Asimov's Chronology of Science and Discovery (Summary)
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IDDateDiscovery / InventionIndividual
Location (Empire)
NotesDeps
Type (Discovery/Invention/Social/Technique)
Soft/hard?FieldURL
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biped4000000 BCEBipedal species emerged
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bipedalism#Evolution_of_human_bipedalism
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stone-tool2000000 BCEStone tools usedbipedInvention
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stone_tool
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fire500000 BCEFire tamedstone-toolInvention
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Control_of_fire_by_early_humans
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religion200000 BCEReligionfireSocialSoft
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prehistoric_religion
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art20000 BCEArtstone-toolSocialSoft
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prehistoric_art
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bow20000 BCEBows and arrows usedstone-toolInventionWar
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_archery#Prehistory
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oil-lamp20000 BCEOil lamps inventedstone-toolInvention
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Oil_lamp
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animal-dom12000 BCEAnimals domesticatedNot horses. Maybe dogs and oxen?bipedTechniqueAgriculture
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Domestication_of_animals
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agriculture8000 BCEAgriculture developedanimal-domTechniqueAgriculture
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_agriculture
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pottery7000 BCEPottery usedbipedInventionCulture
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pottery#History
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fish-nets6000 BCELinen cords used for netsstone-toolInventionAgriculture
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fishing_net#History
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raft6000 BCERafts inventedstone-toolInventionTransportation
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sickle6000 BCESickles inventedstone-toolInventionAgriculture
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irrigation5000 BCEIrrigation usedagricultureTechniqueAgriculture
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scales5000 BCEScales for measurement developedstone-toolTechniqueSoftMath
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copper4000 BCECopper obtained from orestone-toolTechnique
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sundial4000 BCESundial inventedstone-toolInventionNavigation
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bronze3600 BCEBronze discoveredcopperTechnique
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carts3500 BCEWheeled carts inventedstone-toolInventionAgriculture
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river-boat3500 BCERiver boats invented (on the Nile)raftInventionTransportation
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writing3500 BCEWriting developedanimal-domSocialSoft
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plough3500 BCEPloughs inventedagricultureInventionAgriculture
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nation3100 BCEFirst nation establishedEgyptagricultureInstitutionSoft
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candle3000 BCECandles inventedanimal-domInvention
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calendar2800 BCECalendar inventedwritingInvention
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stone-monument
2650 BCEStone monuments constructedreligionSoft
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literature2500 BCELiterature developedwritingInstitutionSoft
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glass2500 BCEGlass inventedfire
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empire2340 BCEFirst empire establishedSargonAkkadnationInstitutionSoft
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horse-tamed2000 BCEHorses tamedanimal-domSoftTransportation
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numbers1800 BCEFirst number system developedEgyptBase 60writingMath
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fermentation1800 BCEUse of fermentation discoveredAccording to Wikipedia, fermentation was used in 6000 BCE in China. Sigh.agricultureChemistry
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law1775 BCEFirst surviving law code establishedKing HammurabiBabylonwritingSoft
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medicine1550 BCE
First surviving account of medical remedies
Eber’s Papyrusanimal-domSoftMedicine
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alphabet1500 BCEPhonetic alphabet developedPhonecian alphabetwritingSocialSoft
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monotheism1375 BCEMonotheism espoused
Pharoah Amenhotep IV
EgyptreligionSocialSoft
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dye1200 BCEDyes resistant to sun and water inventedInvention
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sea-navigation1100 BCESea navigation Phoneciansriver-boatNavigation
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steel1000 BCESteel inventedIron Age beginsbronze
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arches750 BCEArchitectural arches builtEtruscans
stone-monument
Architecture
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aqueducts700 BCEAqueducts built
stone-monument
Architecture
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zoo700 BCEZoos builtSennacheribAssyriaanimal-domArchitecture
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sundial??700 BCE Sundials inventedNavigation
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library640 BCELibrary builtAshurbanipalAssyrialiteratureArchitecture
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coin640 BCECoins used (Currency)Lydian government issued pieces of gold w/ standard weightnumbersSoft
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eclipse585 BCESolar eclipse predictedThalesGreecenumbersSoftSpace
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water-element580 BCEWater as an element theorizedSoftChemistry
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irrational-numbers
520 BCEIrrational numbers definedPythagorasGreeceUnit isoceles right triangle with hypotenuse sqrt(1)numbersMath
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realistic-maps510 BCERealistic maps developedHecateusGreecewritingNavigation
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ocean-navigation
500 BCEOcean navigationPhoneciaEarly exploration of the Atlantic oceansea-navigationSoftNavigation
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cadaver500 BCEHuman cadaver dissectionAlcmaeonGreecemedicineMedicine
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abacus500 BCEAbacus inventedEarliest: GreecenumbersMath
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venus-named500 BCEVenus named (should this be here?)PythagorasGreeceI guess it’s significant that the evening star and morning star were identified...Space
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dream-interpretation
480 BCE
Rational interpretation of dreams theorized (???)
Again, why is this here?Philosophy
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rationalism440 BCE
Rationalism (everything has a non-divine cause)
LeucippusGreecereligionPhilosophy
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atom440 BCE
Atoms theorized (the world is made of indivisible particles)
DemocritusGreece
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epilepsy420 BCEEpilepsy the disease discoveredMedicine
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catapult400 BCECatapult inventedUnder DionysiusGreecenumbersInventionWar
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university387 BCEUniversity builtPlatoGreecelibraryInstitution
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heliocentricity-theory
350 BCEHeliocentricity theorizedPhilolausGreeceDiscoverySpace
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spherical-earth350 BCESpherical earth theorizedPythagorasGreeceDiscoveryGeography
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logic350 BCELogicAristotleGreecenumbersTechniqueMath
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five-elements350 BCEFive elements theorizedAristotleGreeceatomDiscoveryChemistry
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animal-classification
350 BCEAnimal classification theorizedAristotleGreeceanimal-domDiscoveryBiology
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star-maps350 BCEStar maps developedEudoxusGreecerealistic-mapsTechniqueSpace
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botany320 BCEBotany book writtenTheophrastusGreeceBiology
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paved-road312 BCEPaved roads builtAppius ClaudiusGreeceAppian Way
stone-monument
Invention
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geometry300 BCEGeometry EuclidGreecelogicTechniqueMath
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tides300 BCETides discoveredPytheasGreece
ocean-navigation
Navigation
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arteries-veins300 BCEArteries vs veins discoveredPraxagorasGreeceSoftMedicine
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brain-areas280 BCEParts of brain named discovered
Erasistratus, Herophilus
GreeceMedicine
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moon-sun-size280 BCESize of moon and sun estimatedAristarchusGreeceSpace
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lighthouse280 BCELighthouses builtGreeceLighthouse of Alexandria (at Pharos)
ocean-navigation
Navigation
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water-clock270 BCEWater clock inventedCtesibiusGreecesundial
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lever-math260 BCELever mathematics understoodArchimedesGreeceAlso estimated the value of pi to 3.142logicMath
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earth-size240 BCESize of earth estimatedEratosthenesGreecegeometryGeography
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year-number240 BCEStandardized year numbering createdSeleucus IGreeceFormerly "the seventh year of King X"calendar
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great-wall214 BCE
Great Wall of China begun (should this be here?)
Shih Huang TiChina
stone-monument
Architecture
80
parchment170 BCEParchment inventedEumenes II
Pergamum (Hellnistic)
Previously papyrus, now animal skin.animal-dom
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moon-distance150 BCEDistance to the moon estimatedHipparchusGreecegeometrySpace
82
star-maps-better
134 BCEStar maps significantly improvedHipparchusGreeceIncluding magnitudes (brightnesses), included 1000 starsstar-mapsSpace
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glass-blowing100 BCEGlass blowing invented
Syria (Hellenistic)
Previously glass making was done by handglass
84
water-wheel85 BCEWater wheels inventedFirst written mention, likely invented earlier. According to wikipedia, MUCH earlier.cartsPower
85
julian-calendar46 BCE
Julian calendar (including leap year) adopted
SosigenesGreeceyear-number
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climactic-zone25 CEClimactic zones first suggestedPomponius MelaGreecerealistic-maps
87
medicinal-plants
50 CEMedical applications of plants
Pedanius Dioscorides
GreeceDescribed 600 plants, 1000 drugsfermentationMedicine
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steam-engine50 CERudimentary steam engine inventedHeroGreeceWorked like a modern lawn sprinkler, had no bearing on societyfirePower
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paper105 CEPaper inventedThai LunChinaTook 1000 years to reach Europeparchment
90
geocentric-universe
140 CEGeocentric universe model suggestedPtolemyGreeceRemained canon for 14 centuries
star-maps-better
Space
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spinal-cord180 CE
Understanding of spinal cord and other basic anatomy
GalenGreeceCut animals’ spines to see resulting paralysisMedicine
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algebra250 CEAlgebra formalizedDiophantusGreeceFractions can be treated as numbers.geometryMath
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tea250 CETea inventedChinaReduced infection since it required water to be boiled
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alchemy300 CEAlchemy summarized (???)ZosimusGreeceUnclear why this matters.five-elementsChemistry
95
metal-stirrup300 CEMetal stirrups inventedChinaMore stability for the rider, less chance to be thrown off horse in battlesteelTransportation
96
wheelbarrow400 CEWheelbarrows inventedChinaPotentially much earlier than 400 CE.steelFarming
97
dome537 CEArchitectural domes first built
Emperor Justinian (funder)
RomeHagia SophiageometryArchitecture
98
silk-europe552 CE
Silk came to Europe from China via Silk Road
Emperor Justinian (funder)
Rome/China
Constantinople began silk productionTrade
99
turnplow600 CEMoldboard plows (Turnplow)SlavsA plow with a vertical knife-blade that cut deep into the earth. Useful for damp, moist ground, led to increase in carrying capacityploughFarming
100
greek-fire673 CE
Greek fire, a napalm like weapon for naval battle
CallnicusByzantiumcatapultWar
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