Table of Results from Retrieval Practice Review by Agarwal, Nunes, & Blunt (2019)
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Abbreviated CitationFull CitationPublication YearRetrieval InterventionComparison Condition(s)Design (within- or between-students)

Asterisk (*) indicates random assignment
Education LevelCourse TopicSample Size in Final AnalysesFrequency of the Retrieval InterventionFeedback After RetrievalRetrieval FormatFinal Test Format

Asterisk (*) indicates rephrased questions
Dependent measure counted toward students' gradesDelay between the last retrieval opportunity and when retention was measuredKey Finding

(based on numerical differences between means)
Effect Size(s)

Cohen's d unless otherwise stated; η2p = partial eta squared

Asterisk (*) indicates calculated for the purpose of this review
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Agarwal, 2019, Experiment 3Agarwal, P. K. (2019). Retrieval practice and Bloom’s taxonomy: Do students need fact knowledge before higher order learning? Journal of Educational Psychology, 111(2), 189-209.2019Quizzes with higher order questions

Quizzes with mixed questions
Questions on the final assessment onlyWithinMiddle SchoolWorld History88Three times within 1 weekImmediateMultiple-choiceMultiple-choice*No2 daysBenefit from retrieval practice1.55 (mixed quizzes vs. no quizzes; fact test)

1.37 (mixed quizzes vs. no quizzes; higher order test)

0.99 (higher order quizzes vs. no quizzes; higher order test)
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Atabek Yigit et al., 2014Atabek Yigit, E., Balkan Kiyici, F., & Çetinkaya, G. (2014). Evaluating the Testing Effect in the Classroom: An effective way to retrieve learned information. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research, 54, 99-116.2014Quizzes with feedback

Quizzes without feedback
Studied a review sheet

No review sheet
WithinUndergraduateIntroduction to Chemistry98Once within a single sessionImmediateMultiple-choice and matchingMultiple-choice and matchingNoOne dayBenefit from retrieval practiceNot reported and insufficient data to calculate
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Ayyub & Mahboob, 2017Ayyub, A., & Mahboob, U. (2017). Effectiveness of test-enhanced learning (TEL) in lectures for undergraduate medical students. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 33(6), 1339.2017QuizzesLessons without quizzesBetween*Medical SchoolEndocrinology84Once per week for 4 weeksNot reportedMultiple-choiceMultiple-choice*Yes1 weekBenefit from retrieval practice5.86*
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Batsell et al., 2017Batsell, W. R., Perry, J. L., Hanley, E., & Hostetter, A. B. (2017). Ecological validity of the testing effect: The use of daily quizzes in introductory psychology. Teaching of Psychology, 44(1), 18-23.2017Textbook reading with in-class quizzesTextbook reading without quizzesBetweenUndergraduateIntroduction to Psychology64Twice per week throughout a semesterImmediateNot ReportedMultiple-choice*YesThree exams throughout the semesterBenefit from retrieval practiceNot reported and insufficient data to calculate
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Bekkink et al., 2012Bekkink, M. O., Donders, R., van Muijen, G. N., & Ruiter, D. J. (2012). Challenging medical students with an interim assessment: A positive effect on formal examination score in a randomized controlled study. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 17(1), 27-37.2012QuizzesLessons without quizzesBetween*Medical SchoolIntroduction to Pathology4041-2 times per week for 4 weeksNoneMultiple-choice and short answerMultiple-choice*Yes3 daysBenefit from retrieval practice0.24
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Bjork et al., 2014Bjork, E. L., Little, J. L., & Storm, B. C. (2014). Multiple-choice testing as a desirable difficulty in the classroom. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 3(3), 165-170.2014Quizzes with identical questions on the final assessment

Quizzes with conceptually related questions on the final assessment
Questions on the final assessment onlyWithinUndergraduateResearch Methods in Psychology372Once every 2 weeks for 10 weeksDelayedMultiple-choiceMultiple-choice*YesEnd of the 10-week courseBenefit from retrieval practice0.94 (identical-repeat quiz vs. no quizzes)*

0.79 (conceptual-repeat quiz vs. no quizzes)*
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Dirkx et al., 2014Dirkx, K. J., Kester, L., & Kirschner, P. A. (2014). The testing effect for learning principles and procedures from texts. The Journal of Educational Research, 107(5), 357-364.2014Study-test-study-test (STST)Study-study-study-study (SSSS)Between*High SchoolStatistics38Once within a single sessionNoneShort answerShort answerNo1 weekBenefit from retrieval practice1.44
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Dobson & Linderholm, 2015(a)Dobson, J. L., & Linderholm, T. (2015a). The effect of selected “desirable difficulties” on the ability to recall anatomy information. Anatomical Sciences Education, 8(5), 395-403.2015(a)Read-quiz-read-quiz (RTRT)Read-generate-read-generate (RGRG)

Re-read (RRRR)
WithinUndergraduateAnatomy and Physiology66Twice within a single sessionNoneFree recallFree recallNoImmediateBenefit from retrieval practiceη2p = 0.31 (RTRT vs. RGRG)

η2p = 0.09 (RTRT vs. RRRR)
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Dobson & Linderholm, 2015(b)Dobson, J. L., & Linderholm, T. (2015b). Self-testing promotes superior retention of anatomy and physiology information. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 20(1), 149-161.2015(b)Read-quiz-read (RTR)Read-read while taking notes (R-R+N)

Re-read (RRR)
WithinUndergraduateAnatomy and Physiology125Once within a single sessionNoneFree recallMultiple-choiceNoImmediateBenefit from retrieval practiceNo statistically significant difference (RTR vs. R-R+N)

η2p = 0.04 (RTR vs. RRR)
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Dobson et al., 2017Dobson, J. L., Perez, J., & Linderholm, T. (2017). Distributed retrieval practice promotes superior recall of anatomy information. Anatomical Sciences Education, 10(4), 339-347.2017Free recall over 7 days

Free recall over 2 days

Free recall in a single session
Re-study over 7 days

Re-study over 2 days
WithinUndergraduateAnatomy and Physiology60Six times within 7 daysNoneFree recallFree recallNoImmediateBenefit from retrieval practiceNot reported and insufficient data to calculate
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Foss & Pirozzolo, 2017, Experiment 1Foss, D. J., & Pirozzolo, J. W. (2017). Four semesters investigating frequency of testing, the testing effect, and transfer of training. Journal of Educational Psychology, 109(8), 1067.20174 midterm exams and 4 pop quizzes2 midterm exams and 2 pop quizzes BetweenUndergraduateResearch Methods in Psychology159Once every 2 weeks for 15 weeksNoneMultiple-choice and short answerMultiple-choice and short answerYesEnd of the 15-week courseBenefit from retrieval practice0.07
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Foss & Pirozzolo, 2017, Experiment 2Foss, D. J., & Pirozzolo, J. W. (2017). Four semesters investigating frequency of testing, the testing effect, and transfer of training. Journal of Educational Psychology, 109(8), 1067.20178 course exams2 course examsBetweenUndergraduateResearch Methods in Psychology70Once every 2 weeks for 15 weeksNoneMultiple-choice and short answerMultiple-choice and short answerYesEnd of the 15-week courseBenefit from retrieval practice0.20
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Foss & Pirozzolo, 2017, Experiment 3Foss, D. J., & Pirozzolo, J. W. (2017). Four semesters investigating frequency of testing, the testing effect, and transfer of training. Journal of Educational Psychology, 109(8), 1067.20178 course exams and additional quizzes2 course examsBetweenUndergraduateResearch Methods in Psychology117Once every 2 weeks for 15 weeksNoneMultiple-choice and short answerMultiple-choice and short answer*YesEnd of the 15-week courseBenefit from retrieval practice0.28
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Foss & Pirozzolo, 2017, Experiment 4Foss, D. J., & Pirozzolo, J. W. (2017). Four semesters investigating frequency of testing, the testing effect, and transfer of training. Journal of Educational Psychology, 109(8), 1067.20176 quizzes3 quizzesBetweenUndergraduateResearch Methods in Psychology214Once every 2 weeks for 15 weeksNoneShort answerShort answer*Yes7-10 daysBenefit from retrieval practice0.04
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Freda & Lipp, 2016Freda, N. M., & Lipp, M. J. (2016). Test-enhanced learning in competence-based predoctoral orthodontics: a four-year study. Journal of Dental Education, 80(3), 348-354.2016QuizzesLessons without quizzesBetweenMedical SchoolDental Diagnosis and Treatment338Once per week for 6 weeksDelayedSimulated diagnosisSimulated diagnosis*YesEnd of the 6-week courseBenefit from retrieval practice on final assessment performance, but not for course pass rateNot reported and insufficient data to calculate
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Goossens et al., 2016Goossens, N. A., Camp, G., Verkoeijen, P. P., Tabbers, H. K., Bouwmeester, S., & Zwaan, R. A. (2016). Distributed practice and retrieval practice in primary school vocabulary learning: A multi‐classroom study. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 30(5), 700-712.2016Cued recallCopied definitionsWithinElementary SchoolVocabulary129Six times total 1-2 weeksImmediateCued recallCued recallNot reported1-3 daysBenefit from copying definitionsη2p = 0.06 (Grade 2)

η2p = 0.09 (Grade 3)

η2p = 0.04 (Grade 4)

η2p = 0.03 (Grade 6)
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Graham, 1999Graham, R. B. (1999). Unannounced quizzes raise test scores selectively for mid-range students. Teaching of Psychology, 26(4), 271-273.1999Textbook reading with in-class quizzesTextbook reading without quizzesWithinUndergraduateNeuropsychology and Psychology of LearningNot Reported10 times throughout the semesterNot ReportedMultiple-choice and fill-in-the-blankMultiple-choice and fill-in-the-blank*YesEnd of the semesterBenefit from retrieval practice0.27*
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Jones et al., 2016, Experiment 1Jones, A. C., Wardlow, L., Pan, S. C., Zepeda, C., Heyman, G. D., Dunlosky, J., & Rickard, T. C. (2016). Beyond the rainbow: Retrieval practice leads to better spelling than does rainbow writing. Educational Psychology Review, 28(2), 385-400.2016QuizzesRainbow writingWithinElementary SchoolSpelling14Twice within 8 daysImmediateFree recallFree recallYes1 dayBenefit from retrieval practice0.60
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Jones et al., 2016, Experiment 2Jones, A. C., Wardlow, L., Pan, S. C., Zepeda, C., Heyman, G. D., Dunlosky, J., & Rickard, T. C. (2016). Beyond the rainbow: Retrieval practice leads to better spelling than does rainbow writing. Educational Psychology Review, 28(2), 385-400.2016QuizzesRainbow writingWithinElementary SchoolSpelling16Twice within 8 daysImmediateFree recallFree recallYes1 dayBenefit from retrieval practice0.47
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Jones et al., 2016, Experiment 3Jones, A. C., Wardlow, L., Pan, S. C., Zepeda, C., Heyman, G. D., Dunlosky, J., & Rickard, T. C. (2016). Beyond the rainbow: Retrieval practice leads to better spelling than does rainbow writing. Educational Psychology Review, 28(2), 385-400.2016QuizzesRainbow writingWithinElementary SchoolSpelling12Twice within 8 daysImmediateFree recallFree recallYes1 dayBenefit from retrieval practice0.69
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Karpicke et al., 2014, Experiment 3Karpicke, J. D., Blunt, J. R., Smith, M. A., & Karpicke, S. S. (2014). Retrieval-based learning: The need for guided retrieval in elementary school children. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 3(3), 198-206.2014Cued recall using a concept mapRe-studyWithinElementary SchoolEarth Science and U.S. History85Once within a single sessionNoneShort answerFree recallNoImmediateBenefit from retrieval practice0.42*
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Khanna, 2015Khanna, M. M. (2015). Ungraded pop quizzes: Test-enhanced learning without all the anxiety. Teaching of Psychology, 42(2), 174-178.2015Graded quizzes

Ungraded quizzes
Lessons without quizzesBetween*UndergraduateIntroduction to Psychology137Six times throughout the semesterImmediateMultiple-choiceMultiple-choice*YesEnd of the semesterBenefit from ungraded retrieval practice0.66 (ungraded quizzes vs. no quizzes)*

0.03 (graded quizzes vs. no quizzes)*
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Khanna & Cortese, 2016Khanna, M. M., & Cortese, M. J. (2016). The benefits of quizzing in content-focused versus skills-focused courses. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology, 2(1), 87.2016Graded quizzes

Ungraded quizzes
Lessons without quizzesBetween*UndergraduateIntroduction to Psychology, Cognitive Psychology, and Research Methods277Six times throughout the semesterImmediateMultiple-choiceMultiple-choice*YesEnd of the semesterBenefit from ungraded retrieval practice0.36 (ungraded quizzes vs. no quizzes)

0.28 (graded quizzes vs. no quizzes)
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Kromann et al., 2010Kromann, C. B., Bohnstedt, C., Jensen, M. L., & Ringsted, C. (2010). The testing effect on skills learning might last 6 months. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 15(3), 395-401.2010Scenario-based quizScenario lectures without quizzesBetween*Medical SchoolCPR Skills89Once within a single sessionImmediateSimulated diagnosisSimulated diagnosisNo6 monthsBenefit from retrieval practice0.40
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Kromann et al., 2009Kromann, C. B., Jensen, M. L., & Ringsted, C. (2009). The effect of testing on skills learning. Medical Education, 43(1), 21-27.2009Scenario-based quizScenario lectures without quizzesBetween*Medical SchoolCPR Skills81Once within a single sessionImmediateSimulated diagnosisSimulated diagnosisNo2 weeksBenefit from retrieval practice0.93
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Kromann et al., 2011Kromann, C. B., Jensen, M. L., & Ringsted, C. (2011). Test‐enhanced learning may be a gender‐related phenomenon explained by changes in cortisol level. Medical Education, 45(2), 192-199.2011Scenario-based quizScenario lectures without quizzesBetween*Medical SchoolCPR Skills138Once within a single sessionImmediateSimulated diagnosisSimulated diagnosisNo2 weeksBenefit from retrieval practice0.55
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Larsen et al., 2009Larsen, D. P., Butler, A. C., & Roediger, H. L. (2009). Repeated testing improves long‐term retention relative to repeated study: a randomised controlled trial. Medical Education, 43(12), 1174-1181.2009QuizzesStudied a review sheetWithinMedical SchoolNeurology40Three times within a single sessionImmediateShort answerShort answerNo6 monthsBenefit from retrieval practice0.91
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Larsen et al., 2013(a)Larsen, D. P., Butler, A. C., & Roediger, H. L. (2013a). Comparative effects of test‐enhanced learning and self‐explanation on long‐term retention. Medical Education, 47(7), 674-682.2013(a)Quizzes with self-explanations

Quizzes without self-explanations
Studied a review sheet with self-explanations

Studied a review sheet without self-explanations
WithinMedical SchoolNeurology49Four times within 2 daysImmediateShort answerEssay*No6 monthsBenefit from retrieval practice0.70 (quizzes with self-explanation vs. study with self-explanation)

0.48 (quizzes without self-explanation vs. study with self-explanation)

Not reported for quiz conditions vs. study without self-explanation
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Larsen et al., 2013(b)Larsen, D. P., Butler, A. C., Lawson, A. L., & Roediger, H. L. (2013b). The importance of seeing the patient: Test-enhanced learning with standardized patients and written tests improves clinical application of knowledge. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 18(3), 409-425.2013(b)Quizzes with standardized patients

Quizzes with written questions
Studied a review sheetWithinMedical SchoolNeurology41Four times within a single sessionImmediateSimulated diagnosis and a short answer testSimulated diagnosis and a short answer test*No6 monthsBenefit from retrieval practice0.84 (SP quiz vs. study; final SP test)

0.33 (written quiz vs. study; final SP test)

0.73 (SP quiz vs. study; final written test)

0.70 (written quiz vs. study; final written test)
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Leeming, 2002Leeming, F. C. (2002). The exam-a-day procedure improves performance in psychology classes. Teaching of Psychology, 29(3), 210-212.2002Quizzes every class4 course examsBetweenUndergraduateIntroduction to Psychology and Psychology of Learning1925 times per week for 5 weeks (summer semester) or 2 times per week for 12 weeks (regular semester)ImmediateShort answerShort answer, Multiple-chocie, and fill in the blankNo6 weeksBenefit from retrieval practice0.47
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Lyle & Crawford, 2011Lyle, K. B., & Crawford, N. A. (2011). Retrieving essential material at the end of lectures improves performance on statistics exams. Teaching of Psychology, 38(2), 94-97.2011QuizzesLessons without quizzesBetweenUndergraduateStatistics for Psychology144Once per week for 21 weeksDelayedFill in the blankMultiple-choice*YesFour exams throughout the semesterBenefit from retrieval practiceη2p = 0.07
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McDaniel et al., 2011, Experiment 1McDaniel, M. A., Agarwal, P. K., Huelser, B. J., McDermott, K. B., & Roediger, H. L. (2011). Test-enhanced learning in a middle school science classroom: The effects of quiz frequency and placement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(2), 399.2011QuizzesQuestions on the final assessment onlyWithinMiddle SchoolBiology92Three times within 20 daysImmediateMultiple-choiceMultiple-choiceYesOne dayBenefit from retrieval practiceη2p = 0.79
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McDaniel et al., 2011, Experiment 2aMcDaniel, M. A., Agarwal, P. K., Huelser, B. J., McDermott, K. B., & Roediger, H. L. (2011). Test-enhanced learning in a middle school science classroom: The effects of quiz frequency and placement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(2), 399.2011Immediate quizzes

Delayed quizzes
Questions on the final assessment onlyWithinMiddle SchoolAstronomy651-3 times within 3-8 daysImmediateMultiple-choiceMultiple-choiceYesOne dayBenefit from retrieval practice0.66 (immediate quizzes vs. no quizzes)

1.13 (delayed quizzes vs. no quizzes)
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McDaniel et al., 2011, Experiment 2bMcDaniel, M. A., Agarwal, P. K., Huelser, B. J., McDermott, K. B., & Roediger, H. L. (2011). Test-enhanced learning in a middle school science classroom: The effects of quiz frequency and placement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 103(2), 399.2011Immediate quizzes

Delayed quizzes
Questions on the final assessment onlyWithinMiddle SchoolBiology and Chemistry541-3 times within 1-4 daysImmediateMultiple-choiceMultiple-choiceYesOne dayBenefit from retrieval practice0.51 (immediate quizzes vs. no quizzes)

0.76 (delayed quizzes vs. no quizzes)
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McDaniel et al., 2013, Experiment 1McDaniel, M. A., Thomas, R. C., Agarwal, P. K., McDermott, K. B., & Roediger, H. L. (2013). Quizzing in middle‐school science: Successful transfer performance on classroom exams. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 27(3), 360-372.2013Quizzes with definition questions

Quizzes with key term questions
Questions on the final assessment onlyWithinMiddle SchoolBiology and Physics61Three times within 11 daysImmediateMultiple-choiceMultiple-choice*YesOne dayBenefit from retrieval practice0.81 (term-response quizzes vs. no quizzes; term-response exam)

0.86 (definition-response quiz vs. no quizzes; term-response exam)

1.23 (term-response quiz vs. no quizzes; definition-response exam)

1.33 (definition-response quiz vs. no quizzes; definition-response exam)
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McDaniel et al., 2013, Experiment 2McDaniel, M. A., Thomas, R. C., Agarwal, P. K., McDermott, K. B., & Roediger, H. L. (2013). Quizzing in middle‐school science: Successful transfer performance on classroom exams. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 27(3), 360-372.2013Quizzes with definition questions

Quizzes with key term questions
Questions on the final assessment onlyWithinMiddle SchoolEarth Science90Three times within 16 daysImmediateMultiple-choiceMultiple-choice*YesOne dayBenefit from retrieval practice0.56 (term-response quizzes vs. no quizzes; term-response exam)

0.34 (application quizzes vs. no quizzes; term-response exam)

No statistically significant difference (term-response quizzes vs. no quizzes; application exam)

0.27 (application quizzes vs. no quizzes; application exam)
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McDermott et al., 2014, Experiment 1aMcDermott, K. B., Agarwal, P. K., D'Antonio, L., Roediger, H. L., & McDaniel, M. A. (2014). Both multiple-choice and short-answer quizzes enhance later exam performance in middle and high school classes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 20(1), 3-21.2014Quizzes with multiple-choice questions

Quizzes with short answer questions
Questions on the final assessment onlyWithinMiddle SchoolEarth Science45Three times within 22 daysImmediateMultiple-choice and short answerMultiple-choice and short answerYesOne dayBenefit from retrieval practice1.06 (multiple-choice vs. not-tested; short-answer unit test questions)

0.50 (short-answer vs. not-tested; short answer unit test questions)

*no differences for multiple-choice unit test questions
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McDermott et al., 2014, Experiment 1bMcDermott, K. B., Agarwal, P. K., D'Antonio, L., Roediger, H. L., & McDaniel, M. A. (2014). Both multiple-choice and short-answer quizzes enhance later exam performance in middle and high school classes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 20(1), 3-21.2014Quizzes with multiple-choice questions

Quizzes with short answer questions
Questions on the final assessment onlyWithinMiddle SchoolBiology45Three times within 7 daysImmediateMultiple-choice and short answerMultiple-choice and short answerYesOne dayBenefit from retrieval practiceη2p = 0.51
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McDermott et al., 2014, Experiment 2McDermott, K. B., Agarwal, P. K., D'Antonio, L., Roediger, H. L., & McDaniel, M. A. (2014). Both multiple-choice and short-answer quizzes enhance later exam performance in middle and high school classes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 20(1), 3-21.2014QuizzesRe-study

Questions on the final assessment only
WithinMiddle SchoolBiology and Physics59Three times within 7 daysImmediateShort answerShort answerYesOne dayBenefit from retrieval practice1.15 (quizzes vs. re-study)

1.61 (quizzes vs. no quizzes)
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McDermott et al., 2014, Experiment 3McDermott, K. B., Agarwal, P. K., D'Antonio, L., Roediger, H. L., & McDaniel, M. A. (2014). Both multiple-choice and short-answer quizzes enhance later exam performance in middle and high school classes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 20(1), 3-21.2014Quizzes with multiple-choice questions

Quizzes with short answer questions
Re-study

Questions on the final assessment only
WithinMiddle SchoolBiology and Earth Science60Twice within 7 daysImmediateMultiple-choice and short answerMultiple-choice and short answer*Yes2-3 daysBenefit from retrieval practice> 0.48 (retrieval interventions vs. comparison conditions; multiple-choice exam)

> 0.56 (retrieval interventions vs. comparison conditions; short-answer exam)
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McDermott et al., 2014, Experiment 4McDermott, K. B., Agarwal, P. K., D'Antonio, L., Roediger, H. L., & McDaniel, M. A. (2014). Both multiple-choice and short-answer quizzes enhance later exam performance in middle and high school classes. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 20(1), 3-21.2014Quizzes with multiple-choice questions

Quizzes with short answer questions
Questions on the final assessment onlyWithinMiddle SchoolU.S. and World History40Twice within 8 daysImmediateMultiple-choice and short answerMultiple-choice and short answer*Yes1-2 daysBenefit from retrieval practiceη2p = 0.40
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Michaels, 2017Michaels, J. L. (2017). Quizzes benefit freshman and sophomore students more than junior and senior students in introductory psychology classes with noncumulative exams. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology, 3(4), 272-283.2017Quizzes (freshmen/sophomores)

Quizzes (juniors/seniors)
Lessons without quizzesBetweenUndergraduateIntroduction to Psychology139Once per week for 16 weeksImmediateMultiple-choice and diagram labelingMultiple-choiceNo3 exams throughout the semesterBenefit from retrieval practice, but only for freshmen/sophomores0.44 (freshmen/sophomores)*

-0.31 (juniors/seniors)*
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Narloch et al., 2006Narloch, R., Garbin, C. P., & Turnage, K. D. (2006). Benefits of prelecture quizzes. Teaching of Psychology, 33(2), 109-112.2006Pre-lecture quizzes with matching items

Pre-lecture quizzes with fill-in-the-blank items
Lessons without quizzesBetweenUndergraduateSensation & Perception109"Class periods when the class began a new textbook chapter" throughout the semesterDelayedFill-in-the-blank and matchingMultiple-choice and essay*YesChapter exams (frequency and delay not reported)Benefit from retrieval practiceη2 = 0.05 (retrieval interventions vs. no quizzes; multiple-choice test)

η2 = 0.13 (retrieval interventions vs. no quizzes; essay test)
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Roediger et al., 2011, Experiment 1Roediger, H. L., Agarwal, P. K., McDaniel, M. A., & McDermott, K. B. (2011). Test-enhanced learning in the classroom: Long-term improvements from quizzing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 17(4), 382-395.2011QuizzesQuestions on the final assessment onlyWithinMiddle SchoolWorld History36Three times within 13 daysImmediateMultiple-choiceFree recallYes2 daysBenefit from retrieval practiceη2p = 0.64
46
Roediger et al., 2011, Experiment 2Roediger, H. L., Agarwal, P. K., McDaniel, M. A., & McDermott, K. B. (2011). Test-enhanced learning in the classroom: Long-term improvements from quizzing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 17(4), 382-395.2011QuizzesRe-study

Questions on the final assessment only
WithinMiddle SchoolWorld History63Three times within 11 daysImmediateMultiple-choiceMultiple-choiceYes2 daysBenefit from retrieval practice0.83 (quizzes vs. re-study)

0.98 (quizzes vs. no quizzes)
47
Saville et al., 2012Saville, B. K., Pope, D., Lovaas, P., & Williams, J. (2012). Interteaching and the testing effect: A systematic replication. Teaching of Psychology, 39(4), 280-283.2012QuizzesLessons without quizzesWithinUndergraduatePsychology of Learning58Nine times throughout the semesterImmediateMultiple-choiceMultiple-choice and short answer*Yes2 daysNo benefit of retrieval practiceNot reported and insufficient data to calculate
48
Shapiro & Gordon, 2012Shapiro, A. M., & Gordon, L. T. (2012). A controlled study of clicker‐assisted memory enhancement in college classrooms. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 26(4), 635-643.2012QuizzesQuestions on the final assessment onlyWithinUndergraduateIntroduction to Psychology226Three times per week for 15 weeksImmediateMultiple-choiceMultiple-choice*Yes4 exams throughout the semesterBenefit from retrieval practice0.38
49
Son & Rivas, 2016Son, J. Y., & Rivas, M. J. (2016). Designing clicker questions to stimulate transfer. Scholarship of Teaching and Learning in Psychology, 2(3), 193-207.2016QuizzesStudied a review sheetBetweenUndergraduateDevelopmental Psychology209Twice per week for 10 weeksImmediateMultiple-choiceMultiple-choice*YesMidterm examBenefit from retrieval practice0.46 (retention test)*

0.12 (transfer test)*
50
Stenlund et al., 2017Stenlund, T., Jönsson, F. U., & Jonsson, B. (2017). Group discussions and test-enhanced learning: individual learning outcomes and personality characteristics. Educational Psychology, 37(2), 145-156.2017QuizzesDiscussion with feedback

Discussion without feedback
Between*High SchoolPsychology of Emotions98Twice per day for 2 daysImmediateShort answerShort answerNot reported3 exams throughout 4 weeksBenefit from retrieval practice1.55 (quizzes vs. discussion with feedback; complex questions)*

1.08 (quizzes vs. discussion without feedback; complex questions)*

0.70 (quizzes vs. discussion with feedback; factual questions)*

0.73 (quizzes vs. discussion without feedback; factual questions)*
51
Tu et al., 2017Tu, Y. C., Lin, Y. J., Lee, J. W., & Fan, L. W. (2017). Effects of didactic instruction and test-enhanced learning in a nursing review course. Journal of Nursing Education, 56(11), 683-687.2017QuizzesLessons without quizzesBetweenMedical SchoolFundamentals of Nursing84Every class meeting (frequency not specified) throughout the semesterImmediateMultiple-choiceMultiple-choiceYesEnd of the semesterNo benefit of retrieval practice0.24*
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