MCR Labs - Terpenes Studies Database
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Alpha Bisabololchamomile
candeia tree
anti-inflammatory findings suggest that the anti-nociceptive action of (−)-α-bisabolol is not linked to a central mechanism but instead is related to the inflammatory process. We demonstrate, for the first time, the peripheral anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activities of (−)-α-bisabolol.NA5 STARS
3 results indicate that (-)-α-bisabolol exerts anti-inflammatory effects by downregulating expression of iNOS and COX-2 genes through inhibition of NF-κB and AP-1 (ERK and p38) signaling.NA
antimicrobial bacterium S. moorei is susceptible to the antimicrobial agents tea tree oil and alpha-bisabololNA
decrease oxidative stress, antiinflammatory, and antigastric ulcer findings show that (−)-α-bisabolol is able to decrease oxidative stress and inflammatory event associated with the lesions induced by ethanol.NA
Alpha Pinene / Beta PineneOrange peels
Pine needles
conifer trees
anti-inflammatory results indicate that α-pinene has an anti-inflammatory effect and that it is a potential candidate as a new drug to treat various inflammatory diseasesNA5 STARS
Antiulcerogenic activity data showed that the α-pinene exhibited significant antiulcerogenic activity and a great correlation between concentration of α-pinene and gastroprotective effect of Hyptis species was also observed.NA
Antimicrobial study showed that only the positive enantiomers of pinene have antimicrobial activity against C. albicans, C. neoformans, R. oryzae and MRSA. The additive and synergistic effects of (+)--pinene and (+)-β-pinene standards combined with commercial antimicrobials are important as they reduced the MIC of combined substances, maintained the antimicrobial activity and decreased toxicity. The significant inhibition of C. neoformans phospholipase and esterase activities by the pinene positive enantiomers could be related to the potent antimicrobial action of pinene against this fungus. The antimicrobial activity was even more promising against biofilm formation, which makes pinene useful in formulating strategies to limit C. albicans biofilm formation. 50 µg/mL of (+)-a-pinene and (+)-β-pinene reduced the cell viability to 66.8% and 57.7%
9 between fraction F6 (sabinene 25.4 % myrcene 39.9 % and p-cymene 33.1) and fraction F5 (sabinene 12.0 %, myrcene
24.0 % and p-cymene 52.4) indicated that antimicrobial activity of fraction F5 derives
from the influence of p-cymene, which is in agreement with published data.23
a-pinene 10.5 %, b-myrcene 8.1 %,
10 antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of thyme is apparently related to its terpenes type components such as, myrcene, camphene and pcymene (Table I), since there is a relationship between the chemical structures of the most abundant oils and their antimicrobial activities.α-pinene (9.35%), β-pinene (3.90%) w
Anxiolytic Thus, an increase in α-pinene in the brain induces an increase in TH mRNA expression and increases locomotor activity. The anxiolytic-like effect may be related to both neurological transfer and pharmacological transfer. NA
antidepressant results indicate that linalool and β-pinene produce an antidepressant-like effect through interaction with the monoaminergic system.NA
antibacterial and anticancer activity general, R. officinalis L. essential oil showed greater activity than its components in both antibacterial and anticancer test systems, and the activities were mostly related to their concentrations. α-pinene (19.43%) and β-pinene (6.71%) (Compound percent)2 STARS
Alpha-Terpineolpine smoke used to dry the teaAntimalarial main constituents were alpha-terpineol (22.6%), fenchone (13.6%), beta-fenchyl alcohol (10.7%), beta-caryophyllene (7.9%), and perillyl alcohol (6.0%). Moderate antimalarial activities were recorded against two strains of Plasmodium falciparum.22.60%2 STARS
Antioxidant Furthermore, trans and cis-3-hexenyl acetate and alpha-copaene, alpha-terpineol, D-limonene, trans-beta-ocimene and delta-cadinene had higher contribution to the organic passion fruit aroma. On the other hand, unsaturated alcohols, beta-myrcene and beta-linalool described as grass, sulfur-like and passion-fruit aroma were higher in the conventional fruit. The organic passion fruit showed higher levels of total phenolic compounds and total antioxidant activity than the conventional fruit, suggesting that the cultivation system influenced the production of antioxidant bioactive compounds.NA
Beta-Caryophyllenethai basils
black pepper
antimicrobial results showed that β-caryophyllene has antimicrobial activity against the proliferation of dog’s dental plaque-forming bacteria representing a suitable alternative to the use of chlorhexidine in prophylaxis and treatment of periodontal disease of dogs.100 mg/mL for 25 % of the isolates, 100 mg/mL for 3 %, 50 mg/mL for 25 %, 25 mg/mL for 12 %, 12.5 mg/mL for 19 % and 6.25 mg/mL for 16 %.5 STARS
anti-tumor with BCP significantly reduced these transcripts in the tumors of the HFD-fed mice.
The present study demonstrate that dietary BCP suppresses HFD-induced (i) body weight gain; (ii) solid tumor growth and LN metastasis; (iii) angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, cell proliferation and cell survival in tumor tissues.
anti-inflammatory present study is suggestive that Beta-Caryophyllene has prominent anti-arthritic activity which may be attributed to its anti-inflammatory activity.e 100mg/kg and 300mg/kg
anti-bacterialβ.-caryophyllene (19.08%), bicyclogermacrene (11.22%), germacrene B (6.29%), and myrcene (6.55%) were the predominant constitutes. The essential oil extract exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activities against Gram-positive19.08%2 STARS
The present results demonstrated that M. scan-dens mediated oil and extracts could be potential sources of natural fungicides to protect crops from fungal diseases.
16.98% (compound percent)
Beta-Myrcenefresh mangoes
bay leaves
lemon grass
anti-inflammatory, and limonene to a lesser extent, also decreased IL-1β-induced NF-κB, JNK and p38 activation and the expression of inflammatory (iNOS) and catabolic (MMP-1 and MMP-13) genes, while increasing the expression of anti-catabolic genes (TIMP-1 and -3 by myrcene and TIMP-1 by limonene).NA5 STARS
anti-tumor major components were nerolidol (19.887%), caryophyllene (16.714%) and beta-myrcene (9.29%). The essential oil exhibited strong antitumoractivity against SPCA-1 human tumor cell line with IC50 value of 6.61 microg/m9.29%2 STARS
Blumea Balsamifera
Kaempferia Galanga
analgesic and antiinflammatory randomized, double‐blind, placebo‐controlled clinical study demonstrated that a single application of 25% borneol for approximately 30–60 min produced a substantial reduction in postoperative pain in patients, validating the basis for the historical use of borneol as a topical analgesic in TCM.NA10 STARS
analgesic and antiinflammatory Borneol has certain analgesic action and anti-inflammation effect.NA5 STARS
anti-cancer (Natural Borneol) could be further developed as a chemosensitizer of SeC in treatment of human cancers.
NB effectively synergized with SeC to reduce cancer cell growth through the triggering apoptotic cell death.
anti-inflammatory confirmation of anti-inflammatory and healing action of borneol in oral mucositis in rats renders it a good marker for predicting this activity for plant extracts rich in this substance.1.2% and 2.4%
antifungal BGC material was subsequently challenged with Mucor racemosus and Aspergillus niger, and exhibited a remarkable performance in antifungal adhesion and fungal growth inhibition, suggesting the grafted borneol moieties are crucial for influencing the tactile sensing of fungal cells and subsequent selective inadhesion.NA
antifibrosis study indicates that borneol has anti-fibrosis activity and the mechanism may partly be relevant to its inhibiting effects on fibroblasts mitosis, collagen and TIMP-1 production.18.75 to 300 μg/ml
anticoagulant suggested that the antithrombotic activity of borneol and its action in combined formula for preventing cardiovascular diseases might be due to anticoagulant activity rather than antiplatelet activity.NA
drug potentiator!divAbstractNatural borneol (NB) has been used as a promoter of drug absorption and widely used in candies, beverages, baked goods, chewing gum and other foods. Thus, we investigated whether NB could potentiate the cellular uptake of BDCur, and elucidated the molecular mechanisms of their combined inhibitory effects on HepG2 cells. Our results demonstrate that NB significantly enhanced the cellular uptake of BDCur. Induction of cell cycle arrest in HepG2 cells by NB and BDCur in combination was evidenced by accumulation of the G2/M cell population. Further investigation on the molecular mechanism showed that NB and BDCur in combination resulted in a significant decrease in the expression level of Cdc2 and cyclin B.NA
Vasorelaxant effect cumulative addition of (−)-borneol (10−9–3 × 10−4 M) on a phenylephrine-induced pre-contraction (10−6 M) promoted a vasorelaxant effect in a concentration-dependent manner and independent of vascular endothelium.NA
antimicrobial activity antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of thyme is apparently related to its terpenes type components such as, myrcene, camphene and pcymene (Table I), since there is a relationship between the chemical structures of the most abundant oils and their antimicrobial activities.4.91%3 STARS
Camphenecitronella oil
ginger oil
campher oil
antinociceptive We observed that (+)-camphene enhanced NO production in vitro, and our in vivo results show that (+)-camphene has a modest antinociceptive activity. NA6 STARS
antibiotic / antibacterial the tested monoterpenes, thymol, (S)-limonene and myrcene were the most potent antibacterial compounds against A. tumefaciens with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 1000 mg/L. Thymol was also the most effective compounds against E. carotovora var. carotovora, while camphene, cunimaldhyde and 1,8-cineole were the less effective compounds against both bacteria.5000 MIC, mg/L5 STARS
hypolipidemic, hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic effects of HepG2 cells with camphene led to a decrease in cellular cholesterol content to the same extend as mevinolin, a known HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor. The hypolipidemic action of camphene is independent of HMG-CoA reductase activity, suggesting that its hypocholesterolemic and hypotriglyceridemic effects are associated with a mechanism of action different than that of statins.30 µg/gr
antimicrobial essential oil contained approximately 79.91% monoterpenoids and 18.25% sesquiterpenoids. α-Thujone (36.35%), β-thujone (9.37%), germacrene D (6.32%), 4-terpineol (6.31%), β-caryophyllene (5.43%), camphene (5.47%) and borneol (4.12%) were identified as the major constituents. The essential oil exhibited significant antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani (ED50, 85.75 mg L−1), Sclerotium rolfsii (ED50, 87.63 mg L−1) and Macrophomina phaseolina (ED50, 93.23 mg L−1).NA2 STARS
antimicrobial to the literature, the antimicrobial activity of the tested essential oil can be related to the contribution of the mixture between major (γ-eudesmol, β-citronellol, citronellyl formate and germacrene D) and minor (camphene, borneol) [10] constituents, which known to have efficient antimicrobial propertiesNA
Camphormedicated chest rubsantidepressant oil can be used in the manufacture of foam booster, glycerol and cosmetics. The therapeutic properties of camphor oil are analgesic, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, cardiac stimulant, carminative, diuretic, febrifuge, antihypertensive, insecticide, laxative, rubefacient, stimulant, sudorific, vermifuge and vulnerary5
borneol (4.91%)
anti-inflammatory different chemotypes of C. camphora have anti-inflammatory effect on the rat arthritis model induced by Freund's adjuvant, but pharmacological activity and mechanism of action are differentNA
analgesic camphor-induced desensitization of TRPV1 and block of TRPA1 may underlie the analgesic effects of camphor.NA4 STARS
slight local anesthetic 27, 70 and 500 μL L−1 concentrations of clove, mint, and camphor oils promoted surgical anaesthesia after 310.5, 312.0, and 535.0 s (medians) respectively. 200, 400, 500, 550 and 600 μL L−1 2 STARS
insecticide an economically viable product, camphor EO is a good alternative for harmful chemical insecticides used to control RIFAs. Camphor is also a main EO component in many aromatic plant species (Hammer Schmidt et al. 1993, Kamdem and Gage 1995, Tirillini et al. 1996, Juteau et al. 2002, Viljoen et al. 2003).36.61%
antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cytotoxicity activity oil exhibited moderate antibacterial activity (MIC <1.0 mg/mL) and strong antifungal activity. Time–kill curve studies showed that either the essential oil or b-caryophyllene presented rapid bacterial killing (4 h for S. aureus) and fungicidal effect (2-4 h for F. solani); however, both displayed weak free radical scavenger capacity. The cytotoxic activity exhibited a prominent selective effect against hepatoma cancer cells (IC50 value ¼63.7 lg/mL) compared with normal fibroblasts (IC50 value ¼195.0 lg/mL), whereas the b-caryophyllene showed low cytotoxicity.7.8–500 lg/mL6 STARS
antidepressant possibility that BCP may ameliorate the symptoms of these mood disorders offers exciting prospects for future studies.50 mg/kg5 STARS
anticonvulsant biological activities have been reported for β-caryophyllene, including anti-inflammatory [7], anti-alcoholism [8], antinociceptive [9], anxiolytic, and antidepressant [10] properties. Interestingly, recent accumulating evidence indicates that β-caryophyllene is neuroprotective in several experimental paradigms [11–14]. 100 mg/kg
antibacterial conclusion, the essential oils from A. virgata, L. brasiliensis, L. sericea, L. camara, L. montevidensis and L. trifolia, collected in Minas Gerais, Brazil, are chemically similar, and this species are potential alternative source of (E)-caryophyllene and germacrene-D. The results described also demonstrate the promising possibility of using of the essential oils from A. virgata, L. brasiliensis, L. montevidensis and L. trifolia as an alternative to some disinfectants and preservatives against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.10-35% (content percent)
anxiolitic major component, β-caryophyllene, also has an anxiolytic-like effect that may contribute to the effects of EO50, 100 and 200 mg/kg
neuroprotective (TC), a component of essential oil found in many flowering plants, has shown its neuroprotective effects in various neurological disorders.NA
anti-proliferative, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory these results justify the use of these plants in traditional medicine in Burkina Faso and open a new field of investigation in the characterization of the molecules involved in anti-proliferative processes.10.54% (compound percent)3 STARS
Caryophyllene oxideoxdiation product of Beta-Caryophylleneantioxidant, antibacterial, and anticancer The major constituents were trans-caryophyllene (30.9%),
-caryophyllene oxide (17.9%), -humulene (6.0%), -cadinene (4.1%), -muurolene (3.5%),
-cadinene (2.3%), -selinene (1.9%), germacrene D (1.8%) and -bisabolene (1.6%).
Antioxidant activity of the essential oil was evaluated by using the DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-
2-picrylhydrazyl) radicals scavenging assay.
B-caryophyllene oxide (17.9%)3 STARS
analgesic oxide (17.9%), -humulene (6.0%), -cadinene (4.1%), -muurolene (3.5%),caryophyllene oxide amounts to 56.90% o
Cedrolantimicrobial major components from each sample were found to be: junipene (11.7%), α-pinene (7.9%), manoyl oxide (7.1%) (sample A), α-pinene (45.8%), trans-β-terpineol (6.6%) (sample B), α-pinene (17.7%), α-eudesmol (12.1%), n-decanal (6.2%), guaiol (5.0%) (sample C), α-pinene (18.2%), δ-cadinene (8.4%) and α-muurolene (5.0%) (sample D), α-pinene (10.9%), n-decanal (10.3%), cedrol (6.3%), n-nonanal (5.4%), and manool (5.2%) (sample E). The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the volatiles from all five studied samples against six bacteria and three fungi is also assayed and reported.cedrol (6.3%)3 STARS
Cymeneessential oils of cumin
antifungal, herbicidal, and insecticidal properties (87.0%), p-cymene (2.0%), linalool acetate (1.7%), borneol (1.6%) and beta-caryophyllene (1.3%) were found to be as main constituents. The findings of the present study suggest that antifungal and herbicidal properties of the oil can be attributed to its major component, carvacrol, and these agents have a potential to be used as fungicide, herbicide as well as insecticide.2.00%5 STARS
Antioxidant and neuroprotective agent result of this study shows that p-cymene has an antioxidant potential in vivo and may act as a neuroprotective agent in the brain. This compound may present a new strategy in the development of treatment for many diseases in which oxidative stress plays an important pathophysiological role.NA
protection against acute lung injury/ anti-inflammatory In this study, we investigated anti-inflammatory effects of p-cymene on acute lung injury using lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) mouse modelNA
Delta 3 Carenerosemary
anti-inflammatory essential oil of Bupleurum gibraltaricum showed considerable anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-produced pedal edema in rats. This appeared to be due to the delta-3-carene component.NA5 STARS
larvicidal activity three major constituents extracted from the K. heteroclita EO were tested individually for acute toxicity against larvae of the three mosquito vectors. δ-Cadinene, Calarene and δ-4-Carene appeared most effective against An. stephensi (LC50 = 8.23, 12.34 and 16.37 µg/mL, respectively) followed by Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 9.03, 13.33 and 17.91 µg/mL), and Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50 = 9.86, 14.49 and 19.50 µg/mL). Overall, this study adds knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides against malaria, dengue and filariasis mosquito.NA
bone growth anabolic activity of 3-carene in bone metabolism suggested that the use of natural additives to the diet including essential oils could have a beneficial effect on bone health.NA
anti-inflammatory essential oil of the Cázulas Mountains population was most active against acute inflammation owing to its high delta 3-carene content, whereas the Quéntar Reservoir essential oil of B. gibraltaricum was most effective against granuloma induced inflammationNA2 STARS
D-Limoneneantimicrobial positive effects and outstanding antimicrobial activity of d-limonene nanoemulsion with nisin were confirmed by MICs comparison, scanning electron microscopy and determination of cell constituents released. Overall, the research described in the current article would be helpful in developing a more effective antimicrobial system for the production and preservation of foods.NA5 STARS
Anti-inflammatory activity conclusion, d-Limonene indeed demonstrates significant anti-inflammatory effects both in vivo and in vitro. Protective effects on the epithelial barrier and decreased cytokines are involved, suggesting a beneficial role of d-Limonene as diet supplement in reducing inflammation.10 mg/kg
anxiolytic, both EJC and one of its monoterpenes, d-limonene, possessed potent anxiolytic and analgesic activities based on the results obtained from elevated plus maze and writhing tests.15.21%
GASTRIC ULCER studies have described the gastroprotective effects of essential oils that are derived from Citrus aurantium (OEC) and its main compound d-limonene (LIM) in a model of chemically induced ulcers in rats.
The obtained results demonstrated that lower effective doses of OEC (250 mg/kg) and LIM (245 mg/kg) induced gastric mucosal healing with a cure rate of 44% and 56%, respectively, compared with the control group (P<.05).
essential oil Antifungal activity of the EO and its main components, limonene (57.5%) and methyleugenol (35.9%), were evaluated against clinically relevant yeasts (Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans and Malassezia furfur) and moulds (Aspergillus spp. and dermatophytes). 56% and 57.5%2 STARS
tea trees
bay leaves
Antiinflammatory present results, when taken together with the recent reports that describe the inhibitory effects of cineole on the formation of prostaglandins and cytokines by stimulated monocytes in vitro, may provide additional evidence for its potential beneficial use in therapy as an antiinflammatory and analgesic agent.NA5 STARS
larvicidal activity ovipositional repellency of 1,8-cineole, coupled with the presence of severalHemizonia chromenes previously shown to possess mosquito larvicidal activity, may therefore account in large part for the observed suppression of local mosquito populations which was associated withH. fitchii plants in northern California.NA
reduces contractile activity present study was designed to investigate the actions of the oil on the contractile activity of cardiac muscle.
Eucalyptol also reduced time parameters, time to peak tension and relaxation time of the isometric contractions (Figure 2) in a concentration-dependent manner.
0.01, 0.05, 0.1, and 0.5 mM
mouthwash is an ingredient in many brands of mouthwash and cough suppressant.0.002%1 STARS
Farneseneappleantioxidant and antimicrobial,E)-α-Farnesene (51.5%) and (E)-cinnamyl alcohol (10.7%) constituted the major compounds of the flower oil of A. mollissima, while n-nonadecane (29.6%) and caryophyllene oxide (15.9%) were the main constituents of the essential oil of A. cyclops. Antioxidant activity of the isolated oils was studied by varied assays, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and the 2,2-azinobis 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS); the isolated oils showed lowest IC50 (4-39 μg/mL) indicating their high antioxidant activity.51.50%3 STARS
Flower oilAntifungal chemical composition of the essential oils from leaves and flowers of Erigeron floribundus (H.B. et K.) Sch. Bip. from Cameroon was investigated by GC and GC/MS and their antifungal activities evaluated by the agar dilution method. The leaf oil was rich in (E)-2-lachnophyllum ester (23.7–26.2%), β-caryophyllene (14.7–16.6%), (E)-β-farnesene (14.6–16.4%) and limonene (8.5–11.4%). The flower oil contained mainly (E)-β-farnesene (22.3–21.1%), β-caryophyllene (17.3–20.1%) and germacrene D (10.1–11.0%). These oils exhibited broad antifungal activities againstTrichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans. The flower oil was found to be more active than the leaf oil. Candida albicans was the most sensitive fungus with a MIC of 2.25 μL/mL14.6–16.4%2 STARS
Fenchol (Fenchyl alcohol )basilantibacterial the tested compounds, nerol, linalool alpha-terpineol, fenchol and terpinen-4-ol showed antibacterialNA2 STARS
Geraniolgeraniumsmosquito repellant concluded that geraniol had significantly more repellent activity than citronella or linalool in both indoor and outdoor settings.NA5 STARS
antioxidant attenuated important features of allergic asthma in mice, possibly through the modulation of TH1/TH2 balance and activation the of Nrf2/antioxidant response element pathway100 or 200 mg/kg
inhibit cancer growth Our findings provide insight into future investigations that are aimed at elucidating the role of apoptosis and autophagy in prostate cancer therapy and at developing anticancer strategies co-targeting AKT and AMPK.NA
anti-inflammatory supplementation greatly prevented the remodeling of tissues by enhancing the free radical scavenging and anti-inflammatory effects.100mg/kg
Geranyl Acetateoils of citronella
antimicrobial oils were examined by GC and GC/MS. Limonene (18.7%) and thymol (19–4%); geraniol (56.8%) and geranyl acetate (7.6%); linalool (63.1%) and α-terpinyl acetate (20.4%) were the predominant components in each of the three different chemotypes, respectively. The oils also exhibited moderate to strong antimicrobial activity against the six Gram (±) tested bacteria7.60%2 STARS
Guaiolantioxidant and antimicrobial The fraction of the crude essential oil that presented antioxidant activity was purified by prep-TLC on silica gel. GC and GC-MS analysis revealed that a-bisabolol (38.3%), a-eudesmol (9.3%) and guaiol (8.2%) were the main components of the antioxidant fraction. The antimicrobial activity of the crude essential oil was assayed against seven Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and three yeasts. Measured MIC values ranged from 1.25 to 10.00 mg mL-1.8,2%3 STARS
oil of guaiacum
cypress pine
antimicrobial major components from each sample were found to be: junipene (11.7%), α-pinene (7.9%), manoyl oxide (7.1%) (sample A), α-pinene (45.8%), trans-β-terpineol (6.6%) (sample B), α-pinene (17.7%), α-eudesmol (12.1%), n-decanal (6.2%), guaiol (5.0%) (sample C), α-pinene (18.2%), δ-cadinene (8.4%) and α-muurolene (5.0%) (sample D), α-pinene (10.9%), n-decanal (10.3%), cedrol (6.3%), n-nonanal (5.4%), and manool (5.2%) (sample E). The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the volatiles from all five studied samples against six bacteria and three fungi is also assayed and reported.5.00%2 STARS
Sedative oxide, (-)-guaiol and (+)-spathulenol showed only sedative effects at proportional concentrations to those of the constituents in essential oil.NA2 STARS
Humulenecannabis sativa strains
Vietnamese coriander
anti-inflammatory these findings indicate that α-humulene and (−)-trans-caryophyllene, derived from the essential oil of C. verbenacea, might represent important tools for the management and/or treatment of inflammatory diseasesNA5 STARS
Anticancer non-cytotoxic concentration of β-caryophyllene significantly increased the anticancer activity of α-humulene and isocaryophyllene on MCF-7 cells: α-humulene or isocaryophyllene alone (32 μg mL−1) inhibited cell growth by about 50% and 69%, respectively, compared with 75% and 90% when combined with 10 μg mL−1 β-caryophyllene.32 μg mL−1
anti-bacterial of our study suggest the possibility of using the oil or organic extracts of P. integrifolia as natural antimicrobials in food or pharmaceutical industry because they possess strong antibacterial activities14.21% (compound percent)2 STARS
anti-tumor antitumor activity of the essential oil of Abies balsamea (balsam fir oil) was evaluated against several solid tumor cell lines including MCF-7, PC-3, A-549, DLD-1, M4BEU and CT-26. All the compounds tested were inactive (tau; 250 microM) except for alpha-humulene (GI50 = 55 to 73 microM) which thus seems responsible for the cytotoxicity of the oil. hese results suggest that GSH depletion and ROS production may be implicated in the cytotoxicity of alpha-humulene and balsam fir oil.NA
Isoborneolantimicrobial major components of the essential oil were isoborneol (14.66%), bornyl acetate (11.86%), α-humulene (11.23%), α-fenchene (9.32%), and 1.8-cineole (7.05%), supporting the existence of two chemotypes of this species. The antimicrobial activity in vitro was performed by broth microdilution method. 14.66%2 STARS
Isopulegolgastroprotective results suggested that isopulegol presents significant gastroprotective effects in both ethanol- and indomethacin-induced ulcer models, which appear to be mediated, at least in part, by endogenous prostaglandins, K(ATP) channel opening, and antioxidant properties.NA5 STARS
reduces severity of seizures results suggest that the anticonvulsant and bioprotective effects of isopulegol against PTZ-induced convulsions are possibly related to positive modulation of benzodiazepine-sensitive GABA(A) receptors and to antioxidant properties.NA
anti-inflammatory We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain22.02%3 STARS
anti-inflammatory essential oil extracted from leaves by hydrodistillation was characterized by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). M. officinalis contained Nerol (30.44%), Citral (27.03%), Isopulegol (22.02%), Caryophyllene (2.29%), Caryophyllene oxide (1.24%), and Citronella (1.06%). We can conclude that the essential oil of M. officinalis L. possesses potential anti-inflammatory activities, supporting the traditional application of this plant in treating various diseases associated with inflammation and pain.22.02%2 STARS
Limonene(peels of) citrus fruits
essential oils
Citrus aurantium
ulcers and gastric reflux gastroprotective effect of CL and LIM was involved with increasing in mucus secretion, HSP-70 and VIP, but not with GSH, NO or SH compounds. CL gastroprotective mechanism is involved with PGE2. PIN did not present gastroprotective activity.NA5 STARS
anxiolytic findings suggest that acute administration of the (+)-limonene epoxide exerts an anxiolytic-like effect on mice, and it could serve as a new approach for the treatment anxiety, since it practically does not produce toxic effects.25, 50 and 75 mg/kg
Mechanical hyperalgesia, the results of the present work show that essential oil of S. terebinthifolius and compounds present in this oil, including (R)-(+)-limonene and α-phellandrene, exhibit antihyperalgesic effects against mechanical hyperalgesia, and are antidepressive, while only α-phellandrene inhibited cold hyperalgesia in SNI rats.10 mg/kg
sedative and muscle/ relaxer motor relaxant study showed that citral, limonene and myrcene presented sedative as well as motor relaxant effects. Although only at the highest dose, they also produced a potentiation of the pentobarbital-induced sleeping time in mice, which was more intense in the presence of citral. In addition, neither of them showed an anxiolytic effect, but rather a slight anxiogenic type of effect at the higher doses.100 and 200 mg/kg
sedative low intensity of jasmine tea odor has sedative effects on both autonomic nerve activity and mood states, and (R)-(-)-linalool, one of its components, can mimic these effects.NA8 STARS
anti anxiety results suggest that inhalation of linalool oxide may be a useful means of counteracting anxiety.0.65%, 1.25%, 2.5% and 5.0% w/w5 STARS
antidepressant results indicate that linalool and β-pinene produce an antidepressant-like effect through interaction with the monoaminergic system.NA
Terpene Studies Database
Rating Sytem Legend