Gender ICT Data Resources
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TitleAuthorFocus areaDetailLinksGeographic Area
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Exploring Mobile-only Internet Use: results of a training study in urban South Africa (2011)Jonathan Donner, Shikoh Gitau and Gary Marsden Economic benefits of ICTs for women (income, job creation etc)
Social benefits of ICTs for women (access to information, safety and security, empowerment etc)
This qualitative, ethnographic, research study looked at the effects of giving a small number of 'top of the bottom of the pyramid' women in South Africa, who are first-time mobile users, access to mobile Internet.
http://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/view/750/543South Africa
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Socioeconomic benefits of mobile phones for women at the BOP (2012)LIRNEAsia Economic benefits of ICTs for women (income, job creation etc). Social benefits of ICTs for women (access to information, safety and security, empowerment etc). Mobile gender gap (access)This mixed methods (quant and qual) study looked at the socio-economic benefits of using mobile for BoP women in Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, Sri Lanka and Thailand, through a large-scale survey with over 10,000 people and follow-up in-depth interviews.
http://lirneasia.net/wp-content/uploads/2010/07/Innovation-brief-Socioeconomic-benefits-of-mobiles-for-BOP-women.pdfBangladesh, Pakistan, India, Thailand,Sri Lanka
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A Research and Policy Advocacy Initiative on Women’s Empowerment Through the WebWeb FoundationEconomic benefits of ICTs for women (income, job creation etc)
Social benefits of ICTs for women (access to information, safety and security, empowerment etc)
Specific to Uganda, research found that "Benefits of using mobile phone and the internet for women": 74% said "Money"; and 23% said "Got business/Job contracts
http://wougnet.org/download/annual-reports/Uganda%20Survey%20Country%20Report%20Final%20.pdfUganda
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ICTs and Farm Women: Access, Use and ImpactRajni Jain, Usha Rani Ahuja and Anjani KumarEconomic benefits of ICTs (for women) (income, job creation etc)Study in India found that access to ICTs improves the income of farm women households and increased their participation in the decision-making.http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/bitstream/204822/2/11-Rajni_ICT11_Final.pdfIndia
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Lifting the veil on gender indicators in Africa (2012).Research ICT AfricaMobile gender gap (access & use: key stats)
Mobile internet gender gap (access: key stats)
Country-level data on the gender gap in ICT access and use across 12 African countries (includes mobile, internet and computers)http://www.researchictafrica.net/publications/Evidence_for_ICT_Policy_Action/Policy_Paper_13_-_Lifting_the_veil_on_gender_ICT_indicators_in_Africa.pdfAfrica
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Bridging the gender gap: mobile access and usage in low and middle income countries (2015) GSMA Connected WomenMobile gender gap (access and use: key stats)
Mobile internet gender gap (access: key stats)
Overall global gender gap in mobile access - a woman is 14% less likely to own a mobile phone than a man, which equates to 200 million fewer women than men owning mobiles
Regional variations - gender gap is highest in: South Asia: 72% of female population unconnected (594m); gender gap is 38%
Sub-Saharan Africa: 64% (304m); gender gap is 13%, but masks regional inequalities eg gender gap is 45% in Niger, and East Asia and Pacific: 54% (531m)
http://www.gsma.com/mobilefordevelopment/programmes/connected-women/bridging-gender-gapIndia, China, Niger, DRC, Mexico, Indonesia, Turkey, Kenya, Colombia, Egypt, Jordan
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Doubling Digital Opportunities: enhancing the inclusion of women and girls in the information society.(2013)Broadband Commission for Digital Opportunities Mobile internet gender gap (access and use: key stats)There are 200 million fewer women than men are online than men, and women are coming online more slowly than men. The internet gender gap is more pronounced in developing countries, where 16% fewer women than men use the Internet, compared with only 2% fewer women than men in the developed world. The Gender gap exists in both access to and use of ICTs http://www.broadbandcommission.org/documents/working-groups/bb-doubling-digital-2013.pdfGlobal
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Women and the Web (2013)Intel Mobile internet access and use (key stats)
Socio-economic benefits of ICTs
21% of women and girls in developing countries have access to the Internet, compared to 27% of men. This represents 600 million women and girls online—200 million fewer than men and boys. Egypt: 32 % of Egyptian women are online, higher than other women in Middle East and North Africa. Mexico: 34% of Mexican women were online. Uganda: 9% of women were online. India: 8% of women were online.http://www.intel.co.uk/content/dam/www/public/us/en/documents/pdf/women-and-the-web.pdfEgypt, Mexico, Uganda, India
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Accelerating Digital Literacy: empowering women to use the mobile Internet (2015)GSMA Connected WomenMobile internet access and use (key stats)Key findings:
• Women using mobile Internet are often only able to use 1 or 2 applications (eg FB or Whatsapp) but often can’t apply these skills to other services and apps
• Most users and non-users didn't understand the full potential of the Internet – and didn't see it outside those 1 or 2 apps they used
• Female users rely heavily on social networks to learn – but barriers of social norms around males fears of women using internet, lack of skills amongst their helpers
http://www.gsma.com/mobilefordevelopment/wp-content/uploads/2015/06/DigitalLiteracy_v6_WEB_Singles.pdfIndia, Kenya, Indonesia
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Financial Inclusion Insights: Country- Specific Reports. IntermediaMobile gender gap: access (and key stats)These research studies have primary large-scale data from 8 countries across Asia and Africa on data points for men and women’s access to mobile, digital financial services, and financial institutions.http://finclusion.org/reports/Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Nigeria, Pakistan, Tanzania, Uganda
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Facebook Domestication (2015)Emrys SchoemakerMobile internet access and use (key stats)In a recent telephone survey of 900 mobile data users in three Punjabi cities, 85% of male respondents reported that they mostly use Facebook, compared to only 47% of female respondents. By contrast, 45% of women say they usually use WhatsApp compared to only 13% of men.
http://www.tanqeed.org/2015/07/facebook-domestication/India
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Women and mobile money: insights from Kenya (2015)GSMA Connected WomenDigital Financial ServicesDraws on quant data from GSMA CW study and Findex surveys on women's access to mobile money in Kenya, and does primary qualitative research into behaviours. Findings include if looking at frequency of use, men and women are similar in MFS use, but for regular users, women are 26% less likely that men to send money, lower-income women are approximately 50% less likely than men to have sent mobile money in last 7 days, however lower-income women are only 16% less likely than men to own a mobile phone
http://www.gsma.com/mobilefordevelopment/programme/connected-women/women-and-mobile-money-insights-from-kenyaKenya
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Mobile phones, internet and gender in Myanmar (2015)GSMA Connected WomenMobile gender gap: access and use (including key stats)Original primary quant and qual research in Myanmar -- there is a gender gap is in mobile ownership, but not in usage. 40% of Myanmar population own a mobile but a woman is 29% less likely to own a mobile than a man. Access to computers / laptops extremely low for all (1 - 2%). The mobile gender gap is highest among low-income households. Smartphone ownership relatively high - 66% of all phones - no gender differences in terms of smartphone ownership
http://www.gsma.com/mobilefordevelopment/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Mobile-phones-internet-and-gender-in-Myanmar.pdfMyanmar
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The Affordability Report (2015)Alliance for Affordable Internet Internet access (key stats)Four billion people (56% of the world) are still not using the Internet, the majority of this offline population are women
http://a4ai.org/affordability-report/report/Global
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Women's Rights Online (2015)Web Foundation Internet access and use (key stats)
Benefits
Original primary quant research. Women are about 50% less likely to be connected than men in the same age group with similar levels of education and household income. Women are a third less likely than men of similar age, education level and economic status to use their mobile phones to access the Internet. Gender gap in Internet access is bigger than gender gap in Internet use. The urban poor tend not to actively seek out information from any source on key topics on their rights, and very few take part in political debate - this is mirrored in online use and more exaggerated for female users. Socio-economic factors come into play - in India, women are half as likely as men to speak out online, and a third less likely to use the Internet to look for work.http://webfoundation.org/docs/2015/10/womens-rights-online21102015.pdfIndia
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Community radio, gender and ICTs in West Africa (2013)Frances Fortune and Cindy Chungong Radio: access and use
Benefits of radio
Radio remains the leading source of information in many developing contexts, far outpacing television, newspapers and the Internet. Generally speaking women tend to have more access to radio than mobile phones, and it can be used effectively to reach female listeners, and has been used for female-specific content (for example, BBC Media Action)
http://carleton.ca/africanstudies/wp-content/uploads/6-Nokoko-3-Community-Radio-Gender-and-ICTs-in-West-Africa.pdfWest Africa
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Child survival RCT in Burkina Faso (2014)Development Media Action Radio: access and use
Benefits of radio
This RCT looked at whether listening to a radio show in Burkina Faso resulted in any behaviour change amongst listeners of a radio show and radio messages around child nutrition and maternal and neonatal health
The RCT was conducted over 4 years and midline results found that listening to the radio brought about behaviour change
http://www.developmentmedia.net/child-survival-rct-burkina-fasoBurkina Faso
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Can mass media cause change? A randomised control trial finds out (2016)BBC Media Action Benefits of ICTs for development programmingBBC Media Action conducted an RCT in Bangladesh to see if their two maternal health TV shows had a direct effect on the viewers, particularly women. They found that women who watched the drama showed significantly higher levels of knowledge across all of measures of antenatal and early newborn care than the control group. Women in both treatment groups (i.e. all those who watched either one or both of the health programmes) reported improved attitudes on several of the reproductive and maternal health statements they were asked abouthttp://www.bbc.co.uk/blogs/mediaactioninsight/entries/703ec6e0-e8e1-4891-b614-752d48c678fcBangladesh
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World Development Report 2016: Digital DividendsWorld BankSocio-economic benefits of ICTs for the bottom billionNearly 7 of 10 people in the bottom fifth of the population in developing countries own a mobile phone, improving their access to markets and services.
In rural Niger, agricultural price information obtained through mobile phones reduces search costs by 50 percent. In rural Peru, access to mobile phones boosted household real consumption by 11 percent between 2004 and 2009, reducing poverty by 8 percentage points and extreme poverty by 5.4 percentage points
http://www.worldbank.org/en/publication/wdr2016Niger, Peru
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Connecting to Opportunity: A Survey of Afghan Women's Access to Mobile Technology (2013)USAIDAfghan's women access and use of mobile technology80 percent of the Afghan women surveyed have regular or occasional access to mobile phones. Sixty-seven percent of the women who own a
mobile phone have acquired it in the last two years.
https://www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1871/survey_afghan_women_mobile.pdfAfghanistan
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Digital Financial Solutions to Advance Women's Economic Participation (2015)WWB, Gates, BTCA,Digital FInancial Services
This report outlines the role of digital financial services in improving
women’s economic participation, the challenges of increasing women’s access to
digital financial services, and the opportunities governments and other sectors have
to foster an inclusive global economy in which digital financial services are widely
available to everyone, especially women
http://www.womensworldbanking.org/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Womens-Economic-Participation-Report-16-November-2015.pdf
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Global ICT StatisticsITUKey ICT data for the world, by geographic regions and by level of development 2005-2016Basic statistics, including internet usehttp://www.itu.int/en/ITU-D/Statistics/Pages/stat/default.aspxGlobal
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Earphones Are Not for Women:
Gendered ICT Use Among Youths in Ethiopia and Malawi (2011)
Marije GeldofQualitative data on gendered ICT usageThis paper examines the complex relationship between gender and ICTs from the perspective of low literate youth in Ethiopia and Malawi, based on a wider inquiry into the role of ICTs in their live (qualitative data)
http://itidjournal.org/index.php/itid/article/view/792/333
Ethiopia and Malawi
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Mobile phones, internet, and gender in Myanmar (2015)GSMA Connected Women & Lirne AsiaMyanmarese women's access and use of mobile technologyFocussing on the gender gaps in mobile ownership and the reasons for low mobile internet use, this report uses data from baseline surveys with 12,000 respondents in wards and villages across Myanmar and focus groups in rural and urban environmentshttp://www.gsma.com/mobilefordevelopment/wp-content/uploads/2016/02/Mobile-phones-internet-and-gender-in-Myanmar.pdfMyanmar
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The Mobile Gender Gap Report 2018GSMA Connected WomenWomen's access and usage of mobile and mobile internet in 23 low and middle income countriesFindings from this report are based on the results of face-to-face surveys conducted by GSMA Intelligence in 23 low- and middle-income countries, and subsequent analysis of this survey datahttps://www.gsma.com/mobilefordevelopment/programme/connected-women/mobile-gender-gap-report-2018Cote d'Ivoire, Kenya, Tanzania, Nigeria, India, Bangladesh, China, Pakistan, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Indonesia, Myanmar, Philippines, Dominican Republic, Ghana, South Africa, Argentina, Nicaragua
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Women's pathways to opportunities in the digital sector: stories of opportunities and challengesGIZhttps://www.bmz.de/en/publications/type_of_publication/weitere_materialien/study_eSkills4girls.pdf
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