Hall of Fame
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Elias Howe1819-1867
Elected 1915. Patented first sewing machine. Sculptor: Charles Keck, 1930.
Alexander Graham Bell1847-1922
Elected 1900. Invented the telephone, which he patented in 1876 and demonstrated at the Centennial Exhibition. Sculptor: Stanley Martineau, 1951.
John James Audubon1785-1851
Elected 1900. Painted America's birds from first hand observation. His published pictures became world-famous. Sculptor: A. Stirling Calder, 1927.
Eli Whitney1765-1825
Elected 1900. Invented, but never patented the cotton gin for cleaning seeds from cotton. Sculptor: Chester Beach, 1926.
Samuel Finley Breese Morse1791-1872
Elected 1900. Invented the telegraph, the first instrument capable of transmitting electrical signals across long distances. Sculptor: Chester Beach, 1928.
Robert Fulton1765-1815
Artist and engineer. Developed several improvements in transportation, most notably, the steamboat. Sculptor: Jean-Antoine Houdon, replica.
Asa Gray1810-1888
Elected 1900. Botanist, biologist, and Harvard professor. Early disciple of Darwinism in America. Sculptor: Chester Beach, 1925.
Matthew Fontaine Maury1806-1873
Elected 1930. Naval officer and oceanographer Sculptor: F. Williams Sievers, 1931.
James Buchanan Eads1820-1887
Elected 1920. Engineer and builder. Designed armored steamboats, built Mississippi River Bridge at St. Louis, opened Mississippi River Bridge at St. Louis, opened Mississippi River to deeper draft ships at its mouth. Sculptor: Charles Grafly, 1924.
Simon Newcomb1835-1909
Elected 1935. Astronomer. Calculated planetary orbits and motion of the moon, gaining international esteem. Sculptor: Frederick MacMonnies, 1936.
Maria Mitchell1818-1889
Elected 1905. Self-taught astronomer and Vassar College Professor. Pioneered in education and achieving recognition for women's scientific accomplishments. Sculptor:Emma F. Brigham, replica.
George Westinghouse1846-1914
Elected 1955. Inventor of air brake and electrically controlled signals for railroad trains. Innovator in development and use of alternating current. Sculptor: Edmondo Quattrocchi, 1957.
Louis Agassiz1807-1873
Elected 1915. Zoologist and geologist. Advanced the theory of a glacial age in earth's geologic history. Sculptor: Anna Hyatt Huntington, 1928.
William Crawford Gorgas1854-1920
Elected 1950. Physician and sanitary engineer. Wiped out yellow fever in Cuba and Panama Canal Zone. Sculptor: Bryant Baker, 1951.
William Thomas Green Morton
Elected 1920. Dentist. First to use ether as a general anesthetic in 1846. Sculptor: Helen Farnsworth Mears, replica.
Walter Reed1851-1902
Elected 1945. U.S. Army physician, surgeon and medical researcher. Discovered that yellow fever was caused by bacteria transmitted through mosquito bite. Sculptor: Cecil Howard, 1948.
Joseph Henry1797-1878
Elected 1915. Physicist. Discoverer of induced current. Built first electric motor using electromagnets. First head of Smithsonian Institution. Sculptor: John Flanagan, 1924.
Josiah Willard Gibbs1839-1903
Elected 1950. Physicist. Hist theories of thermodynamics and statistical mechanics established foundations of modern fields of physical chemistry and chemical engineering. Sculptor: Stanley Martineau, 1957.
Wilbur Wright1867-1912
Elected 1955. Co-inventor of airplane with his brother Orville. Made longest flight of original four flights at Kitty Hawk, N.C. in 1903, 852 ft. in 59 sec. Sculptor: Vincent Glinsky, 1967.
Thomas Alva Edison1847-1931
Elected 1960. Inventor. Pioneered the revolution in technology by establishing the first industrial research laboratory from which came a multitude of inventions: the incandescent electric light, phonograph, motion-picture camera, storage battery, mimeograph anddictating machine. Sculptor: Bryant Baker, 1961
Orville Wright1871-1948
Elected 1965. Aviation pioneer and inventor. Made the first flight in a heavier-than-air craft, remaining aloft 12 sec. For a distance of 120ft. At Kitty Hawk, N.C. in 1903.Sculptor: Paul Fjelde, 1967.
Albert Abraham Michelson1852-1931
Elected 1970. Experimental physicist who excelled in measurement of light and optics. First American to receive a Nobel Prize in science. Sculptor: Elisabeth Gordon Chandler, 1973.
George Washington Carver1864-1943
Elected 1973. Agricultural researcher. Sculptor:Richmond Barthe, 1977.
Thomas Paine1737-1809
Elected 1945. Writer and political reformer. His pamphlet, "Common Sense," aroused Americans to declare independence in 1776. Sculptor: Malvina Hoffman, 1952.
Benjamin Franklin1706-1790
Elected 1900. Printer, diplomat, scientist, statesman and inventor. His skillful diplomacy assured French support for the American Revolution. Sculptor: Robert Aitken, 1927.
George Washington1732-1799
Elected 1900. First president, commander-in-chief of Continental Army in the American Revolution, and statesman. He assured the establishment of a republic for which the revolution was fought. Sculptor: Jean-Antoine Houdon, replica.
John Adams1735-1826
Elected 1900. Statesman, lawyer and diplomat. First vice-president and second president of the U.S. His resolution in the Continental Congress in May 1776 led the colonies to become independent states. Sculptor: John Francis Paramino, 1924.
Henry Clay1777-1852
Elected 1900. Statesman. Kentucky congressman, long-time speaker of the House of Representatives. Notable for promoting political compromises affecting slavery. Sculptor:Robert Aitken, 1929.
Thomas Jefferson1743-1826
Elected 1900. Third president, author of Declaration of Independence, statesman and philosopher. As president, he made the Louisiana Purchase and dispatched the Lewis and Clark expedition to the Far West. Sculptor: Robert Aitken, 1924.
Abraham Lincoln1809-1865
Elected 1900. Statesman and lawyer; sixteenth president. Sought to preserve the Union and out an end to slavery. His magnanimity toward the defeated South was cut short bu an assassin's bullet. Sculptor: Agustus Saint-Gaudens, replica.
Daniel Webster1782-1852
Elected 1900. Senator, constitutional lawyer, and secretary of the state. Renowned as protector of compromise on slavery. Sculptor: Robert Aitken, 1926.
James Madison1751-1836
Elected 1905. Statesman and lawyer; fourth president. A framer of the Constitution, he later secured adoption of the Bill of Rights. President during War of 1812. Sculptor:Charles Keck, 1929.
John Quincy Adams1767-1848
Elected 1905. Statesman and diplomat; sixth president. After a single term as president, he served in Congress as an antislavery crusader, 1831-1848. Sculptor:Edmond T. Quinn, 1930.
Andrew Jackson1767-1845
Elected 1910. Seventh president. Victorious in Battle of New Orleans, 1815. A strong president, he upheld federal supremacy over the states and democratized officeholding. Sculptor: Belle Kinney, 1924.
Alexander Hamilton1755-1804
Elected 1915. Statesman. First secretary of the treasury. Advocate of strong centralized government; master of finance and taxation. Killed in duel with Aaron Burr. Sculptor: Giussepe Ceracchi, replica.
James Monroe1758-1831
Elected 1930. Fifth president. His two terms called "era of good feelings". The Monroe Doctrine declared the Western Hemisphere closed to further European colonization. Sculptor: Herman A. MacNeil, 1931.
Patrick Henry1736-1799
Elected 1920. Statesman, patriot, orator. As a revolutionary leader, he argued eloquently for independence. Later influenced adoption of the Bill of Rights. Sculptor: Charles Keck, 1930.
Grover Cleveland1837-1908
Elected 1935. Twenty-second and twenty-fourth president. Only president elected for two separate terms. Fought for governmental reform and financial honesty.Sculptor: Rudolph Evans, 1937.
William Penn1644-1718
Elected 1935. Religious leader, statesman and founder of Pennsylvania. Upholder of religious freedom. Sculptor: A. Stirling Calder, 1936.
Theodore Roosevelt1858-1919
Elected 1950. Twenty-sixth president. Favored regulation of big business, conservation of environment, and strong American foreign policy. Sculptor: Georg Lober, 1954.
Woodrow Wilson1856-1924
Elected 1950. Twenty-eighth president, political scientist, president of Princeton. As president, achieved reforms to regulate business, banking and labor. Founded League of Nations to preserve peace. Sculptor: Walker Kirtland Hancock, 1956.
John Marshall1755-1835
Elected 1900. Chief Justice, U.S. Supreme Court. Established power of Supreme Court to declare federal and state laws unconstitutional. Sculptor: Herbert Adams, 1930.
Joseph Story1779-1835
Elected 1900. Associate Justice, U.S. Supreme Court. Favored federal government over the states. Opposed slavery. Sculptor: Herbert Adams, 1930.
James Kent1763-1847
1763-1847. Elected 1900. New York Chancellor and legal scholar. His Commentaries on American Law became a standard text for educating lawyers. Along with Justice Story, he laid the cornerstone of American equity law. Sculptor: Edmond T. Quinn, 1926.
Rufus Choate1799-1859
Elected 1915. Notable 19th century trial lawyer. Completed Webster's unexpired term in the Senate. Sculptor: Herman A. MacNeil, 1928.
Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.1841-1935
Elected 1965. Associate Justice, U.S. Supreme Court. Noted for dissents which later gained acceptance and for eloquent use of language. Sculptor: Joseph Kiselewski, 1970.
William Tecumseh Sherman1820-1891
Elected 1905. General of Union Army which laid waste to conquered Confederate territory. His army's "march through Georgia" was the precursor of modern strategy to destroy the enemy's will to fight. Sculptor: Agustus Saint-Gaudens, replica.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt1882-1945
Elected 1973. Thirty-second president. Twice elected Governor of New York State. Elected president of the U.S. in 1932. He is the only man to be elected to the Presidency four times. Initiated New Deal and Social Security program. Sculptor: Jo Davidson, replica.
John Philip Sousa1854-1932
Elected 1973. Composer and bandmaster. Led the U.S. Marine Band, 1880-1892, and his own band thereafter on national and worldwide tours. Renowned for his marches of which Stars and Stripes Forever is the best known. Sculptor: Karl H. Gruppe, 1976.
Ulysses Simpson Grant1822-1885
Elected 1900. Eighteenth president. Commander of Union Armies, which he led to victory in Civil War. His presidency was marred by scandals among high officials, Sculptor: James Earle Frasier with Thomas Hudson Jones, 1923.
Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson
Elected 1955. Confederate general general in Civil War, called "Stonewall" for holding fast at First Battle of Bull Run. Died after being accidentally wounded. Sculptor: Bryant Baker, 1957.
John Paul Jones1747-1792
Elected 1925. Captain in Continental Navy during American Revolution. Noted for daring triumphs over the British. Sculptor: Charles Grafly, 1928.
Robert Edward Lee1807-1870
Elected 1900. General in command of Confederate Armies during Civil War. Led the South's forces at Gettysburg. Later became president of Washington and Lee University. Sculptor: George T. Brewster, 1923.
David Glasgow Farragut1801-1870
Elected 1900. Commander of Union Navy on Gulf Coast during Civil War. Despite Southern background, served Union cause. Captured New Orleans and blockaded Vicksburg. Rank of Admiral in U.S. Navy created for him. Sculptor: Charles Grafly, 1927.
Edward Alexander MacDowell
Elected 1960. Composer, pianist and music teacher. Acclaimed as concert performer. First professor of music at Columbia University. "To a Wild Rose" and other "Woodland Sketches" are among his best known works. Sculptor: C. Paul Jennewian, 1964.
Henry David Thoreau1817-1862
Elected 1960. Essayist, philosopher and poet. Originator of civil disobedience, which Ghandi and Martin Luther King Jr. adopted in challenging injustice. Sculptor:Malvina Hoffman, 1962.
Daniel Boone1734-1820
Elected 1915. Explorer. Led settlers into Kentucky through Cumberland Gap. Sculptor: Albin Polasek, 1926.
Stephen Collins Foster1826-1864
Elected 1940. Composer of popular ballads and minstrel songs, among the "O Susanna", "Old Folks at Home" (Swanee River), and "Camptown Races."Sculptor: Walker Kirtland Hancock, 1941.
George Peabody1795-1869
Elected 1900. Philanthropist, merchant and financier. First American to engage in philanthropy on a board scale. The Peabody Education Fund pioneered in developing the foundation as an instrument of benefaction. Sculptor: Hans Schuler, 1926.
James Abbott McNeill Whistler
Elected 1930. Artist. Portrait painter, experimenter with color, and admirer of Oriental art. His most famous painting: " Portrait of My Mother - Arrangement in Grey and Black." Sculptor: Frederick MacMonnies, 1931.
Gilbert Charles Stuart1755-1828
Elected 1900. Portrait painter of many of the founding Fathers and George Washington in particular. Sculptor: Laura Gardin Fraser, 1922.
Peter Cooper1791-1883
Elected 1900. Inventor, manufacturer and philanthropist. Built first steam locomotive made in America, "Tom Thumb." Steel industry pioneer. Founder OD Cooper Union.Sculptor: Chester Beach, 1924.
Augustus Saint-Gaudens1848-1907
Elected 1920. Sculptor of monumental figures accenting personality of the subject - Lincoln in Chicago's Lincoln Park. Farragut in New York's Madison Square, Sherman in Central Park. Sculptor: James Earle Fraser, 1926.
Charlotte Saunders Cushman
Elected 1915. Actress. Began stage career as opera singer, but switched to acting. Admired in America and England for Shakespearean roles. Sculptor:Fances Grimes, 1925.
Edwin Booth1833-1893
Elected 1925. Most popular American dramatic actor of mid-19th century. Excelled in Shakespearean tragedies. Founder of the Players Club in New York City. Sculptor:Edmond T. Quinn, 1926.
Frances Elizabeth Willard1839-1898
Elected 1910. Reformer and feminist. Educator, later president of the World Woman's Christian Temperance Union, and organizer of national Prohibition party in 1882. Worked for women's suffrage and better working conditions for women. Sculptor: Lorado Taft, 1923.
Susan B. Anthony1820-1906
Elected 1950. Feminist reformer. As a young teacher, demanded equal pay for women teachers. Agitated for New York law to grant women equal property rights. Led women's suffrage movement for nearly fifty years. Sculptor: Brenda Putman, 1952.
Lillian D. Wald1867-1940
Elected 1970. Social worker. Organized Henry Street Settlement in New York City. Originated visiting nurse and public school nurse systems. Sculptor: Eleanor Platt, 1971.
Jane Addams1860-1935
Elected 1965. Social worker. Established Hull House Settlement in Chicago slums. A pacifist in World War I and afterward she received a Nobel Peace Prize in 1931. Sculptor: Granville W. Carter, 1968.
Mary Lyon1979-1849
Elected 1905. Educator and feminist. Innovator in higher education for women. Founded Mt. Holyoke College for educating women of less affluent means. Sculptor: Laura Gardin Fraser, 1927.
Sylvanus Thayer1785-1872
Elected 1965. Military enginee and educator. Graduate of West Point, he revitalized the cademic structure. Later he founded and endowed Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College. Sculptor: Joseph Kiselewski, 1966.
Booker T. Washington1858-1915
Elected 1945. Educator. First head of Tuskegee Institute. Advocated vocational training and economic advancement for blacks. Adviser to Presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Taft. Sculptor: Richmond Barthe, 1946.
Alice Freeman Palmer1855-1902
Elected 1920. Educator. Professor and head of history department at Wellesley College. Appointed president of Wellesley and later dean of women at U. of Chicago. Sculptor: Evelyn Longman, 1924.
Emma Willard1787-1870
Elected 1905. Educator. Sought education for women comparable to that given to men. Organized Troy Female Seminary in 1821, probably the first women's higher education institution in the U.S. Sculptor: Frances Grimes, 1929.
Roger Williams1603-1683
Elected 1920. Religious leader. Exiled from Massachusetts for his belief in the separation of church and state. Founded Rhode Island Colony, which tolerated different religious groups and ordained a humane policy toward Native American Indians. Sculptor: Hermon A. MacNeil, 1926.
Mark Hopkins1802-1887
Elected 1915. Educator. Professor of philosophy and president of Williams College. Sculptor: Hans Hoerbst, replica.
Phillips Brooks1835-1893
Elected 1910. Episcopal Bishop of Massachusetts. Renowned preacher at Trinity Church, Boston; distinguished orator. Wrote words to "O Little Town of Bethlehem."Sculptor: Daniel Chester, 1924.
Henry Ward Beecher1813-1887
Elected 1900. Clergyman. Minister of Plymouth Congregational Church, Brooklyn, N.Y. Antoslavery, but not abolitionist, before Civil War. Spellbinding preacher.Sculptor: Massey Rhind, 1923.
Horace Mann1796-1859
Elected 1900. Education Reformer. Led in development of public education in Massachusetts, a model for the nation. Founded first public teacher training school in U.S. at Lexington, Mass. Sculptor: Adolph A. Weinman, 1930.
William Ellery Channing1780-1842
Elected 1900. Religious leader and theologian. Prominent in establishing Unitarianism. Called for development of distinctive American literature, and influenced literary flowering of New England. Sculptor: Herbert Adams, 1927.
Jonathan Edwards1703-1758
Elected 1900. Religious leader and theologian. Dynamic figure in the "Great Awakening" religious revival of mid-18th century. Sculptor: Charles Grafly, 1926.
Walt Whitman1819-1892
Elected 1930. The poet of democracy. Wrote in free verse. Most famous works include Leaves of Grass, "O Captain! My Captain!", and "When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd", an elegy for Lincoln. Sculptor: Chester Beach, 1931.
Sidney Lanier1842-1881
Elected 1945. Poet Musician, and literary critic in the post-Civil War South. Sculptor: Hans Schuler, 1946.
James Fenimore Cooper1789-1851
Elected 1910. Writer. Creator of epic tales of Merican frontier life. First American to receive international acclaim for fiction. Best known for the Leatherstocking Tales, which included Last of the Mohicans and The Deerslayer. Sculptor: Vicor Salvatore, 1930.
Harriet Beecher Stowe1811-1896
Elected 1910. Writer of antislavery novel Uncle Tom's Cabin, published in 1851-52. It sold 300,000 copies within a year and influenced the coming of the Civil War.Sculptor: Brenda Putman, 1925.
John Lothrop Motley1817-1877
Elected 1910. Historian. Wrote The Rise of the Dutch Republic (1856) and later The History of the United Netherlands (1860, 1867) in dramatic narrative style, comparing influences of political freedom vs. tyranny. Sculptor: Frederick MacMonnies, 1930.
Samuel Langhorne Clemens (Mark Twain)
Elected 1920. Writer, lecturer and humorist. Created characters Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn, based upon youth in Missouri. Expressed uniquely American outlook in humorous often cynical, philosophizing. Sculptor: Albert Humphreys, 1924.
Francis Parkman1823-1893
Elected 1915. Historian. Wrote narrative history of the frontier rich in description. Best known for The Oregon Trail and Montcalm and Wolfe the letter dealing with French and Indian War. Sculptor: Hermon A. MacNeil, 1929.
Edgar Allan Poe1809-1849
Elected 1910. Poet, critic, and short-story writer. Innovator in detective story genre and tales of horror and the supernatural. His poetry includes "Annabell Lee", "The Raven", and "The Bells". Sculptor: Daniel Chester French, 1922.
George Bancroft1800-1891
Elected 1910. Historian. Wrote 10-volume History of the United States from the discovery of American to the end of the Revolutionary War, the most popular American historical work of the 19th century. Saw American history as progressing from despotism to democracy.Sculptor: Rudolph Evans, 1930.
William Cullen Bryant1794-1878
Elected 1910. Poet and newspaper editor. His poetry celebrated beauty of nature. Edited rights, opposed slavery and took part in the Republican party.Sculptor: Herbert Adams, 1929.
John Greenleaf Whittier1807-1892
Elected 1905. Poet and journalist. Wrote fiery abolitionist articles. A prolific writer and devout Quaker; many of his poems are sung as church hymns. Sculptor:Rudolph Evans, 1928.
Oliver Wendell Holmes1809-1894
Elected 1910. Poet, essayist and physician. Renowned for writing "Old Ironsides" and "The Autocrat of the Breakfast table" before becoming a physician. Published statistical findings about contagion a childbed fever. Sculptor: Edmond T. Quinn, 1929.
James Russell Lowell1819-1891
Elected 1905. Poet, editor, teacher, diplomat, and political satirist. Active in antislavery movement. Wrote The Biglow Papers on Mexican and Civil Wars. America's foremost man of letters and editor of Atlantic Monthly and North Merican Review. Sculptor:Allan Clark, 1930.
Ralph Waldo Emerson1803-1882
Elected 1900. Philosopher, poet, essayist and lecturer. One of the founders of American transcendentalism, a philosophy that urged man to strive to employ his limitless capacitie. The outstanding American philosopher of his age. Sculptor: Daniel Chester French, 1923.
Nathaniel Hawthorne1804-1864
Elected 1900. Novelist and short-story writer. Best known works are The Scarlet Leter and The House of the Seven Gables. His writings considered the human tragedy that results from radical social change. Sculptor: Daniel Chester French, 1929.
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