Elected 1915. Patented first sewing machine. Sculptor: Charles Keck, 1930.
|Alexander Graham Bell||1847-1922|
Elected 1900. Invented the telephone, which he patented in 1876 and demonstrated at the Centennial Exhibition. Sculptor: Stanley Martineau, 1951.
|John James Audubon||1785-1851|
Elected 1900. Painted America's birds from first hand observation. His published pictures became world-famous. Sculptor: A. Stirling Calder, 1927.
Elected 1900. Invented, but never patented the cotton gin for cleaning seeds from cotton. Sculptor: Chester Beach, 1926.
|Samuel Finley Breese Morse||1791-1872|
Elected 1900. Invented the telegraph, the first instrument capable of transmitting electrical signals across long distances. Sculptor: Chester Beach, 1928.
Artist and engineer. Developed several improvements in transportation, most notably, the steamboat. Sculptor: Jean-Antoine Houdon, replica.
Elected 1900. Botanist, biologist, and Harvard professor. Early disciple of Darwinism in America. Sculptor: Chester Beach, 1925.
|Matthew Fontaine Maury||1806-1873|
Elected 1930. Naval officer and oceanographer Sculptor: F. Williams Sievers, 1931.
|James Buchanan Eads||1820-1887|
Elected 1920. Engineer and builder. Designed armored steamboats, built Mississippi River Bridge at St. Louis, opened Mississippi River Bridge at St. Louis, opened Mississippi River to deeper draft ships at its mouth. Sculptor: Charles Grafly, 1924.
Elected 1935. Astronomer. Calculated planetary orbits and motion of the moon, gaining international esteem. Sculptor: Frederick MacMonnies, 1936.
Elected 1905. Self-taught astronomer and Vassar College Professor. Pioneered in education and achieving recognition for women's scientific accomplishments. Sculptor:Emma F. Brigham, replica.
Elected 1955. Inventor of air brake and electrically controlled signals for railroad trains. Innovator in development and use of alternating current. Sculptor: Edmondo Quattrocchi, 1957.
Elected 1915. Zoologist and geologist. Advanced the theory of a glacial age in earth's geologic history. Sculptor: Anna Hyatt Huntington, 1928.
|William Crawford Gorgas||1854-1920|
Elected 1950. Physician and sanitary engineer. Wiped out yellow fever in Cuba and Panama Canal Zone. Sculptor: Bryant Baker, 1951.
William Thomas Green Morton
Elected 1920. Dentist. First to use ether as a general anesthetic in 1846. Sculptor: Helen Farnsworth Mears, replica.
Elected 1945. U.S. Army physician, surgeon and medical researcher. Discovered that yellow fever was caused by bacteria transmitted through mosquito bite. Sculptor: Cecil Howard, 1948.
Elected 1915. Physicist. Discoverer of induced current. Built first electric motor using electromagnets. First head of Smithsonian Institution. Sculptor: John Flanagan, 1924.
|Josiah Willard Gibbs||1839-1903|
Elected 1950. Physicist. Hist theories of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics established foundations of modern fields of physical chemistry and chemical engineering. Sculptor: Stanley Martineau, 1957.
Elected 1955. Co-inventor of airplane with his brother Orville. Made longest flight of original four flights at Kitty Hawk, N.C. in 1903, 852 ft. in 59 sec. Sculptor: Vincent Glinsky, 1967.
|Thomas Alva Edison||1847-1931|
Elected 1960. Inventor. Pioneered the revolution in technology by establishing the first industrial research laboratory from which came a multitude of inventions: the incandescent electric light, phonograph, motion-picture camera, storage battery, mimeograph anddictating machine. Sculptor: Bryant Baker, 1961
Elected 1965. Aviation pioneer and inventor. Made the first flight in a heavier-than-air craft, remaining aloft 12 sec. For a distance of 120ft. At Kitty Hawk, N.C. in 1903.Sculptor: Paul Fjelde, 1967.
|Albert Abraham Michelson||1852-1931|
Elected 1970. Experimental physicist who excelled in measurement of light and optics. First American to receive a Nobel Prize in science. Sculptor: Elisabeth Gordon Chandler, 1973.
|George Washington Carver||1864-1943|
Elected 1973. Agricultural researcher. Sculptor:Richmond Barthe, 1977.
Elected 1945. Writer and political reformer. His pamphlet, "Common Sense," aroused Americans to declare independence in 1776. Sculptor: Malvina Hoffman, 1952.
Elected 1900. Printer, diplomat, scientist, statesman and inventor. His skillful diplomacy assured French support for the American Revolution. Sculptor: Robert Aitken, 1927.
Elected 1900. First president, commander-in-chief of Continental Army in the American Revolution, and statesman. He assured the establishment of a republic for which the revolution was fought. Sculptor: Jean-Antoine Houdon, replica.
Elected 1900. Statesman, lawyer and diplomat. First vice-president and second president of the U.S. His resolution in the Continental Congress in May 1776 led the colonies to become independent states. Sculptor: John Francis Paramino, 1924.
Elected 1900. Statesman. Kentucky congressman, long-time speaker of the House of Representatives. Notable for promoting political compromises affecting slavery. Sculptor:Robert Aitken, 1929.
Elected 1900. Third president, author of Declaration of Independence, statesman and philosopher. As president, he made the Louisiana Purchase and dispatched the Lewis and Clark expedition to the Far West. Sculptor: Robert Aitken, 1924.
Elected 1900. Statesman and lawyer; sixteenth president. Sought to preserve the Union and out an end to slavery. His magnanimity toward the defeated South was cut short bu an assassin's bullet. Sculptor: Agustus Saint-Gaudens, replica.
Elected 1900. Senator, constitutional lawyer, and secretary of the state. Renowned as protector of compromise on slavery. Sculptor: Robert Aitken, 1926.
Elected 1905. Statesman and lawyer; fourth president. A framer of the Constitution, he later secured adoption of the Bill of Rights. President during War of 1812. Sculptor:Charles Keck, 1929.
|John Quincy Adams||1767-1848|
Elected 1905. Statesman and diplomat; sixth president. After a single term as president, he served in Congress as an antislavery crusader, 1831-1848. Sculptor:Edmond T. Quinn, 1930.
Elected 1910. Seventh president. Victorious in Battle of New Orleans, 1815. A strong president, he upheld federal supremacy over the states and democratized officeholding. Sculptor: Belle Kinney, 1924.
Elected 1915. Statesman. First secretary of the treasury. Advocate of strong centralized government; master of finance and taxation. Killed in duel with Aaron Burr. Sculptor: Giussepe Ceracchi, replica.
Elected 1930. Fifth president. His two terms called "era of good feelings". The Monroe Doctrine declared the Western Hemisphere closed to further European colonization. Sculptor: Herman A. MacNeil, 1931.
Elected 1920. Statesman, patriot, orator. As a revolutionary leader, he argued eloquently for independence. Later influenced adoption of the Bill of Rights. Sculptor: Charles Keck, 1930.
Elected 1935. Twenty-second and twenty-fourth president. Only president elected for two separate terms. Fought for governmental reform and financial honesty.Sculptor: Rudolph Evans, 1937.
Elected 1935. Religious leader, statesman and founder of Pennsylvania. Upholder of religious freedom. Sculptor: A. Stirling Calder, 1936.
Elected 1950. Twenty-sixth president. Favored regulation of big business, conservation of environment, and strong American foreign policy. Sculptor: Georg Lober, 1954.
Elected 1950. Twenty-eighth president, political scientist, president of Princeton. As president, achieved reforms to regulate business, banking and labor. Founded League of Nations to preserve peace. Sculptor: Walker Kirtland Hancock, 1956.
Elected 1900. Chief Justice, U.S. Supreme Court. Established power of Supreme Court to declare federal and state laws unconstitutional. Sculptor: Herbert Adams, 1930.
Elected 1900. Associate Justice, U.S. Supreme Court. Favored federal government over the states. Opposed slavery. Sculptor: Herbert Adams, 1930.
1763-1847. Elected 1900. New York Chancellor and legal scholar. His Commentaries on American Law became a standard text for educating lawyers. Along with Justice Story, he laid the cornerstone of American equity law. Sculptor: Edmond T. Quinn, 1926.
Elected 1915. Notable 19th century trial lawyer. Completed Webster's unexpired term in the Senate. Sculptor: Herman A. MacNeil, 1928.
|Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.||1841-1935|
Elected 1965. Associate Justice, U.S. Supreme Court. Noted for dissents which later gained acceptance and for eloquent use of language. Sculptor: Joseph Kiselewski, 1970.
|William Tecumseh Sherman||1820-1891|
Elected 1905. General of Union Army which laid waste to conquered Confederate territory. His army's "march through Georgia" was the precursor of modern strategy to destroy the enemy's will to fight. Sculptor: Agustus Saint-Gaudens, replica.
|Franklin Delano Roosevelt||1882-1945|
Elected 1973. Thirty-second president. Twice elected Governor of New York State. Elected president of the U.S. in 1932. He is the only man to be elected to the Presidency four times. Initiated New Deal and Social Security program. Sculptor: Jo Davidson, replica.
|John Philip Sousa||1854-1932|
Elected 1973. Composer and bandmaster. Led the U.S. Marine Band, 1880-1892, and his own band thereafter on national and worldwide tours. Renowned for his marches of which Stars and Stripes Forever is the best known. Sculptor: Karl H. Gruppe, 1976.
|Ulysses Simpson Grant||1822-1885|
Elected 1900. Eighteenth president. Commander of Union Armies, which he led to victory in Civil War. His presidency was marred by scandals among high officials, Sculptor: James Earle Frasier with Thomas Hudson Jones, 1923.
Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson
Elected 1955. Confederate general general in Civil War, called "Stonewall" for holding fast at First Battle of Bull Run. Died after being accidentally wounded. Sculptor: Bryant Baker, 1957.
|John Paul Jones||1747-1792|
Elected 1925. Captain in Continental Navy during American Revolution. Noted for daring triumphs over the British. Sculptor: Charles Grafly, 1928.
|Robert Edward Lee||1807-1870|
Elected 1900. General in command of Confederate Armies during Civil War. Led the South's forces at Gettysburg. Later became president of Washington and Lee University. Sculptor: George T. Brewster, 1923.
|David Glasgow Farragut||1801-1870|
Elected 1900. Commander of Union Navy on Gulf Coast during Civil War. Despite Southern background, served Union cause. Captured New Orleans and blockaded Vicksburg. Rank of Admiral in U.S. Navy created for him. Sculptor: Charles Grafly, 1927.
Edward Alexander MacDowell
Elected 1960. Composer, pianist and music teacher. Acclaimed as concert performer. First professor of music at Columbia University. "To a Wild Rose" and other "Woodland Sketches" are among his best known works. Sculptor: C. Paul Jennewian, 1964.
|Henry David Thoreau||1817-1862|
Elected 1960. Essayist, philosopher and poet. Originator of civil disobedience, which Ghandi and Martin Luther King Jr. adopted in challenging injustice. Sculptor:Malvina Hoffman, 1962.
Elected 1915. Explorer. Led settlers into Kentucky through Cumberland Gap. Sculptor: Albin Polasek, 1926.
|Stephen Collins Foster||1826-1864|
Elected 1940. Composer of popular ballads and minstrel songs, among the "O Susanna", "Old Folks at Home" (Swanee River), and "Camptown Races."Sculptor: Walker Kirtland Hancock, 1941.
Elected 1900. Philanthropist, merchant and financier. First American to engage in philanthropy on a board scale. The Peabody Education Fund pioneered in developing the foundation as an instrument of benefaction. Sculptor: Hans Schuler, 1926.
James Abbott McNeill Whistler
Elected 1930. Artist. Portrait painter, experimenter with color, and admirer of Oriental art. His most famous painting: " Portrait of My Mother - Arrangement in Grey and Black." Sculptor: Frederick MacMonnies, 1931.
|Gilbert Charles Stuart||1755-1828|
Elected 1900. Portrait painter of many of the founding Fathers and George Washington in particular. Sculptor: Laura Gardin Fraser, 1922.
Elected 1900. Inventor, manufacturer and philanthropist. Built first steam locomotive made in America, "Tom Thumb." Steel industry pioneer. Founder OD Cooper Union.Sculptor: Chester Beach, 1924.
Elected 1920. Sculptor of monumental figures accenting personality of the subject - Lincoln in Chicago's Lincoln Park. Farragut in New York's Madison Square, Sherman in Central Park. Sculptor: James Earle Fraser, 1926.
Charlotte Saunders Cushman
Elected 1915. Actress. Began stage career as opera singer, but switched to acting. Admired in America and England for Shakespearean roles. Sculptor:Fances Grimes, 1925.
Elected 1925. Most popular American dramatic actor of mid-19th century. Excelled in Shakespearean tragedies. Founder of the Players Club in New York City. Sculptor:Edmond T. Quinn, 1926.
|Frances Elizabeth Willard||1839-1898|
Elected 1910. Reformer and feminist. Educator, later president of the World Woman's Christian Temperance Union, and organizer of national Prohibition party in 1882. Worked for women's suffrage and better working conditions for women. Sculptor: Lorado Taft, 1923.
|Susan B. Anthony||1820-1906|
Elected 1950. Feminist reformer. As a young teacher, demanded equal pay for women teachers. Agitated for New York law to grant women equal property rights. Led women's suffrage movement for nearly fifty years. Sculptor: Brenda Putman, 1952.
|Lillian D. Wald||1867-1940|
Elected 1970. Social worker. Organized Henry Street Settlement in New York City. Originated visiting nurse and public school nurse systems. Sculptor: Eleanor Platt, 1971.
Elected 1965. Social worker. Established Hull House Settlement in Chicago slums. A pacifist in World War I and afterward she received a Nobel Peace Prize in 1931. Sculptor: Granville W. Carter, 1968.
Elected 1905. Educator and feminist. Innovator in higher education for women. Founded Mt. Holyoke College for educating women of less affluent means. Sculptor: Laura Gardin Fraser, 1927.
Elected 1965. Military enginee and educator. Graduate of West Point, he revitalized the cademic structure. Later he founded and endowed Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College. Sculptor: Joseph Kiselewski, 1966.
|Booker T. Washington||1858-1915|
Elected 1945. Educator. First head of Tuskegee Institute. Advocated vocational training and economic advancement for blacks. Adviser to Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Taft. Sculptor: Richmond Barthe, 1946.
|Alice Freeman Palmer||1855-1902|
Elected 1920. Educator. Professor and head of history department at Wellesley College. Appointed president of Wellesley and later dean of women at U. of Chicago. Sculptor: Evelyn Longman, 1924.
Elected 1905. Educator. Sought education for women comparable to that given to men. Organized Troy Female Seminary in 1821, probably the first women's higher education institution in the U.S. Sculptor: Frances Grimes, 1929.
Elected 1920. Religious leader. Exiled from Massachusetts for his belief in the separation of church and state. Founded Rhode Island Colony, which tolerated different religious groups and ordained a humane policy toward Native American Indians. Sculptor: Hermon A. MacNeil, 1926.
Elected 1915. Educator. Professor of philosophy and president of Williams College. Sculptor: Hans Hoerbst, replica.
Elected 1910. Episcopal Bishop of Massachusetts. Renowned preacher at Trinity Church, Boston; distinguished orator. Wrote words to "O Little Town of Bethlehem."Sculptor: Daniel Chester, 1924.
|Henry Ward Beecher||1813-1887|
Elected 1900. Clergyman. Minister of Plymouth Congregational Church, Brooklyn, N.Y. Antoslavery, but not abolitionist, before Civil War. Spellbinding preacher.Sculptor: Massey Rhind, 1923.
Elected 1900. Education Reformer. Led in development of public education in Massachusetts, a model for the nation. Founded first public teacher training school in U.S. at Lexington, Mass. Sculptor: Adolph A. Weinman, 1930.
|William Ellery Channing||1780-1842|
Elected 1900. Religious leader and theologian. Prominent in establishing Unitarianism. Called for development of distinctive American literature, and influenced literary flowering of New England. Sculptor: Herbert Adams, 1927.
Elected 1900. Religious leader and theologian. Dynamic figure in the "Great Awakening" religious revival of mid-18th century. Sculptor: Charles Grafly, 1926.
Elected 1930. The poet of democracy. Wrote in free verse. Most famous works include Leaves of Grass, "O Captain! My Captain!", and "When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd", an elegy for Lincoln. Sculptor: Chester Beach, 1931.
Elected 1945. Poet Musician, and literary critic in the post-Civil War South. Sculptor: Hans Schuler, 1946.
|James Fenimore Cooper||1789-1851|
Elected 1910. Writer. Creator of epic tales of Merican frontier life. First American to receive international acclaim for fiction. Best known for the Leatherstocking Tales, which included Last of the Mohicans and The Deerslayer. Sculptor: Vicor Salvatore, 1930.
|Harriet Beecher Stowe||1811-1896|
Elected 1910. Writer of antislavery novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, published in 1851-52. It sold 300,000 copies within a year and influenced the coming of the Civil War.Sculptor: Brenda Putman, 1925.
|John Lothrop Motley||1817-1877|
Elected 1910. Historian. Wrote The Rise of the Dutch Republic (1856) and later The History of the United Netherlands (1860, 1867) in dramatic narrative style, comparing influences of political freedom vs. tyranny. Sculptor: Frederick MacMonnies, 1930.
Samuel Langhorne Clemens (Mark Twain)
Elected 1920. Writer, lecturer and humorist. Created characters Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn, based upon youth in Missouri. Expressed uniquely American outlook in humorous often cynical, philosophizing. Sculptor: Albert Humphreys, 1924.
Elected 1915. Historian. Wrote narrative history of the frontier rich in description. Best known for The Oregon Trail and Montcalm and Wolfe the letter dealing with French and Indian War. Sculptor: Hermon A. MacNeil, 1929.
|Edgar Allan Poe||1809-1849|
Elected 1910. Poet, critic, and short-story writer. Innovator in detective story genre and tales of horror and the supernatural. His poetry includes "Annabell Lee", "The Raven", and "The Bells". Sculptor: Daniel Chester French, 1922.
Elected 1910. Historian. Wrote 10-volume History of the United States from the discovery of American to the end of the Revolutionary War, the most popular American historical work of the 19th century. Saw American history as progressing from despotism to democracy.Sculptor: Rudolph Evans, 1930.
|William Cullen Bryant||1794-1878|
Elected 1910. Poet and newspaper editor. His poetry celebrated beauty of nature. Edited rights, opposed slavery and took part in the Republican party.Sculptor: Herbert Adams, 1929.
|John Greenleaf Whittier||1807-1892|
Elected 1905. Poet and journalist. Wrote fiery abolitionist articles. A prolific writer and devout Quaker; many of his poems are sung as church hymns. Sculptor:Rudolph Evans, 1928.
|Oliver Wendell Holmes||1809-1894|
Elected 1910. Poet, essayist and physician. Renowned for writing "Old Ironsides" and "The Autocrat of the Breakfast table" before becoming a physician. Published statistical findings about contagion a childbed fever. Sculptor: Edmond T. Quinn, 1929.
|James Russell Lowell||1819-1891|
Elected 1905. Poet, editor, teacher, diplomat, and political satirist. Active in antislavery movement. Wrote The Biglow Papers on Mexican and Civil Wars. America's foremost man of letters and editor of Atlantic Monthly and North Merican Review. Sculptor:Allan Clark, 1930.
|Ralph Waldo Emerson||1803-1882|
Elected 1900. Philosopher, poet, essayist and lecturer. One of the founders of American transcendentalism, a philosophy that urged man to strive to employ his limitless capacitie. The outstanding American philosopher of his age. Sculptor: Daniel Chester French, 1923.
Elected 1900. Novelist and short-story writer. Best known works are The Scarlet Leter and The House of the Seven Gables. His writings considered the human tragedy that results from radical social change. Sculptor: Daniel Chester French, 1929.