Standard of Evidence for Wikipedia, EBM, Psych Science
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Example
Wikipedia Standards
Evidence-Based MedicineSocial SciencesLink
No. of Citations
COMMENTS
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Merikangas, K. R., He, J. P., Burstein, M., Swanson, S. A., Avenevoli, S., Cui, L., . . . Swendsen, J. (2010). Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in U.S. adolescents: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication--Adolescent Supplement (NCS-A). Journal of American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(10), 980-989. doi: 10.1016/j.jaac.2010.05.017
"Primary" Source: Do not cite
Primary report of large epidemiological study (Level II for prevalence; could be Level VI+ for inference about risk factors or mechanisms)
High for single study; below meta-analysis or systematic review of studies; NIH funded; High impact journal; highly cited paper; reputable research group; no conflicts of interest
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2946114/
978 in Googlescholar as of 3-21-2015
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Secondary - Preferred source
Modest impact journal (1.3 impact - http://www.abpbrasil.org.br/boletim_internacional/eng/journal/); not a systematic review -- Level III- or IV?
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Table 1A-1 from Guyatt & Rennie (2002) User's Guide to the Medical Literature. AMA Press.
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N of 1 randomized controlled trialSurprisingly high -- can be top tier for clinical decisions; Guyatt & Rennie (2002) p. 7
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Systematic review of randomized clinical trials
Strong secondary
Top tier, Level ITop Tier
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Single Randomized trial
"primary" - do not cite
Level II -- first choice in the absence of a systematic review or synopsis
"Promising," and second *independent* replication establishes as "empirically supported treatment"
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Systematic review of *observational* studies addressing patient-important outcomes
Strong secondary
Level IIINeeds further research
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Narrative review
Secondary - cite
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Textbook
Tertiary; could cite
Burn it. (Straus et al., 2011, p. 30)
Do not cite; could use as source to work backwards to identify research articles that could then be cited if directly read and evaluated
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Single observational study addressing patient-important outcomes
"primary"
Level IVNeeds further research
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Physiologic studies (of putative mechanism or marker)
"primary" if single study; could be "secondary" if a review
Level V
(not considered as evidence; could be reintroduced as mediator if efficacy already established)
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Unsystematic clinical observations
primary
Level VI
Not considered in the "research evidence" pillar; could be considered under "clinical expertise" pillar
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Table 1A-2 from Guyatt & Rennie (2002) User's Guide to the Medical Literature. AMA Press.
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A Hierarchy of Preprocessed Evidence
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Studies (filtered or vetted)
"primary"
Level II+
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Systematic Reviews
Strong secondary
Level I
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Synopses
Strong secondary
Level I+
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Systems
Strong secondary or tertiary
Level I+
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http://www.cochranelibrary.com/editorial/10.1002/14651858.ED000069
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Primary_source#OtherFields
Guyatt, G. H., & Rennie, D. (Eds.). (2002). Users' guides to the medical literature. Chicago, IL: AMA Press.Valentine, J. C., & Cooper, H. (2008). A systematic and transparent approach for assessing the methodological quality of intervention effectiveness research: the Study Design and Implementation Assessment Device (Study DIAD). Psychological Methods, 13(2), 130-149. doi: 10.1037/1082-989X.13.2.130
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:No_original_research#Primary.2C_secondary.2C_and_tertiary_sources
Straus, S. E., Glasziou, P., Richardson, W. S., & Haynes, R. B. (2011). Evidence-based medicine: How to practice and teach EBM (4th ed.). New York, NY: Churchill Livingstone.
Chambless, D. L., & Hollon, S. D. (1998). Defining empirically supported therapies. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(1), 7-18.
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Wikipedia_Signpost/2008-06-30/Dispatches
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https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Identifying_reliable_sources_(medicine)#Respect_secondary_sources
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Graded Examples
Citations to track down
Other Links
Comparison of systematic versus non-systematic