cho-ying; Rahman, Magfurar; Olson, Carl; Ellers-Kirk, Christa; Orr, Barron J; Marsh, Stuart E; Antilla, Larry; Dutilleul, Pierre; Carrière, Yves2006Farm-scale evaluation of the impacts of transgenic cotton on biodiversity, pesticide use, and yield.PNAS103(20):7571-610.1073/pnas.0508312103 16675554http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16675554/yesHigher yields and reduced pesticide impacts are needed to mitigate the effects of agricultural intensification. A 2-year farm-scale evaluation of 81 commercial fields in Arizona show that use of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) cotton reduced insecticide use, whereas transgenic cotton with Bt protein and herbicide resistance (BtHr) did not affect herbicide use. Transgenic cotton had higher yield than nontransgenic cotton for any given number of insecticide applications. However, nontransgenic, Bt and BtHr cotton had similar yields overall, largely because higher insecticide use with nontransgenic cotton improved control of key pests. Unlike Bt and BtHr cotton, insecticides reduced the diversity of nontarget insects. Several other agronomic and ecological factors also affected biodiversity. Nevertheless, pairwise comparisons of diversity of nontarget insects in cotton fields with diversity in adjacent noncultivated sites revealed similar effects of cultivation of transgenic and nontransgenic cotton on biodiversity. The results indicate that impacts of agricultural intensification can be reduced when replacement of broad-spectrum insecticides by narrow-spectrum Bt crops does not reduce control of pests not affected by Bt crops.journal articlebiodiversity; pesticide use; yieldcottoninsect resistance; herbicide toleranceArizonaAnn-Julie Rheaume
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Chainark, P., S. Satoh, I. Hirono, T. Aoki, and M. Endo. 2008. Availability of genetically modified feed ingredient: investigations of ingested foreign DNA in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fisheries science 74:380-390., feeding study troutsoybeanherbicide tolerance
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Chainark, P., S. Satoh, T. Hino, V. Kiron, I. Hirono, and T. Aoki. 2006. Availability of genetically modified soybean meal in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss diets. Fisheries Science 72:1072-1078., feeding study troutsoybeanherbicide tolerance
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Chambers, Philip A; Duggan, Paula S; Heritage, John; Forbes, J Michael, 2002, The fate of antibiotic resistance marker genes in transgenic plant feed material fed to chickens., Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 49(1):161-4, Chambers, Philip A; Duggan, Paula S; Heritage, John; Forbes, J Michael2002The fate of antibiotic resistance marker genes in transgenic plant feed material fed to chickens.Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy49(1):161-410.1093/jac/49.1.16111751781http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11751781/yesWe have examined the fate of an antibiotic resistance marker, incorporated into transgenic maize when fed to chicks. Plant-derived markers were found in the crops of five birds fed transgenic maize and in the stomach contents of two birds. The plant-derived marker gene was not found in the intestines. The survival of the antibiotic resistance marker gene mirrored that of plant DNA targets, demonstrating that it survives no better than other DNA and indicating that it is very unlikely that bacteria in the gut of chickens will be transformed to ampicillin resistance when the birds are fed transgenic maize.journal articlefeeding studymaizeUnited Kingdomfrom independent listAnn-Julie Rheaume
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Chansawang, S., C. Banchasak, T. Khawnsod, T. Anantachaiyong and T. Poolsawat. 2003. Effect of Roundup Ready Corn NK603 on Growth Performance of Female Broiler Chickens under Greenhouse Conditions. Proceeding of The Sixth National Plant Protection Conference. 24th - 27th Nov 2003, p131, Abstract., feeding study poultrymaizeherbicide tolerance
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Chansawang, S., S. Tubchareon, C. Banchasak, T. Khawnsod, K. Saardrak, T. Anantachaiyong, and T. Poolsawat. 2003. Effect of Roundup Ready Corn NK603 on Animals: Chicken and Rat that Feeding under Greenhouse Conditions. Proceeding of BioThailand 2003. 17th - 19th July 2003, p142, Abstract., feeding study poultrymaizeherbicide tolerance
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Cheeke TE, Rosenstiel TN, Cruzan MB. Evidence of Reduced Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungal Colonization in Multiple Lines of Bt Maize. Am. J. Bot. April 2012 vol. 99 no. 4 700-707. doi: 10.3732/ajb.1100529, from independent list
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Chelsea, S., et al. Assessment of the health impact of GM plant diets in long-term and multigenerational animal feeding trials: A literature review. Food Chem. Toxicol. (2011), doi:10.1016/j.fct.2011.11.048, from independent list
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Chen X, Zhuo Q, Piao J, Yang X. 2004 [Immunotoxicologic assessment of transgenetic rice][Article in Chinese]. Wei Sheng Yan Jiu. 33:77-80.,
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Chen ZL, Gu H, Li Y, Su Y, Wu P, Jiang Z, Ming X, Tian J, Pan N, Qu LJ. 2003 Safety assessment for genetically modified sweet pepper and tomato. Toxicology. 188:297-307.,
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Chen, Xiaoping; Zhuo, Qin; Piao, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoguang, 2004, Immunotoxicologic assessment of transgenetic rice., Wei sheng yan jiu (Journal of Hygiene Research), 33(1):77-80, Chen, Xiaoping; Zhuo, Qin; Piao, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoguang2004Immunotoxicologic assessment of transgenetic rice.Wei sheng yan jiu (Journal of Hygiene Research)33(1):77-8015098485http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15098485/OBJECTIVE: To assess the immunotoxicologic aspect of transgenetic plant. METHODS: BALB/C mice were fed with food composed by transgenic rice (into which cowpea trypsin inhibitor gene was introduced) or nontransgenetic rice (which has the same gene composition as the transgenic rice except for the cowpea trypsin inhibitor gene) for 30 days. All food is made according to the composition of AIN-93G. In the end, all kinds of immunotoxicologic indexes of mice of every group were compared such as body weight, guts index, blood routine test, lymphocyte sort, serum antibody titter, plaque forming cell, delayed hypersensitivity response, macrophage function test. RESULTS: All immunotoxicologic indexes of mice fed either by transgenic rice or nontransgenetic rice have no differences to those of mice fed by normal food. CONCLUSION: Transgenic rice is substantially equivilent to nontransgenetic rice in immunotoxicologic aspect.journal articlefeeding studyrodentsricecowpea trypsin inhibitorChinaAnn-Julie Rheaume
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Chen, Zhang-Liang; Gu, Hongya; Li, Yi; Su, Yilan; Wu, Ping; Jiang, Zhicheng; Ming, Xiaotian; Tian, Jinhua; Pan, Naisui; Qu, Li-Jia, 2003, Safety assessment for genetically modified sweet pepper and tomato., Toxicology, 188:297-307, Chen, Zhang-Liang; Gu, Hongya; Li, Yi; Su, Yilan; Wu, Ping; Jiang, Zhicheng; Ming, Xiaotian; Tian, Jinhua; Pan, Naisui; Qu, Li-Jia2003Safety assessment for genetically modified sweet pepper and tomato.Toxicology188:297-30712767699http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12767699/noThe coat protein (CP) gene of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) was cloned from a Chinese CMV isolate, the CaMV promoter and NOS terminator added and the gene construct was transformed into both sweet pepper and tomato plants to confer resistance to CMV. Safety assessments of these genetically modified (GM) plants were conducted. It was found that these two GM products showed no genotoxicity either in vitro or in vivo by the micronucleus test, sperm aberration test and Ames test. Animal feeding studies showed no significant differences in growth, body weight gain, food consumption, hematology, blood biochemical indices, organ weights and histopathology between rats or mice of either sex fed with either GM sweet pepper or tomato diets compared with those with non-GM diets. These results demonstrate that the CMV-resistant sweet pepper and tomato are comparable to the non-GM counterparts in terms of food safety.journal articlefeeding studyrodentstomato, sweet peppervirus resistance (cucumber mosaic virus coat protein)Chinafrom independent listAnn-Julie Rheaume
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Cheng, K C; Beaulieu, J; Iquira, E; Belzile, F J; Fortin, M G; Strömvik, M V, 2008, Effect of transgenes on global gene expression in soybean is within the natural range of variation of conventional cultivars., Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 56(9):3057-67, Cheng, K C; Beaulieu, J; Iquira, E; Belzile, F J; Fortin, M G; Strömvik, M V2008Effect of transgenes on global gene expression in soybean is within the natural range of variation of conventional cultivars.Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry56(9):3057-6718433101http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18433101/noCurrent safety assessment for novel crops, including transgenic crops, uses a targeted approach, which relies on compositional analysis. The possibility that transgene expression could lead to unintended effects remains a debated issue. This study used transcriptome profiling as a nontargeted approach to evaluate overall molecular changes in transgenic soybean cultivars. Global gene expression was measured in the first trifoliate leaves of two transgenic and three conventional soybean cultivars using the soybean Affymetrix GeneChip. It was found that gene expression differs more between the two conventional cultivars than between the transgenics and their closest conventional cultivar investigated and that the magnitudes of differences measured in gene expression and genotype (determined by SSR analysis) do not necessarily correlate. A MySQL database coupled with a CGI Web interface was developed to store and present the results ( http://soyxpress.agrenv.mcgill.ca/). By integrating the microarray data with gene annotations and other soybean data, a comprehensive view of differences in gene expression is explored between cultivars.journal articletranscriptomicssoybeanCanadafrom independent listAnn-Julie Rheaume
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Chesson A, Flachowsky G (2003) Transgenic plants in poultry nutrition. Worlds Poultry Science Journal 59:201-207,
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Chowdhury EH, Shimada N, Murata H, Mikami O, Sultana P, Miyazaki S, Yoshioka M, Yamanaka N, Hirai N, Nakajima Y.(2003). Detection of Cry1Ab protein in gastrointestinal contents but not visceral organs of genetically modified Bt11-fed calves. Vet Hum Toxicol. 2003 Mar;45(2):72-5. , from independent listOne of the factors believed to affect allergenicity of proteins is the degree to which it is digested rapidly when eaten. This paper addresses aspects of allergen risks from that perspective.
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Chowdhury, E H, EH; Kuribara, H, H; Hino, A, A; Sultana, P, P; Mikami, O, O; Shimada, N, N; Guruge, K S, KS; Saito, M, M; Nakajima, Y, Y, 2003, Detection of corn intrinsic and recombinant DNA fragments and Cry1Ab protein in the gastrointestinal contents of pigs fed genetically modified corn Bt11., Journal of Animal Science, 81(10):2546-51, Chowdhury, E H, EH; Kuribara, H, H; Hino, A, A; Sultana, P, P; Mikami, O, O; Shimada, N, N; Guruge, K S, KS; Saito, M, M; Nakajima, Y, Y2003Detection of corn intrinsic and recombinant DNA fragments and Cry1Ab protein in the gastrointestinal contents of pigs fed genetically modified corn Bt11.Journal of Animal Science81(10):2546-5114552382http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14552382/noGenetically modified corn has been approved as an animal feed in several countries, but information about the fate of genetically modified DNA and protein in vivo is insufficient. Genetically modified corn Bt11 is developed by inserting a recombinant DNA sequence encoding insecticidal Cry1Ab protein from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. We examined the presence of corn intrinsic and recombinant cry1Ab gene by PCR, and the Cry1Ab protein by immunological tests in the gastrointestinal contents of five genetically modified corn Bt11-fed and five nongenetically modified corn-fed pigs. Fragments of corn zein (242 bp), invertase (226 bp) and of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/ oxygenase genes (1,028 bp) were detected in the gastrointestinal contents of both Bt11 and nongenetically modified corn-fed pigs. Fragments of recombinant cry1Ab gene (110 bp and 437 bp) were detected in the gastrointestinal contents of the Bt11-fed pigs but not in the control pigs. Neither corn intrinsic nor cry1Ab gene fragments were detected in the peripheral blood by PCR. The gastrointestinal contents were positive for Cry1Ab protein by ELISA, immunochromatography, and immunoblot; however, these methods did not work for blood and precluded conclusions about any potential absorption of the protein. These results suggest that ingested corn DNA and Cry1Ab protein were not totally degraded in the gastrointestinal tract, as shown by their presence in a form detectable by PCR or immunological tests.journal articlefeeding studyswinemaizeinsect resistanceBtBt11Japanfrom independent listAnn-Julie Rheaume
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Chowdhury, Emdadull H, EH; Mikami, Osamu, O; Murata, Hideo, H; Sultana, Parvin, P; Shimada, Nobuaki, N; Yoshioka, Miyako, M; Guruge, Keerthi S, KS; Yamamoto, Sachiko, S; Miyazaki, Shigeru, S; Yamanaka, Noriko, N; Nakajima, Yasuyuki, Y, 2004, Fate of maize intrinsic and recombinant genes in calves fed genetically modified maize Bt11., Journal of Food Protection, 67(2):365-70, Chowdhury, Emdadull H, EH; Mikami, Osamu, O; Murata, Hideo, H; Sultana, Parvin, P; Shimada, Nobuaki, N; Yoshioka, Miyako, M; Guruge, Keerthi S, KS; Yamamoto, Sachiko, S; Miyazaki, Shigeru, S; Yamanaka, Noriko, N; Nakajima, Yasuyuki, Y2004Fate of maize intrinsic and recombinant genes in calves fed genetically modified maize Bt11.Journal of Food Protection67(2):365-7014968971http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14968971/noThe presence of maize intrinsic and recombinant cry1Ab genes in the gastrointestinal (GI) contents, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), and visceral organs of calves fed genetically modified Bt11 maize was examined by PCR in a subchronic 90-day performance study. Samples were collected from six Japanese Black/Holstein calves fed Bt11 maize and from six calves fed non-Bt maize. Fragments of maize zein (Ze1), invertase, chloroplast, and cry1Ab were detected inconsistently in the rumen fluid and rectal contents 5 and 18 h after feeding. The chloroplast DNA fragments of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and tRNA were detected inconsistently in the PBMC, the visceral organs, and the longissimus muscle, while the cry1Ab gene was never detected in PBMC or in the visceral organs. These results suggest that feed-derived maize DNA was mostly degraded in the GI tract but that fragmented DNA was detectable in the GI contents as a possible source of transfer to calf tissues. These results also suggest that the recombinant cry1Ab genes were not transferred to the PBMC and tissues of calves fed Bt11 maize.journal articlefeeding studycattlemaizeinsect resistanceBtBt11Japanfrom independent listAnn-Julie Rheaume
93
Chrastinová, L'., A. Sommer, J. Rafay, R. Caniga, and M. Prostredná. 2002. Genetically modified maize in diets for rabbits - influence on performance and product quality. Proc. Soc. Nutr. Physiol. 11:195., feeding study rabbitmaizeherbicide tolerance
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Chrenkova M, Sommer A, Ceresnakova Z, Nitrayova S, Prostredna M. 2002 Nutritional evaluation of genetically modified maize corn performed on rats. Arch Tierernahr. 56:229-35.,
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Chrenková, M., L. Chrastinová, Z. Ceresnáková, J. Rafay, G. Flachowsky, and S. Mihina. 2007.Assessment of nutritive value of Bt-maize using rats and rabbits. Book of abstracts of the 58th annual meeting of the European Association for Animal Production, Dublin, Ireland 26-29 August 2007 No. 13, p. 178. (ISBN 978-90-8686-045-6)., conference proceedingsfeeding study rabbitmaizeinsect resistance
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Chrenková, M., Z. Čerešňáková, A. Sommer, Z. Ulrichová, and R. Žitňan. 2002. In sacco nutrient degradability of RR maize corn. Proc. Soc. Nutr. Physiol. 11:194., feeding study cattlemaizeherbicide tolerance
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Chrenková, Mária, M; Sommer, A, A; Ceresnáková, Zuzana, Z; Nitrayová, Sona, S; Prostredná, Miroslava, M, 2002, Nutritional evaluation of genetically modified maize corn performed on rats., Archiv für Tierernaehrung (Archives of Animal Nutrition), 56(3):229-35, Chrenková, Mária, M; Sommer, A, A; Ceresnáková, Zuzana, Z; Nitrayová, Sona, S; Prostredná, Miroslava, M2002Nutritional evaluation of genetically modified maize corn performed on rats.Archiv für Tierernaehrung (Archives of Animal Nutrition)56(3):229-3512391907http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12391907/yesThe aim of this study was to determine the composition and nutritional value of conventional and transgenic, so-called Roundup Ready (RR) maize with an introduced gene of glyphosate resistance. Crude protein, crude fibre, ash, fat, starch, sugar, amino acids, fatty acid and macroelement levels were determined by chemical analysis. In both maize lines a low level of Ca (0.15 g.kg-1 DM) and of the essential amino acids lysine and tryptophan (2.6 and 1.7 g.kg-1 DM, respectively) were observed. In the biological experiment carried out on rats the tested maize lines were the only dietary sources of nitrogen, thus, the experimental diets contained 9% CP in dietary dry matter. In the feeding experiment no significant differences in the protein efficiency ratio (PER) were observed between groups receiving conventional or transgenic maize (1.51 and 1.41, respectively). Also almost equal results were obtained in the balance experiments. Both maize lines revealed a high nitrogen digestibility (84.9 and 84.5%, respectively) and the net protein utilization amounted to 63.5 and 63.2%, respectively. From these results can be concluded that regarding nutrient composition and utilisation, genetically modified (RR) maize is equivalent to isogenic maize.journal articlefeeding studyrodentsmaizeherbicide tolerenceSlovak Republicfrom independent listAnn-Julie Rheaume
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Chung B-N and others (2007). Stability of recombinant plant viruses containing genes of unrelated plant viruses. Journal of General Virology 88:1347-1355.,
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Clark, J.H. and I.R. Ipharraguerre. 2004. Biotechnology crops as feeds for livestock. Pages 177 – 198 in Chapter 12 in Agricultural Biotechnology Challenges and Prospects, M.K. Balgat, W. P. Ridley, A.S. Felsot, and J.N. Seiber, editors, American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C.,
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Cleveland, Thomas E, Patrick F Dowd, Anne E Desjardins, Deepak Bhatnagar, Peter J Cotty (2003). United States Department of Agriculture - Agricultural Research Service research on pre-harvest prevention of mycotoxins and mycotoxigenic fungi in US crops, Pest Management Science Volume 59, Issue 6-7 , Pages 629 - 642 , from independent listMouldy grains is one of the major hazards of cereal foods. It is a real safety issue particularly to people in Central America, Africa, and northern China who rely on maize for their staple food. There is ample proof that maize mould toxins or mycotoxins such as fumonisin harm people. In this case the main risk is using non-genetically modified maize instead of BT insect protected maize. Insect damage makes corn more susceptible to mouldyness and increased toxin content.
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