Learning Dispositions - Terminology
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LDR Learning Dispositions
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TERMDEFINITIONSOURCE
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Academic DevelopmentIs this a term to include?
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Academic Optimism“A composite measure comprised of teacher perceptions of trust in students, academic press, and collective efficacy by exploring a similar set of constructs from the students perspective.”Moran, M. T., Banoke, R. A., Mitchell, R. M., & Moore, D. M. (2013). Student Academic Optimism: a confirmatory factory analysis. Journal of Educational Administration, 51(2), 150-175
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Character-Centered“An approach through which teachers conduct their academic instruction in a manner that clearly and purposefully reflects their own positive character attributes.”

“Character: is a composite of the attributes, attitudes, and behavioral patterns that combine to constitute a person’s identity and distinguish individuals from one another. Each individual develops a unique character, demonstrated by a unique combination of attributes and behavioral patterns.”
http://www.arkansased.gov/public/userfiles/Learning_Services/Curriculum%20and%20Instruction/Char%20Cent%20Teach/marraz_1.pdf
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Demonstration of Mastery“This “mastery of learning” approach allows for assessment of a student’s learning pre and post a lesson to determine the length, extent, depth required and what educational interventions would be helpful to assist the student in learning. Learning objectives are developed based on the outcome of a pre‐assessment of student knowledge. Instruction, based on the learning objectives, focuses on specific behaviors a student needs to demonstrate in order to achieve competence. Demonstration of mastery is through the achievement of these learning objectives.”Gervais, J. (2016). The operational definition of competency-based education. The Journal of Competency-Based Education, 1(2) DOI: https://doi-org.aurarialibrary.idm.oclc.org/10.1002/cbe2.1011
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Examples“In order to ensure that students are taught to proficient levels of performance, teachers and students must be able to see examples of proficient performance for every grade level in each content area. This can be in the form of samples of proficient work (exemplars) or through scoring guides and rubrics that describe at what level a student must perform to be considered proficient. These examples provide teachers and students clear targets for learning and performance.”https://secure.collegeincolorado.org/Images/CiC/pdfs/standards_based_teaching.pdf
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Exemplars“Key examples of products or processes chosen so as to be typical of designated levels of quality or competence.”D. Royce Sadler (2005) Interpretations of criteria‐based assessment and grading in higher education, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 30:2, 175-194
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Formative Feedback/Assessment“Planned process in which assessment-elicited evidence is used by teachers to inform instructional decisions and by both students and teachers to support learning, provide feedback and make adjustments.”CRESST (National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards & Student Testing) Glossary
Wiggins, G., McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by Design.
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Grade-level Expectations“The articulation (at each grade level) of the concepts and skills that indicate a student is making progress toward being ready for high school, i.e., what students need to know from preschool through grade 8.”https://www.cde.state.co.us/fedprograms/dl/ti_a-ti_sstmembers_standardsbased
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Grit“Perseverance and passion for long-term goals. Grit entails working strenuously towards challenges, maintaining effort and interest over years despite failures, adversity, and plateaus in progress. The gritty individual approaches achievement as marathon; his or her advantage is stamina.”Duckworth, A. L., Peterson, C., Matthews, M. D., & Kelly, D. R. (2007). Grit: Perseverance and Passion for Long-Term Goals. Journal of Personality and Social Pyschology, 92(6), 1087-1101
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Growth Mindset“The understanding that abilities and intelligence can be developed. When students believe they can get smarter, they understand that effort makes them stronger. Therefore they put in extra time and effort, and that leads to higher achievement.”Carol Dweck
https://www.mindsetworks.com/science/
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Intrinsic Motivation“Doing something because it is inherently interesting or enjoyable”Ryan, R., Deci, E (2000). Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivations: Classical Definitions and New Direction. Contemporary Educational Psychology 25, 54–67
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Lesson Objectives“The term commonly used to identify a very specific grade level or course-learning outcome aligned to standards and benchmarks. Objectives are generally identified at the district level and usually communicated through district curriculum documents. They describe what students should know, understand or be able to do at the end of a course, unit, or even a lesson. Curriculum objectives usually are described with some type of expected performance or method to assess proficiency.”CRESST (National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards & Student Testing) Glossary
Wiggins, G., McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by Design.
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Malleable“A skill that is malleable can be shaped by specific interventions, whether in the classroom or through other programs that support schools in preparing students for success.”Transforming Education. (2015). The 3Ms Framework. Retrieved from: https://www.transformingeducation.org/three-m-s/
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Resiliency“Whether students respond positively to challenges.”

“Positive response to failure or adversity.”
Yeager, S., & Dweck, S. (2012). Mindsets That Promote Resilience: When Students Believe That Personal Characteristics Can Be Developed. Educational Psychologist, 47(4), 302–314. https://doi.org/10.1080/00461520.2012.722805

Duckworth, A. L. (2013). The Significance of Grit: A conversation with Angela Lee Duckworth. Retrieved from: http://68.77.48.18/RandD/Educational%20Leadership/Significance%20of%20Grit%20-%20Duckworth.pdf
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Rubrics“A coherent set of criteria for evaluating students’ work that includes descriptions of different levels of performance quality on the criteria.”CRESST (National Center for Research on Evaluation, Standards & Student Testing) Glossary
Wiggins, G., McTighe, J. (2005). Understanding by Design.
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Scoring Guides“Describe student performance on standards-based learning tasks by providing various types of descriptions or rating systems to differentiate levels of performance. These descriptions allow students to understand what type of proficient work is desired and receive feedback about their performance based on that description. Scoring guides can be used to assess a variety of concepts and skills. They can be developed and used at the classroom, grade level, department, school and even district level.”https://secure.collegeincolorado.org/Images/CiC/pdfs/standards_based_teaching.pdf
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Student Engagement“The degree of attention, curiosity, interest, optimism, and passion that students show when they are learning or being taught, which extends to the level of motivation they have to learn and progress in their education.”https://www.edglossary.org/student-engagement/
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Student Feedback“Information presented that allows comparison between an actual outcome and a desired outcome.” Effective feedback: “feedback that is both appropriate and timely and suited to the needs of the situation.”https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02602930601127869?src=recsys
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Student Progress Monitoring“Progress monitoring is the ongoing process of collecting and analyzing data to determine student progress toward specific skills or general outcomes. Progress-monitoring data is used to adjust instruction for individual and groups of students.”https://secure.collegeincolorado.org/Images/CiC/pdfs/standards_based_teaching.pdf
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Student Self-efficacy“An individual's belief in his or her capacity to execute behaviors necessary to produce specific performance attainments.”http://www.apa.org/pi/aids/resources/education/self-efficacy.aspx
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Student Voice“The values, opinions, beliefs, perspectives, and cultural backgrounds of individual students and groups of students in a school, and to instructional approaches and techniques that are based on student choices, interests, passions, and ambitions.”

“Approach to student development that fosters each student’s sense of agency or the “capacity to exercise control over the nature and quality of one’s life” (Manning, Kinzie, & Schuh, 2014, p. 146).
https://www.edglossary.org/student-engagement/



http://studentswithagency.ucsc.edu/student-agency/
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Time On Task (measure of student engagement)“Time-on-task refers to the amount of time students spend attending to school-related tasks (Prater, 1992), such as following directions and engaging in learning activities. Time-on-task is also sometimes referred to as ‘engaged time.’”http://www.centerii.org/handbook/resources/8_e_increasing_time_on_task.pdf
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