Textbook Database Combined
 Share
The version of the browser you are using is no longer supported. Please upgrade to a supported browser.Dismiss

View only
 
 
ABCDEFGHIJKLM
1
TitleDateAuthor(s)PublisherLvlTypeConservationEugenics 0-5Evolution 0-5Haeckel's EmbryosSource and OrderPiltPilt Notes
2
<a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=sLwXAAAAIAAJ&printsec=titlepage">Elements of Biology</a>1907Hunter, George WilliamAmerican Book Company, New YorkHSPhylogenetic00 None beyond that implied by the phylogenetic structure.N
3
<a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=MRwZAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=first+course+in+biology&cd=1#v=onepage&q=&f=false">First Course in Biology*</a>1908Bailey, L. H.; Coleman, Walter MMacmillan, New YorkHSPhylogenetic01 Some content on evolution - which text equates with progress and complexity - integrated into sections on reptiles and bacteria, similar to Smallwood (except 1920).N
4
<a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=1a0VAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q=&f=false">Applied Biology</a>1911Bigelow, Maurice A; Bigelow, Anna NMacmillan, New YorkHSUnity of Life05 Though presented at the end of the text, provides a thorough and surprisingly modest explanation of the topic of evolution.Y 445 Ancestral relationships. Gill slitsCredit: From <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=bA4FAQAAIAAJ&pg=152#v=onepage&q=&f=false">Romanes</a> after Haeckel. Gill slits. Fish, salamader, tortoise, chick, hog, calf, rabbit, man
5
<a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=fNw4AAAAMAAJ&printsec=toc#PPA3,M1">Essentials of Biology</a>1911Hunter, George WilliamAmerican Book Company, New YorkHSPhylogenetic1 Domestication and selective breeding introduced at end of Zoology section.2 Introduces evolution, including human evolution. Very Lamarckian. No Darwin.N
6
<a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=6FEAAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false">Elementary Biology: Plant, Animal, Human</a>1912Peabody, James Edward; Hunt, Arthur EllsworthMacmillan, New YorkHSPhylogenetic01 None beyond that implied by the phylogenetic structure.N
7
<a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=v1AAAAAAYAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=%22civic+biology%22+hunter&ei=lFUlStecHab0ygTisKGbBw">A Civic Biology</a>1914Hunter, George WilliamAmerican Book Company, New YorkHSEconomic4 Strongly eugenic, refers to the "feeble-minded" as parasites, that "blood tells," that there are clearly good families and bad families, and regarding bad families, save for our "humanity" we would "kill them off to prevent them from spreading" (263). However, conclusion less doctrinaire.3 An amalgam of Lamarckian and Darwinian ideas, used the word evolution, but consigned Darwin to support "improvement" of plants, animals and humans (253).N
9
<a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=B1IAAAAAYAAJ&pg=PR3&dq=intitle:practical+intitle:biology&lr=&as_drrb_is=b&as_minm_is=0&as_miny_is=1900&as_maxm_is=0&as_maxy_is=1920&as_brr=0#v=onepage&q=&f=false">Practical Biology</a>1916Smallwood, W. M; Reveley, Ida L; Bailey, Guy AAllyn and Bacon, BostonHSPhylogenetic02 Evolution indexed. Darwin bio (30) includes references to both Origins and Descent.N
10
<a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=yIgVAAAAIAAJ&printsec=titlepage">Civic Biology</a>1918Hodge, Clifton F. and Dawson, JeanGinn, BostonHSEconomic4 Strongly eugenic. Directly links evolution to eugenics and boldly promotes the critical need to prevent the "feeble-minded" ‰ÛÒ 1 in 30 Americans, according to the authors ‰ÛÒ from reproducing (344-45).3 Offers reasonable description of evolution, but only as a set up to genetic and eugenic management.N
11
<a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=PChCAAAAIAAJ&printsec=titlepage">Elementary Biology: An Introduction to the Science of Life</a>1919Gruenberg, Benjamin CGinn, BostonHSUnity of Life1 Very mildly eugenic.4 Clear in its presentation of theory. Cautionary in promotion of application.Y 277 Recapitulation, disclaimedCredit: Gruenberg (clearly references <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=bA4FAQAAIAAJ&pg=152#v=onepage&q=&f=false">Romanes</a> after Haeckel. Fish, salamader, tortoise, chick, pig, sheep, rabbit, manXFirst instance. No bust. Drawing appears to be a tracing from Arthur Smith Woodward, including missing areas, flipped upon printing. "Found in 1911."
12
<a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=TiszAQAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false">Biology for High Schools</a>1920Smallwood, W. M; Reveley, Ida L; Bailey, Guy AAllyn and Bacon, BostonHSPhylogenetic1 Mildly suggests students "take care" in selecting mates so that the inherited tendency toward "industry and thrift" are passed on to children.0 Evolution not indexed. Darwin bio not present in text (only Smallwood to omit). Weak presentation of human evolution. Confused presentation of natural selection.N
13
<a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=2Y0fAAAAMAAJ&printsec=titlepage">Biology for Beginners</a>1921Moon, Truman JHolt, New YorkHSPhylogenetic1 Implies racial progress.3 Indexed. Reasonable description. Note: strongly links organic and cultural evolution.NXReproduces "Ancestral Tree of the Anthropoid Apes and of Man" chart from pg. 54 of Osborn's Men of the Old Stone Age.
14
<a href="http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/61270">Foundations of Biology</a>1922Woodruff, Lorande Loss (M) Yale <a href="books.nap.edu/html/biomems/lwoodruff.pdf">Bio</a>Macmillan, New YorkC1 Cautionary. '37 edition includes important anti-eugenic statement. See pp. 407-09.
15
<a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=ZbMUAAAAYAAJ&printsec=titlepage">Civic and Economic Biology</a>1922Atwood, Wm. HP. Blakiston's, Philadelphia HSEconomic5 Harshly eugenic. Contains the most shocking defense, summed up by this quote: "One of the reasons why Greece, Rome, and the other great nations of antiquity perished is that they violated the principles of eugenics. If our nation is to live its people must be of the best, and their blood must not be contaminated by that of the unfit. What is your state doing to improve the next generation?" (337).4 Complete by standards of the day, though highly progressionist, focused toward improvement. Labeled "The Doctrine of Evolution." Compare to era's best, Bigelow 1911.Y 18 Discussed 352 Gill slitsCredit: From <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=tnkSAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA230#v=onepage&q=&f=false">McFarland</a>, after Hackel (sic). Clearly from Romanes. Fish, salamader, tortoise, chick
16
<a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=tB5MAQAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover">New Essentials of Biology</a>1923Hunter, George WilliamAmerican Book Company, New YorkHSPhylogenetic1 Identical to Hunter 1911.2 Identical to Hunter 1911.N
17
<a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=ItcOAQAAIAAJ&printsec=frontcover">The Biology of Man and Other Organisms</a>1923Linville, Henry RHarcourt, New YorkHSNormative4 Strongly eugenic in its demands for "social control of inheritance" (178), though structure mitigates narrative force, climaxing with calls for correct posture, exercise and proper diet.4 Evolution strongly presented, though its position at the end of zoology section telegraphs a progressionist rather than unity of life ideology.N
18
<a href="https://books.google.com/books?id=0TEMAAAAMAAJ&printsec=frontcover">Biology of Home and Community</a>1923Trafton, Gilbert HMacmillan, New YorkHSEconomic0 No eugenics, despite focus on domestication and species improvement.4 Excellent, extensive treatment of topic. Unusual for its day. Downplays natural selection somewhat in favor of mutations - typical.N Discussed 584
19
Living Things, An Elementary Biology1924Clement, Arthur GIroquois Publishing Co, Syracuse, NYHSEconomic4 Eugenics serves as closing statement, after plant and animal breeding. Talks of hard costs to society of bad heredity: Jukes and Kallikaks.2 Natural selection, adaptation, Darwin credited for theory, evolution indexed, reference to Origins.N
20
Biology and Human Welfare1924Peabody, James Edward; Hunt, Arthur EllsworthMacmillan, New YorkHSEconomic5 Harshly prescriptive. Heritage and habits of equal importance.1 Darwin (along with Agassiz and Pasteur) introduced early as great biologists, but no mention of evolution.N
21
New Biology1924Smallwood, W. M; Reveley, Ida L; Bailey, Guy AAllyn and Bacon, BostonHSPhylogenetic2 Text is generally descriptive not prescriptive. Little or no content on habits, posture, mate selection, trade selection.2 Indexed and woven into the text, carefully so as not to offend. Word 'evolution' used just once, and oddly. Darwin bio edited.N
22
Living Things, An Elementary Biology1925Clement, Arthur GIroquois Publishing Co, Syracuse, NYHSEconomic4 Eugenics serves as closing statement, after plant and animal breeding. Talks of hard costs to society of bad heredity: Jukes and Kallikaks.1 Natural selection remains from 1924 (but as before, only as support for selective breeding. 'Evolution' removed from index. Darwin bio edited.N
23
Biology and Human Life1925Gruenberg, Benjamin CGinn, BostonHSEconomicCloses with Conservation: The earth for mankind, the forest in relation to man, insects in relation to human wealth, birds in relation to man, and people for the earth (ending with eugenics)4 Suggests intelligent control of reproduction via enlightened institutionalization is the only path to more advanced civilization.3 Accurate, anti-progressionist description of natural selection (536) with meaning of "fittest" strongly disclaimed.N
24
Life and Evolution1926Holmes, Samual Jackson (M) University of CaliforniaHarcourt, New YorkC5 - Propogandistic. See pp 411-427. Book's final and climatic chapter. Note particularly citations on 427.XIllustrations from the British Museum and the Geological Society of London (pp 372-73). Alerts reader to possible disassociation of skull and jaw, but cites Elliot Smith's claims for association
25
New Civic Biology1926Hunter, George WilliamAmerican Book Company, New YorkHSEconomicClosing three sections devoted to "man's control of his environment" in relation to health, wealth and improvement of plants and animals.5 Harshly eugenic and deterministic. "Our knowledge of heredity" underscored promotion of natural personal limits - with students suited for the professions, commercial life or the trades relative to their inborn traits (402).3 No different in effect or content than Hunter 1914, despite edits made to satisfy post-Scopes publishing concerns (e.g. 'evolution' became 'development').N
26
An Introduction to Biology1926Kinsey, Alfred CLippincott, ChicagoHSUnity of Life2 Asks students in one exercise to find stories on Jukes, Kallikaks, Darwin and Edwards families. Does not index eugenics, but has a deterministic thrust. "There are really very few of us who have the necessary heredities to make good Presidents of the United States" (174).3 Defends the use of the word 'evolution' (196-97), but focuses on 'sports' and artificial selection. No theory. Evolution not indexed. N Discusses recapitulation
27
Biology for Beginners1926Moon, Truman JHolt, New YorkHSPhylogenetic1 Implies racial progress, but does not cover eugenic language.3 Nearly identical to Moon 1921.N
28
Modern Biology: Its Human Aspects1926Waggoner, Harry DwightD. C. Heath, BostonHSPhylogenetic / Unity of Life hybrid4 Harsh, though typical for the decade ... comparable to Atwood (1927). Quote: "A high class human family can retain its excellence only so long as the marriages of its members are with individuals of the same type. Marriages with lower types can result only in a deterioration in the sum total of desirable family qualities" (347).1 Closes with a short paragraph on the "Law of Development" and the words "Organic Evolution," but makes no mention of the topic elsewhere in the text.N
29
Biology1927Atwood, Wm. HP. Blakiston's, Philadelphia HSEconomic4 Less harsh than Atwood 1922. However, eugenics presented as a climax to the text and a key focus of biology.Y 270 Classification, RecapitulationCredit: Hackel (sic). Clearly from <a href="http://books.google.com/books?id=bA4FAQAAIAAJ&pg=152#v=onepage&q=&f=false">Romanes</a>. Fish, salamader, tortoise, chick
30
The Laws of Living Things1927Menge, Edward J.The Bruce Publishing Company, MilwaukeeHSPhylogenetic w/ some hyrid elements0 Eugenics not indexed, and despite devoting a chapter to "Civic Biology," Menge does not touch on the topic at all.* 4 Strong 10-page section. Promotes Lamarck-Darwin-DeVries. Touches on sesitivities but suggests acceptance
31
Elements of Modern Biology1929Plunkett, Charles RobertHenry Holt and Company, New YorkC0 No mentionXEoanthropus an insignificant point on an evolutionary tree separating primates (p 493).
32
New General Biology1929Smallwood, W. M; Reveley, Ida L; Bailey, Guy AAllyn and Bacon, BostonHSPhylogenetic2 Nearly identical to Smallwood 1924.2 Indexed and woven into the text, carefully so as not to offend. 'Development' substituted for 'evolution' in text. 'Evolution' still in Darwin bio. Bio includes concluding paragraph from Origins (between 648-649).N
33
<a href="http://archive.org/stream/ost-biology-advancedbiology00whearich/advancedbiology00whearich_djvu.txt">Advanced Biology</a>1929Wheat, Frank M.; Fitzpatrick, Elizabeth TAmerican Book Company, New YorkHSUnity of Life4 Significant matter-of-fact 15-page mid-text section, sandwiched between chapters on "Plant and Animal Breeding" and "Progressive Development" (aka evolution). However, surprisingly non-deterministic. Authors believe environmental improvements, such as the eight-hour day, better tenement and housing conditions, public playgrounds for city children, compulsory education, laborers' compensation laws, widows' pensions, child labor laws and vocational guidance and training" could all lead to "race improvement" (362-64).*5 Significant, detailed 20-page section. Though typical Lamarck-Darwin-DeVries layout.Y 388 EvolutionUncredited (appears to be redrawn from Gruenberg 1919). Fish, salamader, turtle, chick, pig, rabbit, human
34
College Biology1930Barrows, Henry R. d. 1935 (M) New York UniversityRichard R. Smith, New YorkC4 Propogandistic. Chapter XVIII - Applied Genetics - ends with subsection on Eugenics. Somewhat edited in 1936.XPositioned as a probable "offshoot from the early human stock and not a direct ancestor to modern man" (p 356)
35
Problems in Biology1931Hunter, George WilliamAmerican Book Company, New YorkHSEconomicUnit XVII: How does man conserve his natural resources? Followed by How does man control the improvement of living things?4 Retains all the harsh language of Hunter 1926, but argument no longer as clearly presented.3 More explicitly links general evolution ('development') and human evolution. No clear expression of theory.NX
36
Essentials of Biology1931Meier, W. H. D; Meier, LoisGinn, BostonHSPhylogenetic2 Though it closes with eugenics, the text contains no supporting argument.0 No mention of evolution, even as bridging material.N
37
Fundamentals of Biology1932Haupt, Arthur W (M) UCLAC4 Propogandistic.XFull description pp 379-80. Cites second find, "a few years after the original," as erasing doubt about skull and jaw association
38
General Biology1933White, E. Grace (F) Wilson College <a href="http://swfsc.noaa.gov/uploadedFiles/Education/Women%20in%20Ichthyology.pdf">Bio</a>The C. V. Mosby Company, St. LouisC5 Propogandistic. See pp 270-2833 Clearly a "Darwin in eclipse" text. The word evoltuion not indexed or used in texts. But from page 316 to 326 discusses Lamarck, Darwin, Weismann and DeVries
39
An Introduction to Biology1933Cole, Elbert C.John Wiley & Sons, New YorkC4 Deterministic. Jukes, Kallikaks and Edwards all offered without disclaimer.Dismissive of improvements to environment, as "there is certainly a limit ot such improvement, for inverior stock is scarecely qualified to maintain an improved environment." Laments, "we are somewhat restricted in what can be done, for society will not permit the destruction of the weak and unfit" (478).
40
Dynamic Biology1933Baker, Arthur O; Mills, Lewis HRand McNally, New YorkHSNormative (weakly)3 Standard 1930s presentation comparing Juke and Kallikak families with Edwards family. Warns of close intermarriages and immigrants of "defective stock" (655).3 Does not index word 'evolution." But closes with reasonable description of historical evolution and theory. Disclaims Darwin in favor of De Vries. Not unusual for the era.N
41
New Introduction to Biology1933Kinsey, Alfred CLippincott, ChicagoHSUnity of Life2 Does not index eugenics. Retains Juke etc. exercise and deterministic tone of Kinsey 1926.3 'Evolution' introduced in index and treatment slightly expanded. Kinsey not current - labels natural selection "Darwinism" or "Survival of the Fittest" (431).N
42
The Living World1933Mank, Helen GardnerBenj. H. Sanborn & Co, ChicagoHSUnity of Life / HealthEARLY! Balance in nature01 Natural selection, but no Darwin.N
43
Biology for Beginners1933Moon, Truman J; Mann, Paul BHolt, New YorkHSPhylogenetic3 Introduces genetics and eugenics, including H. H. Goddard's Kallikak study.4 Expands treatment relative to 1926, though substitutes "racial development" for evolutionY 450 EvolutionCredit: American Museum of Natural History (appears to be redrawn from Gruenberg 1919). Fish, salamader, turtle, bird, pig[Reference removed]
44
Man and the Nature of His Biological World1934Jean, Frank Covert (M); Harrah, Ezra Clarence (M); Herman, Fred Louis (M); Colorado State College of Education and Powers, Samual Ralph (M) ColumbiaGinn, BostonC5. Entire narrative leads to the eugenic climax. Influenced by Burlingame (1922). Closes with "Hereditary differences should always have weight in deciding one's vocation" (426). Authors would update text in '44 and '52. Very conscious of latest stats and confirming opinion, including reference to Villee '50 in '52 Jean.XExtensive treatment on pages 385-86. Claims Piltdown had language, fire, tools. Lived anywhere from 400,000 to 150,000 years ago. Osborn Am Hist "Tree of Man" illustrated but not credited
45
Biology for Today1934Curtis, Francis D; Caldwell, Otis W; Sherman, Nina HenryGinn, BostonHSUnity of Life2 Strong pitch for eugenic awareness closes text, but avoids harsher prescriptions of many earlier and most competitors.2 Difficult to judge. No mention of Darwin. Word 'evolution' not used. But concept fully integrated into reproduction, genetics and "The Record of the Ages" (576-650).Y 589 Reproduction, relationshipsCredit: After Hackel. Fish, salamader, tortoise, chick, pig, sheep, rabbit
46
New Biology1934Smallwood, W. M; Reveley, Ida L; Bailey, Guy AAllyn and Bacon, BostonHSPhylogenetic3 Introduces Juke and Kallikak studies. Along with Edwards, Darwin and Bach.3 Strong presentation relative to earlier versions, integrated paleontology, heredity, and human ancestry.NXNew from previous (1929) edition: Short mention on pg 404. Dates find to 100,000 B.C., just prior to Neanderthal
47
An Introduction to Biology1935Rice, Edward Loranus (M) Ohio Wesleyan University <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edward_Loranus_Rice">Bio</a> Debated Bryan in '25, advised Darrow at ScopesGinn, BostonCCautionary. 1. "Progress must be gradual and conservative" (564)X4 McGregor busts, credited, p 561. End of text.
48
Biology1935Fitzpatrick, Frederick L; Horton, Ralph EHoughton Mifflin, BostonHSEconomic4 Proudly eugenic. Closes on the topic. However, remains strictly economic, not normative, throughout.5 Strongest presentation of evolution in any American high school textbook until BSCS, complete and fully integrated, yet does not index or use the word!NH 428 EvolutionOriginal. Single generalized stage II illustration showing "gill slits"X4 McGregor busts early in text, p 73. Brief description.
49
General Biology1936Mavor, James Watt (M) Union CollegeMacmillan, New YorkC2 Somewhat cautionary. See pp 599-601XPhoto of casts of fragments , with text notes controversy surrounding association, but falls on the side of agreeing on agregation (p 688). Side view of 4 skull reconstructions and 4 McGregor busts (p 693)
50
Elements of General Biology1936Barrows, Henry R. d. 1935 (M) New York UniversityFarrar & Rinehart, New YorkC3 Supportive. 317-18. But claims of "an encouraging amount of success" and the likelihood to "enact and support some such laws and regulations" (262-63) edited from original (1930). SCANShort mention. Large, redrawn Osborn "Tree of Man" (p. 352, w short description on p. 351), "After H. F. Osborn from O. W. Caldwell, E. E. Skinner and J.W. Tietz, Biological Foundations of Education (1931).
51
Our World of Living Things1936Heiss, Elwood D; Osborn, Ellsworth S; Manzer, J. GordonWebster Publishing Company, St. Louis, MOHSUnity of Life / HealthFirst mentions of soil erosion, dust storms, loss of "virgin forests," CCC, federal bird and game reserves and national parks4 Unapologetically progressionist, calmly eugenic: "All available data indicate that intelligence is determined by the genes which a person inherits" (173).4 Strong presentation of evolution (sans word), including human and cultural evolution. NX4 McGregor reconstructions p. 264. No details in text. Racist.
52
Everyday Problems in Biology1936Pieper, Charles J; Beauchamp, Wilber L; Frank, Orlin DScott, Foresman and Company, ChicagoHSUnity of Life / EconomicHow Human Life is Conserved closed text, but it related to human health, fitness, food, etc.3 Advocates limits on immigration and reproduction of feeble-minded, balanced by environment and education defense.2 Not indexed. Implied in several sections.Y 429 Kinship / ClassificationUncredited. 4 stage II illustrations only. Turtle, chick, pig, rabbit
53
General Biology1937Kenoyer, Leslie A., Goddard, Henry N.Harper & Brothers, New YorkCEconomic / Normative5 Promotes a very biologized view of culture. Text climaxes with a call for both negative and positive eugenic measures. Sensitive to race, the authors make a chilling "moral" argument for class-based sterilization. In reference to the Jukes, the authors quote W. E. Kellicott, "What right had an intelligent and humane society to allow these poor unfortunates to be born into the kinds of lives they had to lead, not by choice but by the disadvantages of birth" (533). Overall, the text presents an extremely biologized view of culture. "... the foundations laid in an elementary course in biology help greatly in the understading of the humanities. Wise mangement of social problems has its basis in biological facts" (7). 4 Standard unappologetic presentation, modestly integrated. Moves from standard Lamark, Darwin to DeVries history to directed evolution via induced mutation (likely inspired by Muller’s X-Ray experiements, among others). "Perhaps man has nearly at hand a hitherto unsuspected power of controlling evolutionary processes" (495). Y 386 Recapitulation leading to "Law of Evolution."Credit: Romanes (after Haeckel). Fish, salamander, turtle, chick, pig, calf, rabbit, man.SCANPiltdown bust omitted from McGregor series (529). Positions Piltdown as more recent than Peking.
54
New Biology1937Smallwood, W. M; Reveley, Ida L; Bailey, Guy AAllyn and Bacon, BostonHSPhylogenetic3 Introduces Juke and Kallikak studies. Along with Edwards, Darwin and Bach.3 Strong presentation relative to earlier versions, integrated paleontology, heredity, and human ancestry. Though contant still scattered and confused.NXPickup from 1934
55
High School Biology1938Benedict, Ralph C., Warren W. Knox, George K. StoneMacmillan, New YorkHSNormative4 Text promotes mate selection, health certification, sterilization and immigration control under the chapter title, "Improvement of the Species." Uniquely and interestingly addresses the topic of "race mixing" to dismiss any suggestion of hybrid vigor.4 Through it avoids the use of the word 'evolution,' the text offers a significant discussion of evolution, with a strong focus on human evolution, and a constant worry about racial borders.YCredit: Romanes. Fish, salamander, turtle, chick, hog, calf, rabbit, man.XBrief mention. Includes all 4 McGregor busts (641).
56
New Introduction to Biology1938Kinsey, Alfred CLippincott, ChicagoHSUnity of Life2 Identical to Kinsey 1926, 1933.3 Identical to Kinsey 1933.N
57
Adventures with Living Things1938Kroeber, Elsbeth; Wolff, Walter HD. C. Heath, BostonHSPhylogenetic / Unity of Life1 Quite similar to Smith 1938. Indexes and gives lengthy treatment to the topic, only to rebut and disclaim.5 Similar to Smith 1938. Thorough, unapologetic, integrated presentation. Indexed.NXMcGregor busts minus Cro-Magnon. Piltdown presented, but modestly disclaimed. (746).
58
Biology: a Revision of Biology for Beginners1938Moon, Truman J; Mann, Paul BHolt, New YorkHSPhylogenetic3 All but identical to Moon 1933.4 All but identical to Moon 1933.Y 518 EvolutionCredit: American Museum of Natural History (appears to be redrawn from Gruenberg 1919). Fish, salamader, turtle, bird, pigXFirst mention of Piltdown in Moon, p. 540. Dates find to 1912 and 1913. "... considerably advanced over preceding types ..."
59
Exploring Biology1938Smith, Ella TheaHarcourt, New YorkHSUnity of Life2 Eugenics described at length. Pitched as perhaps unarguable for the 'feeble-minded.' But highly disclaimed.5 About as strong a presentation of evolution as possible in the pre-synthesis era.NXBrief mention of Eoanthropus (no mention of Piltdown). Situates as not a member of Homo sapiens (p 528). No illustrations.
60
A Biology of Familiar Things1939Bush, George L; Dickie, Allan; Rukle, Ronald CAmerican Book Company, New YorkHSNormative3 Moderately eugenic, sums the social cost of feebleminded at $100,000,000. Mostly suggestive regarding mate selection. 0 Evolution not mentioned. Not surprising for a text focused on helping students adjust to "the best of all possible worlds."N
61
Human Biology1940Baitsell, George Alfred (M) 1885-1971 Yale <a href="http://drs.library.yale.edu:8083/saxon/SaxonServlet?style=http://drs.library.yale.edu:8083/saxon/EAD/yul.ead2002.xhtml.xsl&source=http://drs.library.yale.edu:8083/fedora/get/mssa:ms.0902/EAD">Bio</a>McGraw-Hill, New YorkC3 Promotional. (Quotes Holmes: "three generations ..." 426)
62
Man and the Living World1940Stanford, E. E (M) College of the Pacific, Stocton Junior CollegeMacmillan, New YorkC4 Propogandistic. See all of Chapt. XXX - "Genetics and Human Heredity." See pp. 698-730. XFeatures a redering of the "Taungs" skull (644). Includes all 4 McGregor skulls and busts in lin (646).
63
Biology1940Parshley, Howard M (M) Smith College <a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Howard_Parshley">Bio</a>John Wiley & Sons, New YorkC2 Cautionary. "Ideal rather than practical possibility." Cites SJ Holmes and Huntington's <a href="http://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=mdp.39015034788995">Tomorrow's Children</a>
64
Living Things and You1940Downing, Elliot R; McAtee, Veva MLyons and Carnahan, ChicagoHSNormative3 Unapologetic in its presentation, though suggests that legislative solutions are not the answer, that "individuals who are taught the laws of sex and of inheritance will, it is hoped, act with discretion" (505).4 Thoroughly integrates evolution, including human evolution, into narrative. Y 455 Undercuts recapit by botany analogyUncredited. 5 stage I illustrations. Fish, salamander, tortoise, chick, calfXAll 4 McGregor busts. Piltdown presented as having "incongruous blends of human and ape characteristics," but now a "creature now regarded as an early man," based on a "later" find. (413).
65
Science of Living Things1941Clinton, Weymouth GHolt, New YorkHSUnity of Life2 Closes with eugenics (Kallikak and Edwards families compared), but topic burried, tacked on after lawn care, flower gardens and grafting. 2 Though text opens with implied evolution, topic is used mainly as an introduction to the world as it is. Word not indexed.
66
Biology: a Revision of Biology for Beginners1941Moon, Truman J; Mann, Paul BHolt, New YorkHSPhylogenetic3 All but identical to Moon 1933.4 All but identical to Moon 1933.Y 518 EvolutionCredit: American Museum of Natural History (appears to be redrawn from Gruenberg 1919). Fish, salamader, turtle, bird, pigXIdentical to Moon ’38.
67
Biology and Human Affairs1941Ritchie, John WWorld Book Company, Yonkers-On-HudsonHSNormative4 Disclaims "negative eugenics," but strongly promotes "positive eugenics" (699). Normative, and by definition, deterministic.3 Book organized against progressive evolutionary ideology. However, topic not indexed. Darwin not cited. Author betrays out-of-date affection for "big mutations," De Vries saltatory theory.Y 135 RecapitulationUncredited. Appears to be a poor or simplified copy of Gruenberg 1919. Fish, tortoise, chick, pigHighly racialized, but NO Piltdown.
68
Man and the Biological World1942Rogers, J. Speed; Hubbell, Theodore H. (M); Byers, Francis C. University of FloridaMcGraw-Hill, New YorkC4 Propogandistic and highly deterministic. Very concerned with rates of reproduction by class (chart p. 282). Text focused on evolution, race and "the individual's capacity for mental, physical, and moral development" (283).XEXTENSIVE! Dates first finds to 1911 and 1912, with second find in 1915. Favorably cites Keith situating Piltdown as an ancient offshoot, rather than Hooton's positioning as a pre-European (p. 420-421; chart p. 432). Field Museum exhibits.
69
General Biology for College1942Moment, Gairdner B. (M) Goucher College <a href="http://www.goucher.edu/documents/Library/MS%200011%20Gairdner%20Moment%20Papers.pdf">Bio (PDF)</a>D. Appleton-Century, New YorkC0 Anti-eugenic. Great "Gould-like" quote: "In one sense, heredity is predominant. We develop into humans, not starfish or lemurs, because of our heredity. In another, equally valid, sense, environment is predominant. Every living thing can exist only in a suitable environment and is continually reacting to it. Both together make us what we are" (413).XNote the use of hairless versions of McGregor busts (495), from Boas General Anthropology, 1938.
70
Biology The Science of Life1943MacDougall, Mary Stuart (F) Agnes Scott College; Hegner, Robert (M) Johns HopkinsMcGraw-Hill, New YorkC1 Discusses inheritance with charts (see note), and mentions eugenics in passing (846), but focuses on disease prevention and environmental improvements.XMcGregor reconstructions (4), not credited. "Found in 1911."
71
Dynamic Biology Today1943Baker, Arthur O; Mills, Lewis HRand McNally, New YorkHSNormative3 Quite similar to Baker 1933, though somewhat demoted; eugenics no longer on par with genetics, ecology, pathology, etc. (compare p. 56, 1933 with p. 46, 1943).3 Retains identical description from Baker 1933. Continues to disclaim natural selection in favor of 'sports,' or mutation theory.N
72
Everyday Biology1943Curtis, Francis D; Caldwell, Otis W; Sherman, Nina HenryGinn, BostonHSUnity of Life2 Identical to Curtis 1934.2 Identical to Curtis 1934.Y 574 ReproductionCredit: After Hackel. Fish, salamader, tortoise, chick, pig, dog, rabbit
73
Exploring Biology1943Smith, Ella TheaHarcourt, New YorkHSUnity of Life1 Eugenics described but immediately disclaimed: "Let us see what is wrong with the program that aims to improve mankind by 'breeding from the best families'" (513).4 Strong and thorough presentation of evolution closes text. Integrates history, theory and human evolution.NX4 McGregor busts. But, as in ’38, placed Piltdown outside the family of Homo sapiens.
74
Man and His Biological World1944Jean, Frank Covert (M); Harrah, Ezra Clarence (M); Herman, Fred Louis (M); Colorado State College and Powers, Samual Ralph (M) ColumbiaGinn, BostonC5 Repeats and revises '34 text, adds additional supporting references. Entire narrative leads to the eugenic climax. Closes with "Hereditary differences should always have weight in deciding one's vocation" (547).XExtensive description (461). All 4 busts used, though all on separate pages. Claims partial remains found in 1925.
75
Biology and Man1944Gruenberg, Benjamin C; Bingham, N. EldredGinn, BostonHSUnity of Life0 Gruenberg is first author to drop eugenics completely after once advancing the idea.5 Strong integrated presentation.Y 459 EvolutionCredit: After Hackel. Fish, salamader, tortoise, chick, pig, sheep, rabbitXPlaces Piltdown between "Java ape-man" and Neanderthal. Brain graphic p 51; jaw in profile p 52). Long chart from HF Osborn listing differences between humans and apes (p 540).
76
General Biology (Revised Edition)1945Kenoyer, Leslie A., Goddard, Henry N.Harper & Brothers, New YorkCEconomic / Normative5 Nearly identical to Kenoyer '37. Promotes a very biologized view of culture. Text continues to call for both negative and positive eugenic measures, though 2 conservation chapters now close the text. Sensitive to race, the authors retain their earlier "moral" argument for class-based sterilization. In reference to the Jukes, the authors quote W. E. Kellicott’s 1911 text, Social Direction of Human Evolution, "What right had an intelligent and humane society to allow these poor unfortunates to be born into the kinds of lives they had to lead, not by choice but by the disadvantages of birth" (513). Overall, the text presents an extremely biologized view of culture. "... the foundations laid in an elementary course in biology help greatly in the understading of the humanities. Wise mangement of social problems has its basis in biological facts" (8-9). 4 Standard unappologetic presentation, modestly integrated. Moves from standard Lamark, Darwin to DeVries history to directed evolution via induced mutation (likely inspired by Muller’s X-Ray experiements, among others). "Perhaps man has nearly at hand a hitherto unsuspected power of controlling evolutionary processes" (501). Y 408 Recapitulation leading to "Law of Evolution."Credit: Romanes (after Haeckel). Fish, salamander, turtle, chick, pig, calf, rabbit, man.Xpg. 508. Stippled w Java, Neanderthal and Cro-Mangon. No indication of missing sections.
77
Biology for Better Living1946Bayles, Ernest E; Burnett, R. WillSilver Burdett Company, New YorkHSNormative1 Mostly anti-eugenic. Takes a stand against Juke/Kallikak "bad heredity" story. Further reading references in conflict.4 Does not index 'evolution,' but covers the topic in two chapters totaling 26 pages. Very reasonable summation of pre-synthesis thinking (608).N
78
Biology: a Revision of Biology for Beginners1946Moon, Truman J; Mann, Paul BHolt, New YorkHSPhylogenetic3 All but identical to Moon 1933.4 All but identical to Moon 1933.Y 518 EvolutionCredit: American Museum of Natural History (appears to be redrawn from Gruenberg 1919). Fish, salamader, turtle, bird, pigXIdential to Moon ’38.
79
Biology for You1946Vance, B. B; Miller, D. FLippincott, ChicagoHSNormative1 Text mentions eugenics, but disclaims effectiveness.3 Evolution is present. Text explicitly links general and human evolution. But topic detailed in summary only (588).NXDates Piltdown to 250,000 to 500,000 years old. Notes finds are "very different fromt he skulls of Java and Peking Man," and notes, "There is some question as to whether the jaws found at the same time belonged to the skulls" (p. 586).
80
Modern Biology1947Moon, Truman J; Mann, Paul B; Otto, James HHolt, New YorkHSPhylogenetic4 Expands discussion of eugenics as "genetics applied to human inheritance" (606), and reinforces importance by using the topic to eugenics heredity and breeding to evolution. Kallikak study remains.2 Decoupled discussion of theory of evolution from human evolution and cultural development. Theory used to reinforce argument for scientific managementY 626 EvolutionUncredited (appears to be redrawn from Gruenberg 1919). Fish, salamader, turtle, bird, pigPiltdown excised in revised edition!
81
American High School Biology1948Grant, Charlotte L.; Cady, H. Keith; Neal, Nathan A.Harper & BrothersHSNormative / Economic / Health3 Transitional. Compares Kalikak family to Wedgwood-Dawrin family. Focuses on inheritability of I.Q. However, challenges inheritance of special abilities and mental disabilities. Contradicts itself slightly regarding race, but generally sides with a Benedict/Weltfish-inspired view of racial equality, with variations and differences due to environment.3 (If not so out of date, would be a 4 based on length and integration). Avoids use of the word 'evolution.' Instead, titles relevant chapters 'Development in Plants and Animals' (579), and 'How and When Change Takes Place' (601). Follows the typical pre-war presentation – Lamarck, Darwin, DeVries (with a strong nod to Weissman). Promotes possible use of 'atomic energy' to speed up mutation for conscious selection (615).XNotably no Piltdown. No Osborn reconstructions. Mentions of Peking, Neanderthal and Cro-Mangon. pp. 590-91.
82
Biology and Human Affairs1948Ritchie, John WWorld Book Company, Yonkers-On-HudsonHSNormative4 Identical to Ritchie 1941 (598-99).3 Integrated presentation, quite similar to Ritchie 1941. Topic not indexed. Darwin not cited. Natural selection and historical evolution described in detail. Out of date.Y 63 UnityUncredited. Appears to be a poor or simplified copy of Gruenberg 1919. Fish, tortoise, chick, pig
83
Elements of Biology1948Smallwood, W. M; Reveley, Ida L; Bailey, Guy A; Dodge, Ruth A Allyn and Bacon, BostonHSPhylogenetic3 Introduces Juke and Kallikak studies. Along with Edwards, Darwin and Bach. Eugenics sandwiched between "maturity" and "decline" and "the end," linking individual development with species history.3 Retains strong presentation relative to 20s/early 30s Smallwood - integrated paleontology, heredity, and human ancestry. Evolution content consolidated following botany, before vocations.H (barely) 535 RecapitulationThough not Haeckel's grid, in fact includes just one Haeckel-like embryo, the text presentes a very Haeckelian view of evolution and recapitulation. Claims, "embryology repeats phylogeny." (535)XFull line of both skull and facial reconstructions.
84
Biology and its Relation to Mankind1949Winchester, A. M (M) John B. Stetson UniversityD. Van Norstrand Company, New YorkC4 Harshly (and casually) eugenic.XSkull and bust included (p 729). Disclaimed somewhat realtive to age, though suggests "more recent than Java or Peking."
85
Life Science1949de Laubenfels, M. W (M) 1894-1960 University of Hawaii (later Orgegon State College)Prentice-HallC4 Deterministic and racist. Devotes one of 28 chapters (25) to the topic, titled - Eugenics: The Special Problem of Breeding. "The destiny of a person, animal, or plant exists inside the zygote, chiefly in the chromosomes" (329). Egypt's rise can be traced to "consanguineous marriage by preference" (336). Compares differential births to cancer (338).XEXTENSIVE. Notable unique ape-like restoration. Dated to 500,000 years ago. Claims relation to "Pekin man" (p 363).
86
The World of Life1949Pauli, Wolfgang F (M) Bradford Junior CollegeHoughton Mifflin, BostonC5 Remarkably eugenic. Attempts to introduce topic under cover of "reform" (and fails). Topic serves as climax for the narrative. "it has been argued that any program of negative eugenics, by segregation and sterilization, would be futile, and hence that we had better do nothing about the mater at all. This like the lazy man's argument that since he can never eradicate the last weed out of his garden - and even if he did, new ones would appear anyway - he might as well do no weeding at all!" (580).XIMPORTANT: Eoanthropus, "probably the earliest direct ancestor of modern nam yet discovered" p. 498. Illustration on 497 downplays cannie tooth. Found in 1911. "But a recent find of a similar skull with the same type of ape-like jaw argues strongly ..." p. 498.
87
College Zoology1949Hunter, George W. III, Hunter, F. R.W. B. Saunders, PhiladelphiaC3 Strong, but significantly soft-pedaled relative to George W. Hunter's high school texts. XBrief mention. Places Eoanthropus at 130,000 years ago (p 704).
88
Exploring Biology1949Smith, Ella TheaHarcourt, New YorkHSUnity of Life1 Eugenics defined by just one paragraph, though unlike previous editions, not disclaimed.5 Introduces "the synthetic theory" (498). First high school text to do so.Y 405 ReproductionAmerican Museum of Natural History (appears to be redrawn from Haeckel). Fish, salamader, tortoise, chickSkull NOT INCLUDED in 5-skull line-up (p 483). Passing mention pp 483-84.
89
General Biology for College1950Moment, Gairdner B. (M) Goucher College <a href="http://www.goucher.edu/documents/Library/MS%200011%20Gairdner%20Moment%20Papers.pdf">Bio (PDF)</a>D. Appleton-Century-Crofts, New YorkC2 A hard to judge work. Gairdner in this significant update to his almost anti-eugenic 1942 text of the same title introduces key principles of the modern synthesis. The author's ecological bent prepared him for the transition to populational thinking. However, in an apparent pitch for relevancy, Gairdner placed increased stress "on the human import of biological facts and principles" (vi), which forced a long discussion of human inheritance and heredity, and brought the author's opinions on genetic determinism relative to topics such as I.Q. to the fore (see 559). Eugenics discounted and supported simultaneously (560).Very interesting! Barest listing of Piltdown in a chart of glacial and interglacial periods of the Pleistocene Era. p. 629. Talks of "the most recently discovered, as well as most ancient, is the South African Man, Australopithecus tranvallensis" (641).
90
Biology1950Villee, Claude A. (M) <a href="http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2006/02/claude-alvin-villee-jr/">Bio</a>W. B. Saunders, PhiladelphiaC4 Though not the text's narrative focus, eugenics serves as the climax to a unit on genetics and precedes the text's extensive section on evolution. Author references R. R. Gates, S. J. Holmes, H. J. Muller among others. Extremely popular textbook revised through 8 editions. Eugenics strongly promoted through 4th edition (at least), 1962. (Quotes Holmes: "three generations ..." 461). Author pridefully cites California's "success" with a program of eugenic sterilization (and would continue to do so through '62).XSIGNIFICANT. Dates find to 1908 to 1915, and fossil to early Pleistocene. Notes (accurately) that the 1915 find was skull fragments and tooth (not jaw). Links Piltdown to Swanscombe man of 1936 (p. 532).
91
<a href="http://www.archive.org/stream/adventureswithan00kroe#page/n7/mode/2up">Adventures with Animals and Plants</a>1950Kroeber, Elsbeth; Wolff, Walter HD. C. Heath, BostonHSUnity of Life1 As in 1938, eugenics introduced and rebutted. 4 All but identical to Kroeber and Wolff 1938. Somewhat less integrated due to text structure. No synthesis, despite date.NH <a href="http://www.archive.org/stream/adventureswithan00kroe#page/548/mode/2up">549</a> EvolutionOriginal illustration. Includes yolk sacs. 2 separte sets. Stage I and Stage II and III. Very different one from the other. Fish, frog, turtle, chick, pig, man. (Compare to Hunter and Hunter, College Zoology, 1949).XMcGregor reconstructons (3, no Cro-Magnon). "We have evidence of other prehistoric men about whom little is knowns and whose age cannot be stated with any degree of certainty" p. 566.
92
Modern Biology1951Moon, Truman J; Mann, Paul B; Otto, James HHolt, New YorkHSPhylogenetic4 Text identical to Moon 1947, Kallikak study intact.2 Identical to Moon 1947.Y 659 EvolutionUncredited (appears to be redrawn from Gruenberg 1919). Fish, salamader, turtle, bird, pigNO PILTDOWN.
93
Man and His Biological World1952Jean, Frank Covert (M); Harrah, Ezra Clarence (M); Herman, Fred Louis (M); Colorado State College and Powers, Samual Ralph (M) ColumbiaGinn, BostonC5 Entire narrative leads to the eugenic climax. Minor text and reference edits and additions relative to Jean '44.
94
Elements of Biology1952Smallwood, W. M; Reveley, Ida L; Bailey, Guy A; Dodge, Ruth A (lead author)Allyn and Bacon, BostonHSPhylogenetic3 Jukes, Kallikaks, Edwards, Darwins and Bachs all present. In 1952!2 Terribly out of date, very 'nineteenth century' presentation of evolution relative to competitive texts. H (barely) 619 RecapitulationThough not Haeckel's grid, in fact includes just one Haeckel-like embryo, the text presentes a very Haeckelian view of evolution and recapitulation. Claims, "embryology repeats phylogeny." (619)XILLUSTRATIVE: Authors copy displays a pencilled 'X' through the Piltdown skull reconstruction. Displays both skulls and busts from AMNH. No mention of African origins.
95
Basic Biology for High Schools1953Fenton, Carroll Lane; Kamby, Paul EMacmillan, New YorkHSUnity of Life04 Thorough treatment of topic of evolution. Topic commands significant integrated placement, indexed by word (though word, surprisingly only in index, referred to as 'change' in text). N
96
Exploring Biology1954Smith, Ella TheaHarcourt, New YorkHSUnity of Life2 Eugenics defined. Further readings suggested. "Value" pitched, but possibility of near-term application dismissed. Several sections end with statements claiming understanding "may enable man to take a hand in directing "the future course of evolution" (482).5 Continued strong presentation of evolution. "Synthetic theory" now called "The Modern Theory." Incorporation of modern mutation understanding in heredity and genetics sections.Y 466 EvolutionCredit: American Museum of Natural History (appears to be redrawn from Haeckel). Fish, salamader, tortoise, chickGone
97
Biology in Daily Life1955Curtis, Francis D; Urban, JohnGinn, BostonHSUnity of Life3 Though content similar to Curtis 1943, and contains a notable pitch for racial equality (503), class differences strongly implied (498-505).3 Though the word evolution is not used, text begins with "the Changing Populations of Living Things," introducing Darwin in the first paragraph.Y 460 ReproductionUncredited. Very poorly redrawn Haeckel. Fish, turtle, chicken, calf, hog, rabbit
98
Biology in Our Lives1955Hunter, George W; Hunter, F. RAmerican Book Company, New YorkHSNormative4 Highly deterministic. Torn on the topic of eugenics (448-450). On one hand eugenics "is entirely contrary to the social and moral codes of democracy." On the other hand, places the cost to society of the "various classes of defective people" at $3,000,000,000.3 Basic. Topic indexed, integrated with heredity and reproduction and presented mid-text. No synthetic/modern theory.Y 414 Evolution - first and only in HunterUncredited. Redrawn Haeckel. Fish, salamander, turtle, bird, pig
99
Biology1956Brown, Relis B. (M) Lawrence CollegeD. C. Heath, BostonC1 Quite cautionary. Eugenics indexed and defined, its aims "laudable," but dismissed as impractical, with improvement to the environment suggested as the quickest path to human improvement. "Who is to say whether the race would be better or worse off with more people having musical talent, artistic ability, or mechanical aptitude?" (239)
100
Modern Biology1956Moon, Truman J; Mann, Paul B; Otto, James HHolt, New YorkHSPhylogenetic4 Text retains strong presentation of eugenics, though finally drops Kallikak study.1 Closing chapter from Moon 1947/1951 remains. Discussion of human ancestry deleted.Y 664 EvolutionUncredited (appears to be redrawn from Gruenberg 1919). Fish, salamader, turtle, bird, pigNo human evolution
101
Biology and its Relation to Mankind1957Winchester, A. M (M) Colorado State CollegeD. Van Norstrand Company, New YorkC1 Though deterministic thrust remains, the word eugenics, a central feature in '49, eliminated in '57. Notable retreat from visual spectacle (though author would return somewhat to visual spectacle in '64.
Loading...
Main menu