IE_Indicator Guide_2016_V12.xlsx
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Inclusive Economies Framework
CategorySub-categoryIndicatorDefinitionSourceData sourceScale
(DE= Data exists; P= Possible to calculate; NA = Not applicable)
EconomiesEfforts Using the IndicatorDisaggregate GroupsSource linkData Link (national)Data Link (city)
EquitableA. Upward mobility for all.A1. Percentage of population with higher educational attainment than their parents.Intergenerational education mobility. OECDOECD StatsDEP25OECDGender; AgeOECDOECD Stats
A2. Intergenerational income mobility.The influence of parental background on individual earnings. The estimates are the best point estimate of the intergenerational earnings elasticity resulting from an extensive meta-analysis carried out by Corak (2006) and supplemented with additional countries from d’Addio (2007). The higher the value, the greater is the persistence (i.e., immobility) of earnings across generations.OECDOECDDEP12+OECDGenderOECDOECD Stats
A3i. Proportion of the lowest earning 25 to 30 year olds that experience wage progression 10 years later.The proportion of individuals in the bottom fifth of earners at age 25 to 30 that are 20 or more percentiles higher in the earnings distribution 10 years later. Measures available for the UK. Studies available for the USA (See: Raj Chetty).UK's Department for Work and PensionUK's Department for Work and PensionDEP2Government, AcademiaGenderUK Gov.
A4c. Early Childhood EducationPercentage of children 36‒59 months old who are attending an early childhood education programme.SDGUNICEF - MICSDEP100+UNICEF; UNESCOGender; Wealth quintile; Age; DisabilitySDGUNICEF
B. Reduction of inequality.B1. Ratio of income/consumption of the highest quintile to lowest quintile.Inequality in per capita income and consumption. Income share held by highest 10% to lowest 10%. Consumption segment highest to lowest. Percentage share of income or consumption is the share that accrues to subgroups of population indicated by deciles or quintiles.ADBADB; World BankDEP52ADBGenderADBWorld Bank,
B2. Percentage of households with incomes below 50% of median income.Measures relative income poverty at the national level. It measures how far individuals are from the median standard of living, approximating a measure of social exclusion.SDGOECD StatsDEP35UNSD; World Bank; OECD Working Age; Gender; DisabilitySDGOECD Stats
B3. Wealth share of top 1%.
The share of wealth owned by the 1% wealthiest people in the population.OECDOECD StatsDEP35OECDOECDOECD Stats
B4. Gender Inequality Index (GII).Measures gender inequalities in three important aspects of human development—reproductive health, measured by maternal mortality ratio and adolescent birth rates; empowerment, measured by proportion of parliamentary seats occupied by females and proportion of adult females and males aged 25 years and older with at least some secondary education; and economic status, expressed as labour market participation and measured by labour force participation rate of female and male populations aged 15 years and older. The higher the GII value the more disparities between females and males and the more loss to human development.UNDPUNDPDEP100+UNDPGender; Disability; Indigenous populationsUNDPUNDP
C. Equal access to public goods and ecosystem services.C1. Proportion of population using safely managed sanitation services, including a hand-washing facility with soap and water.
Percentage of the population using improved sanitation facilities. Improved sanitation facilities are likely to ensure hygienic separation of human excreta from human contact. They include flush/pour flush (to piped sewer system, septic tank, pit latrine), ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine, pit latrine with slab, and composting toilet.SDG; UN HabitatWHO; UNICEF-WASH; World Bank; UN Habitat; WCCDDEDE217 countries; 741 cities in 220 countriesSDG; WHO; UNICEF; UN HabitatUrban/RuralSDGWorld BankUN Habitat
C2. Proportion of population using an improved drinking water source.Percentage of the population using an improved drinking water source. The improved drinking water source includes piped water on premises (piped household water connection located inside the user’s dwelling, plot or yard), and other improved drinking water sources (public taps or standpipes, tube wells or boreholes, protected dug wells, protected springs, and rainwater collection).SDG; UN HabitatWHO; UNICEF; World Bank; UN Habitat; WCCDDEDE217 countries; 741 cities in 220 countries.SDG; WHO; UNICEF; UN Habitat; WCCDUrban/RuralSDGWHOUN Habitat
C3. Share of households with electricity or other modern energy services.Share of households with no access to commercial energy services including electricity, or heavily dependent on ‘traditional’ non-commercial energy options, such as fuelwood, charcoal, agricultural wastes and animal dung.UN; SDGWorld Bank Global Electrification Database 2015; UN HabitatDEDE169 countries; 741 cities in 220 countries.SDG; UNICEFUrban/RuralSDGWorld BankUN Habitat
C4. Primary completion rate.Total number of new entrants in the last grade of primary education, expressed as percentage of the total population of the theoretical entrance age to the last grade of primary.World BankWorld Bank; UN Habitat; WCCDDEDE150 countries; 741 cities in 220 countries.SDGGenderSDGWorld BankUN Habitat
C5. Infant and under-5 mortality rate.Infant mortality rate: the number of infants dying before reaching one year of age, per 1,000 live births in a given year. Under-5 mortality rate: the probability per 1,000 that a newborn baby will die before reaching age five.WHO; World BankWorld Bank; UN Habitat; WCCDDEDE100+ countries; 741 cities in 220 countries.SDGUrban/Rural; GenderWorld BankWorld BankWCCD
C6c. Proportion of population that has convenient access to public transport.Definition for national level: proportion of the population that has a public transit stop within 0.5 km. Sub-national level: KM of high-capacity public transport system per 100,000 population. SDG; UN Habitat; WCCDUN Habitat; WCCDPDE20 citiesUN Habitat; WCCDGender; Age; DisabilitiesSDGUN Habitat
C7c. Rating on level of women's social rights.Composite measure of 12 social rights: right to equal inheretance, right to enter marriage equal with men, right to travel abroad, right to obtain a passport, right to confer citizenship to children or a husband, right to initiate a divorce, right to property in marriage, right to social and cultural participation in communities, right to education, freedom to choose residence, freedom from female genital mutilation, freedom from forced sterilization. ISDISD; CIRIDENA190The Global Gender GapISDISD
Inclusive Economies Framework
CategorySub-categoryIndicatorDefinitionSourceData sourceScale
(DE= Data exists; P= Possible to calculate; NA = Not applicable)
EconomiesEfforts Using the IndicatorDisaggregate GroupsSource linkData Link (national)Data Link (city)
ParticipatoryD. People are able to access and participate in markets as workers, consumers, and business owners.D1. Labor force participation rate (of working age population).Employment participation. Labor force participation rate is the proportion of the population ages 15-64 that is economically active: all people who supply labor for the production of goods and services during a specified period.World BankWorld BankDEP214UNECAGender; Urban/RuralWorld BankWorld Bank
D2. Share of informal employment.Informal employment comprises persons who in their main or secondary jobs were: Own-account workers, employers and members of producers' cooperatives employed in their own informal sector enterprises.ILOILODEP100+ILOGender; Agriculture/Non-agriculture, Urban/RuralILOILO
D3. New business density (new registrations per 1,000 people ages 15-64).New limited liability corporations registered in the calendar year.World BankWorld Bank; WCCDDEDE100+ countries; 20 cities.World BankWorld BankWorld BankWCCD
D4. Household final consumption expenditure per capita (constant 2005 US$).Household final consumption expenditure per capita (private consumption per capita) is calculated using private consumption in constant 2005 prices and World Bank population estimates. Household final consumption expenditure is the market value of all goods and services, including durable products (such as cars, washing machines, and home computers), purchased by households.World BankWorld BankDEP214ADBUrban/RuralWorld BankWorld Bank
E. Market transparency and information symmetry.E1. Ease of Doing Business (EoDB) Distance to Frontier.An economy’s distance to frontier is reflected on a scale from 0 to 100, where 0 represents the lowest performance and 100 represents the frontier (most optimal performance).It is based on 36 indicators
for 10 Doing Business topics that measures ease of doing business in an economy.
1) starting a business;
2) dealing with construction permits;
3) getting electricity;
4) registering property;
5) getting credit;
6) protecting minority investors;
7) paying taxes;
8) trading across borders;
9) enforcing contracts;
10) resolving insolvency.
World Bank-Doing BusinessWorld BankDEDE189 countries; 22 cities.World BankWorld BankWorld BankWorld Bank
E2. Voice and accountability indicator.Perceptions of the extent to which a country's citizens are able to participate in selecting their government, as well as freedom of expression, freedom of association, and a free media.WGIWorld BankDEP211World BankMarginalized populationsWGIWorld Bank
E3. Control of corruption indicator.Captures perceptions of the extent to which public power is exercised for private gain, including both petty and grand forms of corruption, as well as "capture" of the state by elites and private interests.
Sub-national level: number of corruption convictions and/or bribary by city oficials by 100,000 population.
WGIWorld Bank; WCCDDEDE214 countries; 13 cities.WGIWGIWorld BankWCCD
F. Widespread technology infrastructure for the betterment of all.F1. Mobile cellular telephone subscribers per 100 population.The percentage of the population covered by a mobile cellular network can be considered as a minimum indicator for ICT access since it provides people with the possibility to subscribe to and use mobile-cellular services to communicate. Over the last decade, mobile-cellular networks have expanded rapidly and helped overcome very basic infrastructure barriers that existed when fixed telephone networks – often limited to urban and highly populated areas - were the dominant telecommunication infrastructure. SDGWorld Bank; UN Habitat; WCCDDEDE203 countries; 741 cities in 220 countries.SDGUrban/Rural; Type of phoneSDGWorld BankWCCD
F2. Percentage of households with Internet.Increase high-quality access to the Internet and its increasing amount of information, content, services, and applications.SDGInternational Telecommunication Union (ITU); WCCDDEDE137 countries; 17 cities.SDGUrban/RuralSDGITUWCCD
Inclusive Economies Framework
CategorySub-categoryIndicatorDefinitionSourceData sourceScale
(DE= Data exists; P= Possible to calculate; NA = Not applicable)
EconomiesEfforts Using the IndicatorDisaggregate GroupsSource linkData Link (national)Data Link (city)
GrowingG. Increasing good job and work opportunity.G1. Employment-to-population ratio (of working age population).Access to employment. Sub-national level: percentage of population in full-time employment.ADBWorld Bank; WCCDDEDE203 countries; 18 cities.ADBGender; Age; Urban/RuralADBWorld BankWCCD
G2. Growth rate of average per capita income 2005 PPP $.Annual percentage growth rate of GDP per capita based on constant local currency. ADBWorld BankDENA220ADBADBWorld Bank
G3. Proportion of population below $1.25 (PPP) per day.Number of persons living in households below the poverty line. When combining poverty status with employment status, the concept of the working poor is captured, which aims to measure how many workers, despite being in employment, live in poverty. Sub-national level: percentage of population living in poverty.SDGUN Stats; WCCDDEDE49 countries; 23 cities.SDGUrban/Rural; Gender; Age; Employment statusSDGUN StatsWCCD
H. Improving material well-being.H1. GDP per capita, PPP (current international $).PPP GDP is gross domestic product converted to international dollars using purchasing power parity rates.World BankWorld BankDENA100+World BankWorld BankWorld Bank
H2. Proportion of population above minimum level of dietary energy consumption.Population below minimum level of dietary energy consumption (also referred to as prevalence of undernourishment) shows the percentage of the population whose food intake is insufficient to meet dietary energy requirements continuously. Data showing as 2.5 signifies a prevalence of undernourishment below 2.5%.SDGFAO; World BankDEP114FAO; WHOGender; Urban/RuralSDGWorld Bank
H3. Durable structures (Slum population as percentage of urban).A house is considered “durable” if it is built on a non-hazardous location and has a structure permanent and adequate enough to protect its inhabitants from the extremes of climatic conditions, such as rain, heat, cold and humidity. Households which live in slums usually occupy non durable dwelling units that expose them to high morbidity and mortality risks.SDGUN Stats; UN Habitat; WCCDDEDE83 countries; 741 cities in 220 countries.SDGSDGUN StatsUN Habitat
H4. Life expectancy at birth.Life expectancy at birth indicates the number of years a newborn infant would live if prevailing patterns of mortality at the time of its birth were to stay the same throughout its life.OECDWorld Bank; WCCDDEDE231 countries; 24 cities.SDGGenderOECDWorld BankWCCD
I. Economic transformation for the betterment of all.I1. Labor productivity (GDP per hour worked).Positive changes in labour productivity measure the part of economic growth due to more effective work by those who are employed. Driving forces behind labour productivity include the accumulation of machinery and equipment, improvements in organization as well as physical and institutional infrastructures, improved health and skills of workers (“human capital”) and the generation of new technologies.UN-Sustainable DevelopmentOECD StatsDENA38UNSector; Urban/Rural; Gender; AgeUNSDOECD Stats
I2. Research and development expenditure (% of GDP).Current and capital expenditures (both public and private) on creative work undertaken systematically to increase knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture, and society, and the use of knowledge for new applications. R&D covers basic research, applied research, and experimental development.World BankWorld BankDENA100+World BankSectorWorld BankWorld Bank
I3. High-technology exports (% of manufactured exports).High-technology exports are products with high R&D intensity, such as in aerospace, computers, pharmaceuticals, scientific instruments, and electrical machinery.World BankWorld BankDENA100+World BankSectorWorld BankWorld Bank
Inclusive Economies Framework
CategorySub-categoryIndicatorDefinitionSourceData sourceScale
(DE= Data exists; P= Possible to calculate; NA = Not applicable)
EconomiesEfforts Using the IndicatorDisaggregate GroupsSource linkData Link (national)Data Link (city)
SustainableJ. Social and economic well-being is increasingly sustained over time.J1. 20 year change in proportion of population above minimum level of dietary energy consumption.Improvements in food intake of population throughout generations.World BankFAO; World BankDEP114World BankGender; Urban/RuralSDGWorld Bank
J2. 20 year change in durable structures (Slum population as percentage of urban).Improvements in living conditions of population throughout generations.World BankUN Stats; UN Habitat; WCCDDEDE83 countries; 741 cities in 220 countries.World BankGenderSDGUN StatsUN Habitat
J3. 20 year change in life expectancy at birth.Improvements in life expectancy of population throughout generations. World BankWorld Bank; WCCDDEDE231 countries; 24 cities.World BankGenderOECDWorld BankWCCD
K. Greater investments in environmental health and reduced natural resource usage.K1. Energy intensity (TPES/GDP PPP).It is calculated as units of energy per unit of GDP. High energy intensities indicate a high price or cost of converting energy into GDP. Low energy intensity indicates a lower price or cost of converting energy into GDP. Sub-national: KWH/Year.SDGIEA; WCCDDEDE138 countries; 25 cities.SDGSectorSDGIEAWCCD
K2. Proportion of total water resources used (%).Total annual volume of groundwater and surface water withdrawn from its sources for human use. The indicator shows the degree to which total renewable water resources are being exploited to meet the country’s water demands and is thus a measure of water scarcity. Sub-national level: total water consumption per capita.UN-Sustainable DevelopmentFAO-AQUASTAT; WCCDDEDE150+ countries; 21 cities.FAO; UNUNSDFAO AQUASTATWCCD
K3. Proportion of wastewater safely treated.Improve water quality by reducing pollution, eliminating dumping and minimizing release of hazardous chemicals and materials, halving the proportion of untreated wastewater and substantially increasing recycling and safe reuse globally. The wastewater safely treated is calculated by combining the percentage of household (sewage and faecal sludge) wastewater and the percentage of wastewater from hazardous industries treated. The calculation of the indicator value is the amount treated (off-site and on-site) divided by the total amount of waste generated. Data expected to be available by 2018.SDGJMP; FAO-AQUASAT; IBNET; UNSD; UNEPPPSDGSDG
K4. CO2 emissions (kg per PPP $ of GDP).Carbon dioxide emissions are those stemming from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement. They include carbon dioxide produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.World BankWorld BankDENA217World BankWorld BankWorld Bank
K5. Annual mean levels of fine particulate matter (e.g. PM2.5 and PM10) in cities (population weighted).
Level of air pollution.SDGWHO; WCCDDEDE3000 cities in 103 countries.SDGUrban/RuralSDGWHOWCCD
K6. The Natural Resource Protection Indicator (NRPI).Assesses whether a country is protecting at least 10% of all of its biomes (e.g., deserts, forests, grasslands, aquatic, and tundra). It is designed to capture the comprehensiveness of a government’s commitment to habitat preservation and biodiversity protection (proxy for natural resource management). The World Wildlife Fund provided the underlying biome data, and the United Nations Environment Program World Conservation Monitoring Center provided the underlying data on protected areas. Based on proximity-to-target scores ranging from 0 to 100 (at target). The NRPI is calculated based on the weighted average percentage of biomes under protected status.Center for International Earth Science Information Network - CIESIN - Columbia UniversityNASA Socioeconomic Data and Applications Center (SEDAC)DENA221SEDACEcosystemSEDACSEDAC
K7c. Share of Renewables in Total Primary Energy Supply (%).Final consumption of energy that is derived from renewable resources. Renewable energy technologies represent a major element in strategies for greening economies everywhere in the world and for tackling the critical global problem of climate change.SDGIEA; WCCDDEDE125 countries; 20 cities.SDGRenewable resourcesSDGIEAWCCD
L. Decision-making processes incorporate long-term costs.L1. Resource productivity. Ratio of GDP (at constant prices) to Domestic Material Consumption (DMC).The indicator provides a basis for policies to decouple the growth of the economy from the use of natural resources in order to reduce environmental degradation resulting from primary production, material processing, manufacturing and waste disposal. Reductions in intensity of material use can be achieved by more efficient use of natural resources in production and consumption, by recycling used and waste material, and by shifts in consumption patterns to less material intensive goods and services. GDP is expressed in terms of Euros or Purchasing Power Standard.UN-Sustainable DevelopmentOECD StatsDENA32OECDSectorSDGEUROSTAT
Inclusive Economies Framework
CategorySub-categoryIndicatorDefinitionSourceData sourceScale
(DE= Data exists; P= Possible to calculate; NA = Not applicable)
EconomiesEfforts Using the IndicatorDisaggregate GroupsSource linkData Link (national)Data Link (city)
StableM. Public and private confidence in the future and ability to predict outcome of economic decisions.M1. Standard deviation of year-to-year change in GDP, previous 20 years.Proxy for macroeconomic volatility, which is a major obsticle to growth. The standard deviation is calculated from the available data on GDP annual growth.World BankWorld BankDENA100+World BankSectorWorld BankWorld Bank
M2. Regulatory quality indicator.Perceptions of the ability of the government to formulate and implement sound policies and regulations that permit and promote private sector development. WGIWorld BankDEP215WGIWGIWorld Bank
N. Members of society are able to invest in their future.N1. Percentage of population using banking services.Denotes the percentage of respondents who report having an account (by themselves or together with someone else). For 2011, this can be an account at a bank or another type of financial institution, and for 2014 this can be a mobile account as well (see year-specific definitions for details) (% age 15+).Global FinDexGlobal FindexDEP172SDGGender; Urban/Rural; Age; Wealth quintileWorld BankWorld Bank
N2. Borrowed from a financial institution (% age 15+) - Access to formal credit.The percentage of respondents who report borrowing any money from a bank or another type of financial institution in the past 12 months.World BankGlobal FindexDEP140+World BankGender; Age; Formal/Informal lending; Wealth quintileWorld BankWorld Bank
N3. Microinsurance coverage ratio.Microinsurance is regarded by some as a risk management mechanism that the poor can use to compensate for the lack of appropriate state sponsored social protection programmes. Alternatively, it is viewed by others as an opportunity to provide financial services to the low-income market at a profit. Coverage ratio = Number of active insured/target population.MicroInsurance CentreMicroInsurance CentreDEP50+MICMIC
N4. CPIA property rights and rule-based governance rating (1=low to 6=high).Property rights and rule-based governance assess the extent to which private economic activity is facilitated by an effective legal system and rule based governance structure in which property and contract rights are reliably respected and enforced.World BankWorld BankDEP100+World BankWorld BankWorld Bank
N5c. Level of internal conflict, International Country Risk Guide rating.This is an assessment of political violence in a country, and its actual or potential impact on
governance. The highest rating is given to those countries where there is no armed or civil
opposition to the government and the government does not indulge in arbitrary violence, direct or
indirect, against its own people. The lowest rating is given to a country embroiled in an on-going
civil war. The risk rating assigned is the sum of three subcomponents: civil war/coup threat; terrorism/political violence and civil disorder. A score of 4 points equates to Very Low Risk and a score of 0 points to Very High Risk. Sub-national level: annual average of population affected by conflict.
ISDISD; UN HabitatDEDE140 countries; 741 cities in 220 countries.ISDISDISDUN Habitat
O. Economic resilience to shocks and stresses.O1. Government expenditure on social security and welfare as a percentage of total government expenditure. Government expenditures on social security and welfare comprise benefits in cash or in kind to persons who are sick, fully or partially disabled, of old age, survivors, or unemployed, among others.ADBADBDEP36ADBADBADB
O2. Herfindahl-Hirschman (Export) Product Concentration Index.Useful for understanding general direction of export diversification. HI lies between 0 and 1 where 1 implies complete concentration. A country with a preponderance of trade value concentrated in a very few products/markets will have an index value close to 1, and face higher risks during macroeconomic instability.World BankWorld Integrated Trade SolutionDENA269World BankProductWITSWITS
O3. Social protection and labor rating.Assesses government policies in social protection and labor market regulations that reduce the risk of becoming poor, assist those who are poor to better manage further risks, and ensure a minimal level of welfare to all people. (1=low to 6=high).ADBWorld BankDEP105ADBADBWorld Bank
O4c. FDI/FPI as a % of GDP.Foreign direct investment, net inflows (% of GDP) and/or portfolio equity, net inflows (% of GDP). Measures macroeconomic stability.World BankWorld BankDENA100+World BankWorld BankWorld Bank
O5i. Response time for emergency response services from initial call.Emergency response time.WCCDWCCDPDE16 citiesWCCDUrban/RuralWCCDWCCD